…we feel that we are ourselves the circumstances, even the thought that you can come out of circumstances takes a long time of our experience. Normally we are pell–mell tide up with the circumstances. When you begin to feel that there is a problem with the circumstances, you don’t like the circumstances, you want to come out of the circumstances, then you begin to realise that you are different from circumstances and then you begin to find the ways and means by which you can come out of the clutch of circumstances, of Prakriti.
Then you begin to find out how to come out of it, what is the instrument by which you can come out of it; after lot of experiences you find out that there is in you or that is in the Prakriti a faculty, which if you purify and develop fully then only you can come out of the clutches of Prakriti: that faculty is buddhi; this is also a part of Prakriti itself.
So, if you get your Prakriti more and more purified, when it becomes completely pure, then, buddhi becoming the power of discrimination, it will distinguish between Prakriti and the Purusha, it will show you that you are different from Prakriti: this is the special quality of buddhi: buddhi is the power of discrimination.
Question: Discrimination is viveka?
…viveka. You distinguish your Self…all power of distinction is the power of buddhi. It is the buddhi which distinguishes between this and this, between appearance and reality. One may say that one may smile and yet may not be genuine. How do you know this? By what power do you know this? Like Hamlet says that ‘one may smile and yet be wicked: by what power do you distinguish this? It is by the power of intellect, by the power of buddhi, by the power of discrimination.
Now, if this power of discrimination is made absolutely transparent, and you might say that 9/10 of the Yoga consists only on this effort. You go on purifying your intellect until it becomes like a mirror, so transparent, without a ripple, you see very clearly this is Purusha or this is Prakriti. Then in that state Purusha can easily come out of the clutches of Prakriti: there is a clear understanding, ‘I am different from Prakriti’.
In that state Purusha is liberated and for you Prakriti comes to a standstill: ‘for you’. It’s a complete state of equilibrium in which you are not caught. There is a quietude on Prakriti on one hand and quietude of your Purusha at the same time. Quietude of Prakriti is a quietude of equilibrium.
Question: So, when you get to this equilibrium, is that the state that we are all aspiring to?
At present, although in that state also there is still not a complete quietude as one would have in the state of Purusha: Purusha is completely quiet. Prakriti’s quietude is only a state of equilibrium. But equilibrium does not mean ‘Akshara’, completely immobile.
In that state of equilibrium there is the principle of Sattwa which predominates and Sattwa is the principle of harmonisation, of equilibrium. So, Rajas and Tamas are overpowered by Sattwa, therefore there is equilibrium; but that does not mean there is absence of Rajas and Tamas, they are also present, but they are held, as it were, under an overwhelming power of Sattwa in a state of harmony. But in that state, Purusha recognises, experiences its complete immobility: there is no mobility at all.
Question: So, there is no involvement in this state of…,
That’s right, quite right. There is no involvement. He does not identify itself with it.
Involvement, there is no involvement.
Question: But evolving?
Evolving also, it ceases because there is…now equilibrium is reached, there is no enfoldment of Prakriti either.
Question: But this is not Akshara…,
This is Akshara: the state of Purusha is the state of ‘Akshara’. Question: But the state of equilibrium in the Prakriti…you say there is no evolution, but Rajas and Tamas have been…,
They are under the control of Sattwa.
Question: But there is no…perfection of Rajas and Tamas,
There is no perfection either of Rajas or of Tamas.
Question: So the activity ceases?
…activity ceases…’for you’; but as far as other Purushas are concerned the Prakriti continues…enfoldment.
Question: Prakriti for the person individually?
…individually, it is in a state of equilibrium. It does not enfold. Question: And the Purusha willingly glances at Prakriti?
Now, that is a very important question in fact.
Question: This is the status of Shankara’s…?
Shankara, no. This is the pure position of Sankhya. Sankhya is the philosophy of Kapila; it is attributed to Kapila.
Question: At this stage, the only activity that carries on is that which is very necessary for the body to live?
Even that ceases.
There is death then.
Question: That is what the older thing of Moksha was?
Question: Even breathing stops is it? In this state breathing continues?,
There are stages. As long as you are in the body, that complete state is not attained, it is what they say is deha mukti. You have Moksha only when you go out of the body.
Question: Except that in Akshara it has gone beyond the three Gunas,
Comment: And the …….Gunas are still there, Tamas and…,
But they are only in Prakriti. No, in Purusha there is triguṇātīta. …they are there but they can be recognised as some …different from you. Discrimination has come about now therefore, although Gunas are there, guṇaḥ pravartante, they continue but Purusha knows, it is not identified with those movements.
So, it is in that condition that there is Moksha. So, Moksha is normally understood in the terms of withdrawal of movement and station in the state of Akshara, that which is immobile.
Question: So in the Purusha all these three Gunas are not harmonised, they are?
In Purusha there are no Gunas at all, it is triguṇātīta, there are no Gunas.
Question: But how Kapila’s Sankhya is different from Shankara’s Mukti?
No, it’s a good question, actually…I’ll come to that first after criticising Sankhya, because Shankara also criticises Sankhya.