So, there are 3 stages of our procedure: we only see bhūtāny, we see only the world, the creatures of the world as they are, which create all kind of bewilderment. So long as you see only mobility…mobility since it arises out of Immobility, in Mobility there is no rest and therefore no Knowledge: the real Knowledge arises only when you attain to Chit. But even that is not enough unless you go to Sat. Therefore, ātmany atho mayi: these two words are golden words in the Bhagavad–Gita. That first you see all of them into the ātman: Atman means the Immobile Self. There is one Self, there is no multiplicity in it; all multiplicity will be seen as one. Unless you see Oneness, there is no Knowledge: knowledge of multiplicity as multiplicity is not Knowledge. When you see multiplicity in One, as One, emerging from One, that is the definition of Knowledge.
This is a repetition of what we have done in Isha Upanishad, where we had the path of Knowledge and path of ignorance. If you merely see Oneness, you are led into greater darkness. If you only see multiplicity you are led of course into darkness. It is only when you have both avidyā and vidyā, when you see all multiplicity in Oneness, and Oneness manifesting as multiplicity, then only amṛtamaśnute, then only you attain to immortality. So, ātmany atho mayi, first you see all these things into oneness, but even above the Oneness is Myself, I am Purushottama. It is only when you know Me, then only moham evaṁ yāsyasi, then only you will not go to moha again. In these 2 sentences he has given the definition and the real mark, testing of Knowledge:
yaj jñātvā na punar moham evaṁ yāsyasi pāṇḍava |
ena bhūtāny aśeṣeṇa drakṣyasy ātmany atho mayi ||35|| (IV)
“First you see all this as rooted in the Self, and you see even the Self, rooted in Me, in the Purushottama, then you will really have the true Knowledge.”
api ced asi pāpebhyaḥ sarvebhyaḥ pāpakṛttamaḥ |
sarvaṁ jñānaplavenaiva vṛjinaṁ santariṣyasi ||36|| (IV)
“Even if you are besieged, drenched with all kinds of evil actions and sins, yet if you get a boat in the form of Knowledge, then you will santariṣyasi, you will able to cross all the evils of the world, evils of your own self, all the sinful actions of yours.”
Such is the power of Knowledge. When you know this, then where is pāpa? You are completely liberated: such is the power of Knowledge!
yathaidhāṁsi samiddho’gnir bhasmasāt kurute’rjuna |
jñānāgniḥ sarvakarmāṇi bhasmasāt kurute tathā ||37|| (IV)
“Just as all the materials, all the wooden sticks, which are thrown into the fire, they all become reduced to ashes…bhasmasāt: all becomes bhasma. Why? Because of Agni; Similarly Jnana is like Agni. When you put all actions into the Agni, (that is the importance of yajñā), you take all actions as Agni, then all actions will turn into jñānā. In that jñānā, all actions will be burnt away to ashes, therefore you will become free from actions:
jñānāgniḥ sarvakarmāṇi bhasmasāt kurute tathā ||
“This Knowledge is like the fire, in which if you put all your actions, then they all become reduced to ashes and therefore no Karma remains.”
na hi jñānena sadṛśaṁ pavitram iha vidyate |
“There is nothing, which is pavitra, which so sacred like jñāna, like Knowledge, jñānena sadṛśaṁ pavitram, there is nothing which is pavitra, so sacred as Knowledge.”
tat svayaṁ yogasaṁsiddhaḥ kālenātmani vindati ||38|| (IV)
“When you are matured, yogasaṁsiddhaḥ, when you become a great Karmayogi, then in due course of time you arrive at it, at the Knowledge. When you attain at the highest step of Karma yoga, then at the end of it is the Knowledge.”
You will see here again the exaltation of Knowledge, as if Knowledge is the supreme thing to be attained.
śraddhāvāṁl labhate jñānaṁ tatparaḥ saṁyatendriyaḥ |
jñānaṁ labdhvā parāṁ śāntim acireṇādhigacchati ||39|| (IV)
Who attains to this Knowledge…Already we have been told to attain to Knowledge: praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā, by submission and by service, and by questioning again and again, you will attain to Knowledge. But this happens only when there is praṇipātena sevayā, which comes from a deeper root, the deeper root of praṇipāta, of submission; deeper root of sevay śraddhā.
śraddhā is no blind faith as it is very often understood: śraddhā is an irreducible perception, which every one of us possesses, irreducible perception, which every one possesses even before Knowledge comes to us. It is a perception therefore a kind of Knowledge, but a kind of Knowledge, which you have before Knowledge, and its qualities…it is definite and certain: the perception that you have, which have the characteristic of definiteness and certainty, even before you have the Knowledge. All else, which is called śraddhā is a wrong definition of śraddhā, (that you believe and this etc…blind faith), there is a real perception. Every one of us possesses it. It is covered very often, therefore śraddhā is not manifest; śraddhā comes to us only at the moments of great crisis. Each one knows basically the Supreme, even before our Knowledge, we know, we have the perception of the Supreme.
When Draupadi arrived at a stage of complete crisis, when she felt that she had nothing now left in the world to hold her, that which was in her heart, which she knew, or she did not know perhaps, she was not aware of it, but which was present in her, which cried out to Sri Krishna for help. There is always in our heart a Knowledge that we cannot be destroyed: we are indestructible, we are immortal: amṛtasya putrāḥ, we are…