7. Dhi is clarity of intelligence. Intelligence is of many kinds: there is the intelligence of the elephant, there is the intelligence of the horse, there is the intelligence of the cow, there is the intelligence of the dog, there is the intelligence of the cat. There are many kinds of intelligence, and remember all these intelligences are in the human being. We have all kind of intelligences, if you examine your intelligence you will find; horse intelligence, elephant intelligence, cow intelligence, dog intelligence, cat intelligence. Our intelligence is a composed of every kind of intelligence. It has many, many kinds of intelligences. These intelligences are all partial intelligence. They are mixed intelligences. Dhi is pure intelligence. Pure intelligence is like a polished mirror. Whatever is real, or inner or outer, if your intelligence is fully polished you will see, if you turn outside, outside things will be absolutely, accurately seen, if you turn inward you will see the inner reality, absolutely clearly. There will no reflections, no shadows. That is called Dhi purified intelligence, and clear intelligence.
8. Then Vidya. Vidya is knowledge and states of consciousness. But now you are told also that when Vidya, when knowledge is attained, then possession of knowledge also creates a state of consciousness. You compare two states: when you do not know a thing, examine your state of consciousness, when you know a thing fully then examine your state of consciousness. There will be a difference. If you have to give a test there will be so much of anxiety, so much of worry, when you are not prepared. At the last moment you want to take in all of the book, you want to read three, four lines, suddenly whenever you eyes fall, per chance you will be asked some such question for which an answer is lying there; it is a wavering mind, a wavering state of consciousness. We are not sure, full of worry, full of anxiety, but when you know a thing very well, then you are sure whatever question is asked, – I am ready. And actually you like to be asked any questions from any corner, it is a new state of consciousness. When the knowledge is attained then there is "I fullness of consciousness. In one of the Upanishad it is said: "Chitghana". When you have full knowledge, then your consciousness becomes solid. When your knowledge is not perfect, it is fluid. But when your knowledge is perfect it becomes absolutely solidity. It is ghana. You can experience peace also. In fact Sri Aurobindo says, "When you experience peace if it is true peace, you will feel as if a pillar, a strong pillar is thrust into your mind. Peace will come as a strong pillar, stable pillar in which, thought cannot take place at all; it is completely peace, absolutely peace that is a state of knowledge. Knowledge always gives you peace; this is the mark of knowledge. If you are looking for peace, then have true knowledge, it gives you peace.
9. Satyam is expression of reality, accurate expression of reality, which I have told you already. So that is also a mark of Dharma.
10. Akrodha: absence of anger. Just as I spoke of Shama: the forgiveness. Forgiveness and absence of anger are correlated. When there is no anger, forgiveness becomes easy. So you should be free from anger, the more you are free from anger, the greater you are in Dharma. These are the ten, Dashakam Dharma lakshanam. These ten are the characteristics of Dharma. This is what Manusmrti says, and Manusmrti gives you a kind of a summary of hundreds of books on Dharma. He says, "Without reading hundred of books, I tell you very simply, the sum and substance of Dharma is only these ten characteristics.”
DHARMA IN THE MAHABHARATA
Now in Mahabharata, – I told you I'll give three sentences, one was this one, (later on I will give these to Deepti, she will photocopy and give you the papers) so that in brief you will remember these for all your life, that is ten characteristics which give you Dharma. Now, there is another one which is taken from Mahabharata. It speaks of a smaller number. A smaller definition even of Dharma is given. It repeats many of the things which are already told here: "Ahimsa: non–violence; Satyam: truth; Akroda: absence of anger; Anrushamsyam: absence of cruelty; Dama: self–restraint; and, Arjvam: straightforward. Now you will find that these five words are in a sense contained in those ten words. So if you remember those ten words you don't need to remember these five words. This is only a smaller definition. In fact these five words are much subtler. So, non–violence, truth, absence of anger, absence of cruelty, self–restraint and straightforwardness.
Now the third one is also taken from the Mahabharata. You know the Mahabharata is the greatest epic in the world history. It is said that what is not in the Mahabharata is not anywhere else. This is the claim. It is an exaggerated claim, but it gives you the extent of the dignity of the Mahabharata. It is said that what is not in the Mahabharata, it is not anywhere else. And all that is, is already in Mahabharata. So Mahabharata is supposed to give you answers to all kind of questions. And Dharma is one of the most important questions. Therefore there was a dialogue between the king and the teacher, and then the teacher tells him that the following are the words which give you Dharma: kindness; benevolence; non–violence, in action, words and thought; this is Dharma. This is even a shorter definition of Dharma.
I will give you all the three; you keep them with you because they will help you in deciding whenever you do any actions, whether it is Dharma or Adharma. Even before you reach Rita, the highest, it will give you guidance. But keep them only as guides, not something binding.
Dharma is a progressive development. Therefore if anybody says: this is Dharma in the final word, until you reach Rita, do not take it to be final, because it is constantly developing.
Now I shall come to the final part of my talk. Shall I stop here; if you are tired I can stop here. Do I continue? Yes? It is not long but I am coming to the final term because it is the most important thing in our life.