I want you to go on to picture the enlightenment or ignorance of our human condition somewhat as follows. Imagine an underground chamber like a cave, with a long entrance open to the daylight and as wide as the cave. In this chamber are men who have been prisoners there since they were children, their legs and necks being so fastened that they can only look straight ahead of them and cannot turn their heads. Some way off, behind and higher up, a fire is burning, and between the fire and the prisoners and above them runs a road, in front of which a curtain–wall has been built, like the screen at puppet shows between the operators and their audience, above which they show their puppets."
Clear idea? Right.
So Glaucon says "I see."
Now Socrates continues and says: "Imagine further that there are men carrying all sorts of gear along behind the curtain–wall, projecting above it and including figures of men and animals made of wood and stone and all sorts of other materials, and that some of these men, as you would expect, are talking and some not."
Glaucon says: "An odd picture and an odd sort of prisoner."
Socrates says: "They are drawn from life, " I replied.”For, tell me, do you think our prisoners could see anything of themselves or their fellows except the shadows thrown by the fire on the wall of the cave opposite them?”
You will see here a picture drawn by Rolf from here, you know Rolf in Auroville, he has done a picture of the vision that Socrates’ is presenting. The curtain wall and the shadows.
Glaucon says: "How could they see anything else if they were prevented from moving their heads all their lives?"
Socrates says: "And would they see anything more of the objects carried along the road?"
"Of course not."
"Then if they were able to talk to each other, would they not assume that the shadows they saw were the real things?"
"And if the wall of their prison opposite them reflected sound, don't you think that they would suppose, whenever one of the passers–by on the road spoke, that the voice belonged to the shadow passing before them?"
"They would be bound to think so."
"And so in every way they would believe that the shadows of the objects we mentioned were the whole truth."
"Then think what would naturally happen to them if they were released from their bonds and cured of their delusions. Suppose one of them were let loose, and suddenly compelled to stand up and turn his head and look and walk towards the fire; all these actions would be painful and he would be too dazzled to see properly the objects of which he used to see the shadows. What do you think he would say if he was told that what he used to see was so much empty nonsense and that he was now nearer reality and seeing more correctly, because he was turned towards objects that were more real, and if on top of that he were compelled to say what each of the passing objects was when it was pointed out to him? Don't you think he would be at a loss, and think that what he used to see was far truer than the objects now being pointed out to him?"
"Yes, far truer."
"And if he were made to look directly at the light of the fire, it would hurt his eyes and he would turn back and retreat to the things which he could see properly, which he would think really clearer than the things being shown him."
"And if," I went on, "he were forcibly dragged up the steep and rugged ascent and not let go till he had been dragged out into the sunlight, the process would be a painful one, to which he would much object, and when he emerged into the light his eyes would be so dazzled by the glare of it that he wouldn't be able to see a single one of the things he was now told were real."
"Certainly not at first," he agreed.
"Because, of course, he would need to grow accustomed to the light before he could see things in the upper world outside the cave. First he would find it easiest to look at shadows, next at the reflections of men and other objects in water, and later on at the objects themselves. After that he would find it easier to observe the heavenly bodies and the sky itself at night, and to look at the light of the moon and stars rather than at the sun and its light by day."
"The thing he would be able to do last would be to look directly at the sun itself, and gaze at it without using reflections in water or any other medium, but as it is in itself."
"That must come last."
"Later on he would come to the conclusion that it is the sun that produces the changing seasons and years and controls everything in the visible world, and it is in a sense responsible for everything that he and his fellow–prisoners used to see." "That is the conclusion which he would obviously reach." "And when he thought of his first home and what passed for wisdom there, and of his fellow–prisoners, don't you think he would congratulate himself on his good fortune and be sorry for them?"
"Very much so."
"There was probably a certain amount of honour and glory to be won among the prisoners, and prizes for keen–sightedness for those best able to remember the order of sequence among the passing shadows and so be best able to divine their future appearances. Will our released prisoner hanker after these prizes or envy this power or honour? Won't he be more likely to feel, as Homer says, that he would far rather be 'a serf in the house of some landless man', or indeed anything else in the world, than hold the opinions and live the life that they do?"
"Yes," he replied, "he would prefer anything to a life like theirs."
"And if he had to discriminate between the shadows, in competition with the other prisoners, while he was still blinded and before his eyes got used to the darkness — a process that would take some time — wouldn't he be likely to make a fool of himself? And they would say that his visit to the upper world had ruined' his sight, and that the ascent was not worth even attempting. And if anyone tried to release them and lead them up, they would kill him if they could lay hands on him."
"They certainly would."
"Now, my dear Glaucon," I went on, "this simile must be connected throughout; with what preceded it. The realm revealed by sight corresponds to the prison, and the light of the fire in the prison to the power of the sun. And you won't go wrong, if you connect the ascent into the upper world and the sight of the objects there with the upward progress of the mind into the intelligible region. That at any rate is my interpretation, which is what you are anxious to hear; the truth of the matter is, after all, known only to god. But in my opinion, for what it is worth, the final thing to be perceived in the intelligible region, and perceived only with difficulty, is the form of the good; once seen, it is inferred to be responsible for whatever is right and valuable in anything, producing in the visible region light and the source of light, and being in the intelligible region itself controlling source of truth and intelligence. And anyone who is going to act rationally either in public or private life must have sight of it."
"I agree, “he said, "so far as I am able to understand you."
"Then you will perhaps also agree with me that it won't be surprising if those who get so far are unwilling to involve themselves in human affairs, and if their minds long to remain in the realm above. That's what we should expect if our simile holds good again."
"Yes, that's to be expected."
"Nor will you think it strange that anyone who descends from contemplation of the divine to human life and its ills should blunder and make a fool of himself, if, while still blinded and unaccustomed to the surrounding darkness, he's forcibly put on trial in the law–courts or elsewhere about the shadows of justice or the figures of which they are shadows, and made to dispute about the notions of them held by men who have never seen justice itself."
"There's nothing strange in that."
"But anyone with any sense," I said, "will remember that the eyes may be unsighted in two ways, by a transition either from light to darkness or from darkness to light, and will recognize that the same thing applies to the mind. So when he sees a mind confused and unable to see clearly he will not laugh without thinking, but will ask himself whether it has come from a clearer world and is confused by the unaccustomed darkness, or whether it is dazzled by the stronger light of the clearer world to which it has escaped from its previous ignorance.
Therefore for the highest good who should be requested, persuaded to come back to the world and to govern this world even when they would like to live more in the world of ideas and the world of the good even they are much more happy there we should request them, ‘Sacrifice your happiness, come down here on the earth, help the people to come out of their imprisonment and seethe Good that is the role of philosophers. Philosophers should be the kings or kings should be philosophers and those who are only philosophers or only politicians are to stand aside then only they will see the light of the day. Right, this is The Simile of the Cave.
Oh! already the time is up. I think tomorrow we shall read the text of our paper now because it becomes easier for us to read it.
Now many of you are painters, no? Try to draw the picture of this cave. Rolf has made one picture, don’t be bound by that picture, make your own picture. Let us see, one day not now immediately but keep in your mind that one day you’ll make a good picture of this cave and also a good picture of one who escapes from the cave and then looks at the fire and then looks farther at the sun by what is he dazzled and by what he is not dazzled then he only sees the stars at night it is easier but when he sees the sun in the daytime it is much more difficult for him to see but gradually when he is accustomed to it he can then see the daylight and therefore him to see the darkness is more difficult, your eyes become much more accustomed to light than to darkness, when you go into darkness you have to strain yourself, it’s a opposite story which happens. Right, we will therefore do a picture here because it is a very good simile; it shows where we are and what is the goal of our life, where we should reach. We are all like prisoners seeing only the shadows and we are required to turn our whole body not only our eyes, not only the head but the whole body to be able to see the light behind. Alright, thank you.