The individual on the other hand, the Jiva, Jiva is not ahaṁbhāva; Jiva is a real individual and entity, which is finite, but which does not regard itself to be self-existent, which does not regard itself to be independent of all the others. When you enter into the true individual consciousness, it always finds itself to be dependent upon the Supreme. Therefore, there is no egoism in it. It is a sense of liberation, which comes to you by unity with the Supreme: this is the second kind of Moksha. Moksha is of two kinds: Moksha by self-knowledge, in which you enter into the immobility of the self; or you realise the individual’s dependence upon the Supreme; and when you recover this dependence on the Supreme, ego falls away, but the individual remains united with the Supreme. This is another experience of Moksha. This second process of Moksha is often connected with what is called ‘Bhakti Yoga’. The individual attains to unity with the Supreme by uniting and therefore by surrendering, by dependence on the Supreme.
Now, this dependence is also a part of Karma yoga, because in Karma yoga also there is the element of offering, sacrifice, and ultimately union with the Divine even though you may be acting in the world. So, unity with the Divine, and Moksha by unity with the Divine are obtained both by Karma yoga and by Bhakti yoga. Moksha by self-knowledge is obtained by Jnana yoga. These are the 3 paths and this is the result ultimately that we obtain; and all the 3 paths are accepted in the Bhagavad Gita. That is why Bhagavad Gita’s liberation is not one-sided; it is both ways by unity and by self-knowledge and therefore it is called ‘an integral liberation’. It is not only liberation by self-knowledge, but also liberation by union with the Divine.
Now, when you have the process of unity, then the totality of the Divine, not only in His aspect of self-knowledge, but as one who unites both staticity and dynamism is realised. Therefore, to realise the Divine as both static and dynamic: Divine as a supporter, in whom you can seat your dependence; the Divine as the doer of action who inspires your action, who acts through you, when all the 3 realisations come together, that is an integral realisation of the Divine and integral Moksha.
You then have another sight of Moksha, which also arises out of this integral realisation. After the state of Moksha, which is reached by self-knowledge and unity, what happens to Apara Prakriti? According to one view, Apara Prakriti vanishes because it was illusion as a whole and it no more remains: body, life, mind, ego, all of them are destroyed and nothing remains: there is only one supreme Brahman, which is immobile: this is one view. The other view is that Apara Prakriti is not alone but there is also Para Prakriti, and Para Prakriti is at the root of Apara Prakriti. Now, if it is at the root of Apara Prakriti, then there is the possibility of something of Apara Prakriti getting joined with Para Prakriti. According to the Bhagavad Gita, this is what begins to happen. The Apara Prakriti itself gets so transformed that Apara Prakriti as Apara Prakriti does not remain; but whatever truth was there in Apara Prakriti gets transmuted into the higher truth of Para Prakriti. Now, when we speak of integral liberation, this also is included in the integral liberation: the liberation of Apara Prakriti from its own limitations into the perfection of the Para Prakriti.
Moksha therefore, is threefold: Moksha by self-knowledge, Moksha by unity, and Moksha by the liberation of the limitations of Apara Prakriti by entering into Para Prakriti. Now, when you enter into Para Prakriti, there are stages of development. And when Apara Prakriti becomes completely transformed into Para Prakriti, it is called complete perfection; not only liberation but also perfection. Now, these terms are necessary to remember because through out from chapter n°7 to 18, we shall be revolving round this process of Mukti by self-knowledge, Mukti by unity, Mukti by liberation of the Apara Prakriti into Para Prakriti, and perfection that can be attained by transforming fully Apara Prakriti into Para Prakriti. From chapter n°13 to chapter n°18 is given to this last process: what is Apara Prakriti, and how this Apara Prakriti is so trained that there is a transformation available on the highest peaks of Para Prakriti? This in substance is the summary of the entire process of Moksha and what is given in the Bhagavad Gita, in which we have a complete synthesis of the path of Knowledge, path of Devotion, path of Action and the path of Self-Perfection: how all of them are united.
Now, I would like to read with you two passages, just to conclude on this very important subject, so that everything in our consciousness becomes completely fixed. So, I have brought with me two passages; they are taken from “the Synthesis of Yoga”, to describe this entire process of Moksha: what exactly is Moksha, and what are the experiences that we experience when there is Moksha.