Manual of Courses
List of Courses for Year 2 Semester 2
Course Credits
A. Core/Content Courses
ANY 3 COURSES FROM:  12 
Science and Mathematics Physics Chemistry Biology Mathematics OR Social Sciences History Geography Political science Economics OR Humanities and Languages Hindi English Gujarati Sanskrit Fine Arts 

Professional Courses  
Philosophy of Life and Education II  2 
Communication Skills : Gujarati 11  2 
Communication Skills : English II  2 
Health and Physical Education II  2 
Development of Integral Personality II with focus on Art, Craft & Sculpture  2 
General StudiesTotal  22 
Credits: 4
Learning Objectives:
After completing this semester, you can
Understand the concept of Momentum, Energy, Rotational Motion and Gravity
Explain the various types of energy and the conservation of energy
Describe the different type of rotational motion and conservation of momentum
Understand the law of Gravity and its effect
Explain properties of liquid, gases and plasma
Describe the laws of Thermodynamics and Entropy
Understand properties of musical sound and light
UnitI MechanicsI
Name of Chapter  Contents 
Chapter:6(Text Book:l)
Momentum Problems given in the Text Book:2" University Physics with Modern Physics " By Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman, (12^{th }Edition)Publisher: Pearson Topics 8.2,8.4 to 8.7 
Momentum Impulse Impulse Changes Momentum Case l:lncreasing Momentum Case 2:Decreasing Momentum Case 3:Decreasing Momentum over a Short Time Bouncing Conservation of Momentum Collisions More Complicated Collisions 
Chepter:7(Text Book.l)
Energy Problems given in the Text Book:2" University Physics with Modern Physics " By Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman, (12^{th} Edition) Publisher: Pearson Topics 6.1 to 6.5, 6.10, 6.11 
Work Power Mechanical Energy Potential Energy Kinetic Energy WorkEnergy Theorem Conservation of Energy Machines Efficiency Comparison of Kinetic Energy and Momentum Energy for Life Sources of Energy 
UnitII MechanicsII
Name of Chapter  Contents 
Chapter: 8 (Text Book 1)  Circular motion Rotational Motion  Rotational Inertia Torque. Problems given in the Text Book 2 
Circular motion Rotational Inertia Torque Centre of Mass and Centre of Gravituy 
"University Physics with Modern Physics” by Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman, (12^{th} Edition)
Publisher: Pearson Topics 10.1,10.10,10.11,10.14,11.2, 5.20,5.21,5.23 
Locating the Centre of Gravity Stability Centripetal Force Centrifugal Force Centrifugal Force in a Rotating Reference Frame Simulated Gravity Angular Momentum Conservation of Angular Momentum 
Chapter: 9(Text Book 1)
Gravity Problems given in the Text Book 2 " University Physics with Modern Physics " By Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman, (12^{th} Edition) Publisher: Pearson Topics 12.1,12.2,12.4 to 12.8 
The Universal Law of Gravity The Universal Gravitational Constant, G Gravity and Distance: The InverseSquare Law Weight and Weightlessness Ocean Tides Tides in the Earth and Atmosphere Tides on the Moon Gravitational Fields Gravitational Field Inside a Planet Einstein’s Theory of Gravitation Black Holes Universal Gravitation 
Chapter :10(Text Bookl)
Projectile and Satellite Motion Problems given in the Text Book: 2 " University Physics with Modern Physics " By Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman, (12^{th} Edition) Publisher: Pearson Topics 3.6 to 3.8 
Projectile Motion 
UnitIII Properties of Matter
Name of Chapter  Contents 
Chapter:13(Text Book 1) Problems given in the Text Book 2 " University Physics with Modern Physics " By Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman, (12^{th} Edition) Publisher: Pearson Topics 14.2,14.3,14.5 to 14.7 
Pressure 
Chepter:14 (Text Book 1) Gases and Plasmas 
The Atmosphere Atmospheric Pressure Barometer Boyle’s Law Buoyancy of Air Bernoulli’s Principle Applications of Bernoulli’s Principle Plasma Plasma in the Everyday World Plasma Power 
UnitIV Heat
Name of Chapter  Contents 
Chapter:17(Text Book 1) Change of Phase 
Evaporation Condensation Condensation in the Atmosphere Fog and Clouds Boiling Geysers Boiling is a Cooling Process Boiling and Freezing at the same time Melting and Freezing Regelation Energy and Changes of Phase 
Chepter:18 (Text Book 1)
Thermodynamics Problems given in the Text Book 2 " University Physics with Modern Physics ” By Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman, (12^{th} Edition) Publisher: Pearson Topics 19.2,19.5,19.7,19.8,20.1 to 20.9 
Absolute Zero Internal Energy First Law of Thermodynamics Adiabatic Processes Meteorology and the First Law Second Law of Thermodynamics Heat Engines Order Tends to Disorder Entropy 
UnitV Sound & Properties of Light
Name of Chapter  Contents 
Chapter:21(Text Book 1) Musical Sounds 
Pitch Sound Intensity and Loudness Quality Musical Instruments Fourier Analysis Compact Discs 
Chapter:7 (Text Book 1) Properties of Light 
Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic Wave Velocity The Electromagnetic Spectrum Transparent Material Opaque Material Shadows Seeing lightThe Eye 
Text Book 1: Conceptual Physics by Paul G. Hewitt 11^{th} Edition published by PEARSON
Text Book 2: University Physics with Modern Physics By Young & Freedman Publisher: Pearson(12^{,h} Edition)
Additional References:
Fundamental of Physics by Heliday, Resnik & Walker
The Elements of Physics by 1. S. Grant & W. R. Philips Publisher: Oxford University Press
Understanding Physics by Karen Cummings, Priscilla Laus, Edward Redish, Patrick Coonay.
Publisher: Wiley, Student Edition
Suggested Website for eLearning/ICT based activity :
bcs/Books?action=index&itemId=0471150584&itemTypeld=BKS&bcsld=1907 (Free)
Physics 2 (Practicals):
Acceleration due to gravity by Bar Pendulum
To study simple harmonic under damped oscillations and to calculate (1) time period T of Oscillation (2) angular frequency w (3) relaxation time T and (4) the quality factor Q
To determine the Moment of Inertia of fly wheel
To find viscosity using Seari’s viscometer •
To determine unknown frequency of the tuning fork using Resonator
To determine the specific heat capacity of a liquid by comparing its rate of cooling that of a liquid of known specific heat capacity (method of cooling by applying Newton’s law of radiation)
To determine refractive index of liquid using combination of lens (Boye’s method)
To determine the thermal conductivity of glass in the form of a tube.
Least square method using calculator
To find magnetic moment using deflection magnetometer
Suggested Website for eLearning/ICT Based Activity for Virtual Laboratory
References:
Practical physics by C.L Arora, Pub: S. Chand
Practical Physics by Gupta & Kumar Pub: Pragati Prakashan
An Advance Course in Practical Physics by D. Chattopadhyay & P. C. Rakshit. Publisher: New Central Book Agency (P) Ltd.
ISC Practical Physics
Laboratory Manual for Conceptual Physics by Paul Robinson
Credits: 4
Learning Objectives:
In this semester, the objective is to develop understanding of
Introduction to states of matter
Basic principles of chemical kinetics
Widening the base of chemical bonding & organic chemistry.
UnitI: States of matter:
Solid, liquid and gaseous states
Crystal structure; Explanation of cubic, body centred cube and face centred cube
Properties of liquids (Explanation of vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity and parachore)
Ideal and real gases, review of gases
Laws and ideal gas equation
Liquification of gases
UnitII: Chemical bonding  II
Geometry of molecules
Bond angles, bond length and bond energies
Valance shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR), Prediction of geometry using VSEPR theory
Metallic bond and hydrogen bond (conductors, insulators and semiconductors)
Inter molecular and Intra molecular Hbond
Importance of hydrogen bonding in biological molecules
UnitIll: Organic reaction mechanism
Fission of covalent bond
Nucleophiles and electrophiles
Nucleophilic substitution reaction mechanism (Sn^{1} and Sn^{2})
Electrophilic substitution reaction mechanism (Se^{1} and Se^{2})
UnitlV: Electrochemistry
Concept of electrode potential
Nearnst electrode potential equation
Types of electrode
Reversible and irreversible electrodes, indicator and reference electrodes
Expression for the EMF of a cell
Hydrogen electrode, calomel electrode and quinhydrone electrode
Electrochemical series of electrode potential
Application of EMF measurements
UnitV: Chemical kinetics 1
Order and molecularity of reactions
Rates of chemical reactions
Rate laws
Derivation of rate constants for zero, first, and second order reaction
Methods of determination of order of chemical reactions
Graphical and analytical methods, using integrated rate equations and fractional life method
(i) Organic spotting  solids and liquids (4 solids + 2 liquids)
Solids:Acid  benzoic, oxalic, succinic
Phenol  α and β napthols
Neutral  urea, thiourea, napthelene
Liquids: aniline, nitrobenzene, benzaldehyde, ethanol, chloroform, Chlorobenzene, acetone
(ii) Viscosity measurement: Benzene, CCUl_{4} CHCl_{3}
Credits: 4
Ecology and Wildlife
Unit: 1: Ecology
Definition, Scope and Applications of Ecology
Ecological factors  edaphic, climatic, physiographic and biotic factors
Population Ecology  Definition of population; species and population
Population Attributes: Density, Natality, Mortality, age distribution, Disperal and Dispersion; Cyclical oscillations; Home range and territory; Environmental resistance and carrying capacity of a population. Interaction between populations. Concept of a Niche: Gauze Principal
Biotic community; concept of Biotic Community; Community structure, succession (hydrosere, Xerosere), climax community, Ecotone.
Applied Ecology:
Pollution  Definition and classification  Pollutants of air, water and soil and their effect on the ecosystem and mankind; Radioactive pollution of Biosphere; pollution control.
Unit:  2
Limiting factors  Laws of limiting factors: Liebig’s law of minimum and Shelford’s low of tolerance, Factor compensation and Ecotype.
Ecosystem  Energy overflow in Ecosystem, Energy flow diagrams and their interpretations, Tropic levels and types of pyramids, Productivity and the methods of determining primary productivity. Biogeochemical cycles in ecosystem; carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorous and sulphur cycles; cycling of organic nutrients and recycling pathways.
Habitat ecology  Marine and terrestrial ecology and their types,
Unit:  3: Wildlife
Introduction to the terms : National parks, Sanctuaries
Elementary knowledge of:
Marine National Parks of Gujarat
Velavadar National park
Gir National park and Sanctuary
Wildass Sanctuary of Gujarat
Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary
Wildlife management tools : Binoculars, camera, Radiotransmitters/receivers, Tranquilizer gun and darts
Some endangered fauna of India (brief note on Asiatic Lion, Snow Leopard, Black buck, Gangetic dolphin, India wildass, Onehorned Rhino, Great Indian Bustard, Great Indian Hornbill, Peacock, Mountain Quail and Vulture
Conservation :
Unit:4: Evolution
Theories and evidences
Lamarckism and NeoLamarckism
Darwinism and NeoDarwinism
Devries work on mutation
Variation
Isolation
Speciation
References:
Ecology by P. S. Varma & Agrawal (S. Chand & Co.  Delhi]
Fundamentals of Ecology by P. S. Odum
Ecology and Environment by P.D. Sharma (Rastogi Pub., Meerut)
Ecology by S.K. Charles (Prentice Hall of India, Delhi)
Indian Wildlife, Shrilanka, Nepal., APA Publication
Wildlife of India by Mark E. Tritsch, Harper Collins Pub.
Threatened Animals of India by B. K. Tikader, ZSI, Calcutta
Cytology, Genetics and Evolution by K. Periaswamy (Emkay Publication, Delhi)
Cytology, Genetics and Evolution by P. K. Gupta (Rastogi publication, Delhi)
Organic evolution by Arora
The study of following animals through specimen/diagram/chart/model
Terrestrial: Toad, Jackal.
Aquatic : 1. Fresh water:
Vorticella, Spongilla,Hydra, Pila, Ophiocephalns.
 Deep sea: Sole fish, Chimaera.
Arborial : Chameleon, Parrot, Draco.
Fossorial : Phrynosoma, Snake.
Volant : Bat, Crow.
 Homologous organs : Fore and hind limbs.
Pectoral and pelvic girdles, vertebrae.
 Analogous organs : Wings of insects, bird and Bat.
: Paripatus,
: Archaeopteryx,
: Duckbill(platypus
Estimations of free CO2 in the sample water.
Estimations of Alkalinity in the sample water.
Estimations of Chlorinity in the sample water.
Estimations of Total Hardness in the sample water.
Estimations of Ca & Mg hardness in the sample water.
Endangered fauna of India (as per theory syllabus)
Wildlife management tools (as per theory syllabus)
National parks and sanctuaries spotting in map of Gujarat.
Credits 4
OBJECTIVES: To develop an understanding of the concepts of number system and their crucial role in Modern mathematics ; to apply principles and techniques of integration in real life situations; to acquire an insight into the pedagogical aspects of Number system and Integration.
COURSE CONTENT:
Unit 1: Number System
Integers : Nature numbers; The principle of mathematical induction, The structural properties of integers, The order relation  well ordering principle, Divisibility the Euclidean algorithm, prime and Coprime numbers, The H.C.F. and L.C.M. Unique factorization theorem, Congruence modulon , Addition and multiplication modulon.
Rational numbers : Equality addition and multiplication of rational numbers, The order relation, The structural properties of rational numbers, The density property of rationals.
Real numbers : Existence of irrational numbers; the number line; Upper and lower bounds of sets of real numbers; The order relation; The structural properties of real numbers; Open and closed intervals of the number line.
Complex number : Equality, addition and multiplication of complex numbers; Structural properties of complex numbers; Impossibility of order relation on complex numbers; Argand diagram; De Moivre’s theorem.
References:
A Brief Survey of Modern Algebra by G. Birkhoff & S. Maciane. (MACMILLAN  Indian Edition: IBH PUBLISHING CO., Bombay).
Unit 2 : Calculusll(lntegral Calculus)
Integral Of a Function : Indefinite integral as antiderivative; Integral of elementary functions.
Techniques of integration: Integration by substitution; integration by parts.
Integration Of Various Types Of Functions: Rational functions  resolving into partial fractions; Irrational algebraic functions; Trigonometric functions reducible to rational functions by substilition.
Definite Integrals : Integration under limits  definite integral and the NewtonLeibnitz formula; Techniques of evaluating definite integrals; Reduction formulae; properties of definite integrals.
References:
Integral Calculus by Shanti Narayan (SULTAN CHAND & Co.).
Calculus of one and several variables by Sales and Einar Hille (WELEY INTERNATIONAL).
Calculus and Analytical Geometry by George B.Thomas (ADDISON WESLEY CO.)
Calculus  Vols. I &I1 by Lipman Bers (HOLT, R1NBHART & WINSTON  Indian Edition: 1BH PUBLISHING CO. Bombay).