Fragment of pottery on which an Athenian citizen could scratch the name

of the man he was voting to ostracize, that is to say, to send into exile.

Appendix III

A Detailed Chronology

490 BC

— The 1st Persian war, the Persian army led by Darius is defeated by the Athenians in the battle of Marathon.

480 BC

— The 2nd Persian war, the Persian army led by Xerxes is defeated in the Bay of Salamis by the Athenian forces.

469 BC

— Birth of Socrates.

461 BC

— Pericles rises to prominence as a leading statesman of Athens.

463 BC

— Cimon, leader of the oligarchs, is ostracized. Ephialtes, leader of the Democratic Party is assassinated.

Pericles replaces him and becomes Commander

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