Taittiriya Upanishad

Review of Education in the Taittiriya Upanishad


In my search for the Indian systems of education which have dealt with the centrality of education for spiritual development, I found the relevance of the text of the Taittiriya Upanishad, which has a special section (with several chapters) on education titled Śikṣāvalli.

In this paper I have tried to study the aspect of education for spiritual development as can be discerned in this section of the Taittiriya Upanishad and draw out those points which are relevant to education for spiritual development in liberal and democratic societies in contemporary times.


At the outset, I would like to point out that ancient Vedic texts have been variously interpreted as having ritualistic (Cf. Sayana), naturalistic, philological (Cf. Muller) and more recently, psychological and spiritual meanings. We shall concern ourselves with the psychological and spiritual interpretation, which is relevant to our purpose.

It is to be noted that the dates of the ancient history of India are uncertain, but at a conservative level, Vedas can be

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