Comment: So viṣāda is a reference here.
Yes. This is the significance of his viṣāda , because he did not know that there is something quite huge behind it; that supra-cosmic, cosmic, individual reality manifesting in the world and that only working in the world and nothing else working in the world, this realisation has to be completed before Sri Krishna Himself says “That one who is manifesting is Myself”, and this command of action that I am asking you now to perform is not my individual command. Look at the supreme Reality, it is that Reality which is in the war, it is that Reality which is asking you ‘fight!’
Now, this is the climax to which Sri Krishna wants to take His disciple step by step. And therefore this 10th chapter now comes with a message of the omnipresence of the Divine, the dynamic omnipresence of the Divine, vibhūti yoga: vibhūti is pre-eminent manifestation, bhūti is becoming, manifestation, vibhūti is pre-eminent; the pre-eminent movement of the Divine in which you see that the whole world is nothing but the Divine: viśvato mukhaṁ; you see that everywhere is the face of the Divine that you see. Now, this great vision of the Divine Himself everywhere is again a preparation of what is to come in the 11th chapter, which is a climax, where everywhere the divine is Himself manifested.
He is being prepared, 10th chapter is the beginning of a great preparation. Before the whole reality is manifested, the whole universe is manifested as the manifestation of the supreme divine, viśvarūpa darśanaṁ, is being prepared now in the 10th chapter by showing that there is a universal dynamic presence of the Divine everywhere. And how do you see that dynamic presence of the Divine? There is only one Reality; whatever is is divine. But to see that Divine which you cannot easily see, you see in the pre-eminent becomings; what you cannot see in the small, you can see in the large.
Question: How do we know that it is coming from the Divine and it is not some other input?
That is the substance of the first nine chapters: to eliminate all others hypothesises. All the nine chapters are being given to eliminate all the other possibilities. In fact Arjuna when he raises his question…in his questions and in the reason that he gives for escaping from the battlefield, in the reason that he gives there is one premise that it is lacking which Sri Krishna supplies in the very 2nd chapter. He said: ‘In all your arguments, there is one thing that you have not mentioned which all the wise men mention’. He says: ‘you speak like a wise man but you are not a wise man because wise man begins with the right premise which you are not starting with. What is that right premise? That which is: na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre, (II, 20) “That which is not killed even when the body is killed”.
So you are now contemplating, worried about things about which the wise men are never worried. So, the first premise was missing. If that premise is missing then the kind of condition that you arrive at, is arrived at. You omit that premise and everything is in doubt, you cannot find an answer to the question.
Comment: So I think the answer 11th Shloka in the 2nd chapter, is coming in the 10th chapter, 6th Shloka.
Right, quite right, it is all continuation. You see the Gita is a very unified body of knowledge. At every step there is a development of the argument and if you study Gita very closely you find it is a marvellous composition in which every question that arises in the human mind is raised and answered effectively.
So, Sri Krishna says that if you want to know that the Divine is present everywhere because there is only one Reality then it can be more easily seen in certain specific examples. The whole of the 10th chapter is therefore given to the description of those phenomena where the divinity is more manifest, can be seen more clearly.
Now, before we proceed further, let us read at least, the verses that we have not read so far. As I told you from verse n°2 to verse n°11 is a reiteration of all that is said in chapter n°9 that is why Sri Krishna says: “Now, listen again…”
bhūya eva mahābāho śṛṇu me paramaṁ vacaḥ | (X, 1)
“Now, listen again, paramaṁ vacaḥ, this great word, the supreme word, the secret of secrets, rājaguhya, that secret word which we have described so much over so many sessions here, that is now summarised once again by Sri Krishna in these verses. It is the statement of integral knowledge and integral Yoga in 8 or 9 verses.