Now, in the last 6 chapters, this answer is further expounded by emphasising a concept which has not been expounded earlier except by hint. That concept is sādharmya mukti. This is the one word that you have to remember very importantly. In these 6 chapters…these chapters may be regarded as an exposition of sādharmya mukti. We had referred to three concepts of mukti earlier: sālokya mukti, sāyujya mukti, and sādharmya mukti.
sālokya mukti is to remain in the same loka as the supreme Divine; sāyujya mukti is to be united with the Supreme, completely; sādharmya mukti is to be one in the action of the Divine, in the Dharma of the Divine. Dharma means the law of action, the law of action that proceeds from Himself. So, sādharmya mukti is connected with ‘action of the Divine’. You can be in the house of the Divine and do no action: only you only eat sweets, you enjoy the Lord’s presence, you play with Him, you are also mukta.
Question: Is that in Adaivta?
No, that is sāyujya, you become one with Him: sālokya, you remain with Him in the same plane, you play with Him. Both of them give you freedom. In both the cases the sense of ego vanishes. So, wherever egoism drops you are liberated, but as soon as you come to action, your mukti is compromised because there, if you have not done Karmayoga, you will not know how to do action and yet remain free.
Therefore sādharmya mukti is the one in which you do action according to the Divine’s will and follow the Divine’s will, in which case your own activity does not remain the same kind of activity which is normally the case when we are in bondage, the very nature of activity changes. The nature of activity will be the same as the nature of the Divine, Para Prakriti. In ordinary cases whenever we are acting, we always act in Apara Prakriti. To rise from Apara Prakriti and to go to Para Prakriti, so that in our action we act with the Para Prakriti that gives you sādharmya mukti. This is the whole meaning of the last 6 chapters.
Comment: All the three are covered.
Because you become completely surrendered fully to the Divine: that is avyabhicāriṇī Bhakti, the Bhakti which transcends ordinary Bhakti, which transcends Knowledge, which transcends Action, all the three are combined together, then you can enter into Dharma of the Divine. This is the main themes of the last 6 chapters.
Comment: The last is the essence of everything.
Yes, but emphasis upon sādharmya mukti, emphasis upon the passage by which on can rise from Apara Prakriti and enter into Para Prakriti. Normally all our actions are done by Apara Prakriti. Even in the so called liberated condition, the normal action proceeds from Apara Prakriti, even when you are liberated until you have gone from Apara Prakriti, cultivated Para Prakriti and you are able to be seated in that Prakriti, you have to ascend into the Para Prakriti, then your action also will be from Para Prakriti. Otherwise even when you are normally liberated, you activity will be still in the Apara Prakriti.
There is a special question in the 14th chapter where we shall mark this point, where Sri Krishna describes how one acts in a state of liberation and He points out that even in the stage of liberation, you are still in the stage of Apara Prakriti as far as action is concerned. But that is not the full liberation, full liberation can come only when you can rise into Para Prakriti and from there you can act. So, Sri Krishna’s answer to Arjuna is “Transcend Apara Prakriti, enter into Para Prakriti and act from Para Prakriti, then you will be perfectly free and dynamically active as the Divine is”: that is sādharmya mukti.
Now that is the substance of the last 6 chapters in which the exposition begins in the 13th chapter. Why is it that He starts with kṣetra and kṣetrajña? Because you cannot understand the difference between Apara Prakriti and Para Prakriti unless you know the distinction between Purusha and Prakriti and the starting point of the knowledge between Purusha and Prakriti is rooted in the kṣetra and kṣetrajña. That is the starting point of the knowledge of Purusha and Prakriti. Therefore this chapter begins with Purusha and Prakriti in the form of kṣetra and kṣetrajña.
Comment: Now it is crystal clear.
Now, it’s all right?
Therefore in the last verse, He says that one who knows the difference between kṣetra and kṣetrajña, one who knows who is the knower of the field and what is the field, it is he…and one who knows what is bondage and what is mokṣa, one who knows how one is bound and how one goes into liberation, only they attain to highest. But this is only the preliminary chapter. The 13th chapter is only the preliminary chapter which begins with the distinction between Purusha and Prakriti, kṣetra and kṣetrajña.