If you therefore now have this fundamental grasp that Chit is mobile and immobile, and mobile Chit is the path of Action, the immobile Chit is the path of Knowledge, and Ananda is the origin of the path of Bhakti, and all the three paths depend upon a goal, which has to be reached, namely Sat: Sat is the starting point but also the…from all point of view the goal, because we are at present in a state, which has been resulting from Chit and Ananda, and then all the further consequences of which we are the children: basically all of us are the children of Ananda. In Taittiriya Upanishad it is said: “If Ananda was not there, how could anybody breaths?” All breaths, all that we are, all that we are doing is because of the fundamental presence of Ananda. We are all children of Ananda. It is out of Ananda that the whole world moves out. You remember at one time we did Satchitananda in the anthological way, metaphysical way, and where the question was asked: “If Sat, Reality, is complete within itself, if it needs nothing else, then why should it create the world?” It needs nothing else! And our answer was: “The only reason for its action is Ananda.” Even without action, without creation, He is in a state of Ananda, or that in which Ananda is folded up. Even in manifestation, He remains Ananda. Ananda does not add something to Reality, which He had not before within Itself. Ananda is such a concept that when there is a manifestation of Ananda, the manifestation is full of delight, and yet, when there is no manifestation then also there is delight.
That is why we have the concept of pūrṇa: from pūrṇa is manifested pūrṇa; if you add pūrṇa to pūrṇa, pūrṇa remains pūrṇa; if you substract pūrṇa, from pūrṇa, pūrṇa remains. “pūrṇam eva avaśiṣyate”: such is our definition of pūrṇa. It is such a Reality that we are in search of. And all our problems arise because we do not know this Reality, and we do not know how to approach this Reality. And therefore this complex teaching that we have before us in the Bhagavad Gita, these three paths have been enunciated: the path of Action, the path of Knowledge, and the path of Devotion. With these three paths correspond to: Chit, Shakti and Ananda. That is why we have emphasis on Karma, sometimes emphasis on Jnana, sometimes emphasis on Bhakti sometimes. And if you know the equation of all these three, we will not be bewildered as to why at certain point Sri Krishna says: “Although without Karma you can attain to the highest, yet I prefer that Action is better.” Why this? Why this preference? What is the point in it?
At the end of the 6th chapter, you will find that Sri Krishna declares that, “There are the tapasvīs and jñānis, and yet I prefer the yogis,( that is to say the Karmayogis), but even beyond Yogis, the one who are dearest to Me are Bhaktas.” That is the end of the 6th chapter you will find a declaration. Why this? Karmayogis are better than Jnanayogis and Tapasvins, and Bhaktas are even greater, are much dearer! If you know therefore that if Bhakti is the crown, Ananda is the crown, then naturally the crowning position is of Bhakta. If Yogis are those who manifest the Jnana, then naturally those who are Karmayogis are better that mere Jnanayogis: they do not manifest.
And yet now Sri Krishna in the 4th chapter now what we are going to read, Sri Krishna will seem to admit that all actions ultimately ends in Knowledge. It is as if Knowledge is the Supreme, is the Crown: karmākhilaṁ jñāne samāpyate (IV, 33): ‘All action ultimately ends in Knowledge’. So, if you start from Action, then the top is Jnana; if you start with Jnana, and look at the world, then Karma is superior to Jnana, because it brings out what is in Knowledge; and if you still go further, then Ananda is the crown of it; even Karma is not the crown, it is the crown of the Bhakti, of the Ananda. Therefore this emphasis that you find in the Bhagavad Gita you should see at what point Sri Krishna put one thing higher than the other.
Actually speaking, the highest is none, lowest is none, it is all one Reality that unity, integrity, oneness of the Reality, but when approached in different ways, then these hierarchies arise, and these hierarchies are temporary hierarchies, depending upon your stand point: from which stand point is what? If you are at the top of the hill and you want to go home, then home is the top, even though you may be on the top of the hill, but if your destination is home, then home is the top for you. Where you are is not the top, it depends upon your stand point, where you stand and where you want to go, how you want to go, then accordingly you can be told.
If I stand at the North Pole, and then if I want to show what is east and west, it will be one answer, if I am at another place east and west will be different! So, we should not therefore get bewildered by different kinds of statements where Sri Krishna…and now exhorts one, exhorts another, and says something quite different at the third point. In fact that was the problem of Arjuna, therefore he says that now you exalt this one, then you exalt another one, please tell me one thing, and then you tell me do this and I will do it. But do not tell me these bewildering statements, which are contradictory.
And Sri Krishna is not very helpful because Reality is not very helpful. Reality itself is of such a nature that it depends upon the standpoint. But ultimately this is the basic relationship: Sat is the basis, Chit is double (immobile and mobile), and when the two are united you have Ananda. When this relationship is understood then you yourself can put emphasis according to wherever you stand. It is for this reason that there are inter-connections between Action and Knowledge.