SHREE SOMNATH UNIVERSITY
There was in India a curriculum which was so wide and comprehensive that it included not only the study of the Veda but also of Vedangas and Upavedas, and students of that curriculum were able to contribute to the development of the then contemporary society and its needs of advancement. When one reads in the Chhandogya Upanishad the account of Narada to Sanat Kumar about the background of his knowledge or when one learns of the accomplishments of Arjuna or of Kadambari and Mahasweta, one is irresistibly led to conclude that India had a tradition of such a sound pedagogy that it could foster sixty-four sciences and arts along with swadhyaya and Vedic learning. One begins to ask as to what that pedagogy was and whether that pedagogy can be recovered and enriched in the light of modern advancements.
There is thus an imperative need to institute a new line of research in pedagogy that will sincerely and seriously address itself to the following:
(a) Study of pedagogy contained in the Vedanga known as Shiksha, in the Taittiriya Upanishad, and in relevant literature where the pedagogy connected with the preservation of the oral tradition of the Veda was blended with the studies in Vedagas, Upavedas and various developing sciences and technologies;
(b) Study of modern curriculum with a view to develop a new curriculum that can be prescribed for the Vedic Pathshalas in which the aims of the preservation of the Vedic oral tradition can be effectively blended with the requirements of proficiencies that are demanded by the modern world; and
(c) Development of the required pedagogy which could foster the aims of the Vedic systems of education, including holistic knowledge and holistic development of personality.
The need of the research that this programme involves is imperative; unfortunately, the imperativeness of this need is hardly recognized, and
therefore no attention has been paid to undertake this programme of research. But it can legitimately be expected of the new Vedic University to play a leading role in initiating and developing the required programme of research.
This programme of research will require the following:
(a) Collection of the data concerning ancient curricula of study when the Vedic system of education produced scholars like Narada, warriors like Arjuna and cultured women like Kadambari and Mahasweta, as also great astronomers, mathematicians, chemists, agriculturists and metallurgists, artists, sculptors, architects, builders and leaders of finest craftsmanship;
(b) Constitution of a committee of scholars, scientists, technologists and educationists with the objective of studying the relevant data and suggesting the ways and means of developing a new pedagogy that a modern Vedic University should develop among the Vedic Pathshalas and in Universities and centers of higher learning devoted to Vedic learning, Sanskritic studies and oriental literature;
(c) Appointment of four permanent scholars in the university who will be responsible for the development of activities connected with (i) and (ii) above, and who will themselves develop expertise in the university connected with the growth of the new pedagogy; and
(d) Development and implementation of a new but holistic curriculum appropriate to the development of students in Vedic Pathshalas and even elsewhere, who will satisfy the requirements of the contemporary world in which the Vedic knowledge is recovered more and more fully and which contributes to the development of a new synthesis of the past and the present and of the East and the West.
The University needs to pay special emphasis on the theme of interdisciplinary research, and the aim should be to study how Vedic knowledge has influenced the development of practically all disciplines of knowledge and particularly those relating to philosophy, science and culture. To begin with, the University may appoint two Research Professors to develop and promote research in this vast area. And in this connection, the Research Professors may be cxpected to develop expertise with regard to the vast number of Volumes which are being published under the Govt. of India's Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy and Culture, which is being conducted by the Centre for Studies in Civilizations in Delhi.
Promotion of Vedic knowledge among the leaders, scholars and students of contemporary fields of humanities, sciences, technologies and cultural arts and crafts:
The need of this programme should be considered as a matter of imperative and urgent importance. A laudable commencement of the work in this domain has been initiated by Prof. Panchamukhi, Chancellor of the Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth at Tirupati. The exhibition depicting various aspects of knowledge developed during the course of the growth of the Vedic tradition of knowledge has already been mounted and presented at different institutions of the country. This exhibition has demonstrated the need to spread the ripe fruits of the Vedic knowledge among practitioners of modern knowledge in the country. This exhibition has also inspired many scholars to study the Vedic tradition of knowledge and to connect that knowledge with the modern streams of knowledge. But this programme needs to be instituted on firmer foundation. For this purpose, the following three programmes may be suggested:
(i) Development of suitable courses which can be offered to students of universities who are specializing in the respective areas at the post graduate and doctoral levels. These courses could be conducted by visiting professors appointed by the University for short or long terms who can offer these courses during vacations or long holidays in the respective universities;
(ii) Institutions of specialized courses for post graduation or doctoral research in areas that would relate the ancient systems of knowledge to the modern systems of knowledge in certain selected areas. The University should aim at fostering in the country at least 100 scholars in the fields of astronomy, mathematics, metallurgy, agriculture, philosophy, poetry, linguistics, dramatics, sculpture and architecture.
(iii) Development of courses for at least five scholars every year who are doing or have done research at the doctoral level in any one of the above mentioned areas, who should be given the necessary courses, instruction, guidance in respect of the Vedic knowledge pertaining to their specialization. For this purpose, the University may execute five one-year fellowships.
(iv) Occasional seminars of scholars and researchers:
In order to foster inter-disciplinary studies and for the synthesis of the past systems of knowledge and the modern systems of knowledge, the University may institute a regular programme of at least two national seminars every year on selected topics.
In order that the University bears the character of an innovative university, the methodology of education may consist of three aspects:
(a) Concentration on each individual student: development of personality on the lines of his or her swabhava and swadharma. Value-oriented education can best be imparted through methodologies of education that attend to the needs of each individual towards the highest values which have been propounded in the Veda.
(b)Project-oriented methodology: another aspect of the methodology should be that of the pursuit of important topics through development of projects and formation of teams of students to pursue the projects which would encourage formulation of the objectives of project, special issues which need to be identified and explored by collecting necessary information and formulating hypothesis, which require explorations, experimentations, discoveries, inventions and appropriate conclusions.
(c) Programmes of "demonstrations": all programmes of "demonstration" can be addressed to large audiences of students, and they could consist of power point projections, educational films slide shows, demonstrations of experiments through which important discoveries were made or through which technologies were invented. These programs of demonstrations may be followed up by developing projects of explorations, discoveries and inventions.
It will be seen that if these innovations are to be implemented, curricula of different subjects will need to be formulated and implemented by teachers through innovative and imaginative methods. This will also require continuous in-service training of teachers in regard to the development and employment of innovative methods. It will be seen that in the ancient gurukula system, these innovative methods were actually implemented, and some of the accounts in the Upanishads indicate how teachers used to employ different methods for different students. Multisided and integral education can be aided greatly if these three methods are suitably blended.
As a result of these innovative methods of teaching and learning, the system of evaluation also will have to be innovative.
A) Value-oriented education and development of personality should have a system of evaluation which will bring out how each individual has progressed on the lines of his or her swabhava and swadharma. A few suggestions in this regard may illustrate this important aspect of testing:
(a) Every student may be required to maintain his or her own progress report in which he or she records from time to time the following:
i) Books and journals read or consulted;
ii) Short reviews of books or articles and internet explorations which have exercised on him or her some significant impression of stimulation;
iii)A record of any action or any experience which he or she considers to be extremely valuable;
iv)Thoughts or Aphorisms which he or she has found to be very instructive;
v) One's own experiments to develop one's personality; etc;
vi)Appreciation of important lectures or any program of demonstration, including art exhibitions, dramatic performances,
vii) Important biographies studied and lessons derived from them;
viii) Record of activities of physical education, which have been pursued with regularity and perseverance;
ix) Reflections on value system that has been explored and experimented upon.
(b) Another important method of testing progress in value-education is to require each student to write an essay on one of the optional topics, such as the following:
i) Write one page of your imaginary autobiography, describing some decisive development or experience;
ii) Present an imaginary interview with an eminent personality whom you admire;
iii) Describe an actual encounter with a teacher that has changed the course of your life, etc, etc.
(c) In addition to the above, every student may be required to present a paper on his or her understanding of an important event in Indian history or in world history, which in his or her opinion was decisive in the promotion of ideals of lokasangraha, ‒ unity and integrity of people.
(d) The progress reports and other papers should be evaluated not only in terms of the written tests but also in terms of an interview.
If value-oriented education is developed in the vast framework of the ideals of the Vedic culture, and if the system of testing progress in value education is developed and implemented properly, the students who will have qualified in the Vedic University will bear valuable stamp on their character, and these will have not only intrinsic value but also extrinsic value in the society.
B) Apart from testing in the domain of value education, teams of students should be collectively tested in the presentation of their projects. This will also tend to eliminate from the testing system the evils of cramming and unintelligent reproduction of materials read in the text books.
C) As far as the testing of other subjects is concerned, the testing can be gradually individualized in such a way that every individual student can offer himself or herself to be tested when he or she is well prepared to face the test. Moreover, the system can be further individualized so that a test paper can be based, through computer-facilitated system, on the basis of an individualized programme of study chosen by the student. The details of such a programme of testing can be successfully worked out, if and when it is agreed that the Vedic University should provide a pioneering model of innovative methods of teaching and learning and innovative methods of testing, which respect the Vedic ideals of education that promote the development of each individual's swabhava and swadharma.
The University can develop several innovative extension programs.
(a ) A panoramic story of Indian heritage and basic data of Vedic literature;
(b ) Selected hymns and passages from the Vedic literature centered on the message of the University, goodwill, harmony and peace as also hymns and passages which deal with the ideals of individual and collective perfection;
(c) Important legends and stories narrated in the Vedic literature, such as the legend of Angirasa Rishis and the stories of Nachiketas, Satyakama and Svetaketu, etc.;
(d) The motto of the Indian ideal, — satyam eva jayate;
(e) Vedic recitation;
(f) Symbolism of Vedic sacrifice;
(g) Sixteen samskaras developed in the Vedic culture.
(a) Aim of life;
(e) Aims of education and(f) Science of living, theory and practice of self-control.
These themes can be studied through the methods of exploration and comparisons with the modern approach to value-oriented education. Some other programmes can also be envisaged which will provide insights into the development of Indian dramatics, Indian music and Indian forms of dance.
Note: The above programme can be held twice a year, each one of the duration of one month, so that teachers who wish to be benefited by this programme can visit Tirupati during the vacation period. This programme can be so organized that teachers willing to participate in the programme are required to register their names in advance and their attendance in the programme should be regulated by suitable rules and regulations, and certificates can be issued at the end of their participation in the programme. A suitable fee can be charged for board and lodging and for providing literature and equipment. Tuition can be free as a gift of the University to the teachers of the country so as to illustrate that education in the Vedic view cannot be sold.
B. Another extension programme could consist of enrichment of students in the country, and this programme can be structured on almost the same lines as the programme given under A.
C. Daily extension lectures: since thousands of pilgrims visit Tirupati, it would be good service, if the University can organize daily programme of lectures in three or four languages; Hindi, Telugu, Tamil and English. Specialists of various themes relating to Vedic literature can be invited by the University to deliver these extension lectures. Suitable programme of Vedic recitation can also form an important part of this programme.
As a major programme of providing various aspects of awareness in regard to Vedic knowledge, we can envisage construction of pavilions for housing permanent exhibitions relating to Vedic literature and Vedic knowledge. These pavilions may be related to the following themes:
Pavilion I: Vedic literature: exhibition of manuscripts and books starting from Vedic samhitas, Vedangas and Upavedas up to the learned commentaries produced in our own times.
Pavilion II: An exhibition to depict the essentials of the synthesis of yoga contained in the Vedic samhitas. This may include the yogic process of Jnana yoga, Karma yoga, Bhakti yoga and Mantra yoga starting from aspiration and leading up to the attainment of the goal of immortality. This pavilion may expound the legend of Angirasa Rishis (X.62, VI.6.3-5), (1.31.1, VI.11.3, VI.75.9) and the process of their discovery of Agni (V.11.6), (X.46.9) in the inner heart of all things and the process of kindling Agni in the inner heart of the seeker (V1.49.1, VII.75). The encounter of the seeker with the experiences of the higher faculties of śruti and drstį, of Ila, Saraswati (I.3, 1.13, and X.110), Bharati or Mahati, Sarama (I.104.5) (III.31.6) and Dakshina (III.39), as also with Indra (1.170.1), Varuna, Mitra (V.63.1-7), Bhaga (V.82) (X.63.7, II.4), Aryamana (X.64.5) and Surya Savitri (V.81). Suitable examples of the Vedic yoga and Vedic realizations described in the hymns of Vashishtha (VI), Vishwamitra (III.1.14), Atri (V), Vamadeva (IV.3), Bharadwaja, Ribhus (IV.37.4), Shyavashwa (V.81), etc.
There are three important discoveries made by the Vedic Rishis. The first is the discovery of three oceans the ocean of the inconscience, the ocean of the human consciousness and the ocean of the superconscience. These three oceans are described by Vamadeva, (IV. 58.11). The second discovery is a discovery of the evolutionary movement starting from the inconscience and rising up to the superconscience. This discovery is described by Vishwamitra in III.2-14; it is also described in the famous Nāsadīya sukta. The third discovery is the discovery of the supermind, and this is described in the legend of Angirasa Rishis by Vamadeva in IV.3, and also in X.67.1, where it is said that by the seven-headed thought, Ayasya became universal, visvajanya, and he was able to manifest the fourth world of the supermind.
The Purusha sukta is one of the most famous suktas in the Vedic Samhitas, and this sukta may be made the centerpiece of this pavilion, since it describes the supreme reality or the supreme Purusha and his sacrifice in the inconscient would explain the entire evolutionary process of the world and even the riddle of the world.
The Vedic knowledge also consists of the knowledge of the cosmos; this knowledge also should be expounded. According to this knowledge of the cosmos, there are three highest worlds which are classed together as the triple divine Principle - for they always dwell together in a trinity; infinity is their scope, bliss is their foundation. They are supported by the vast regions of the Truth from where a divine Light radiates out toward our mentality in the three heavenly luminous worlds of Swar, the domain of Indra. Below is ranked the triple system in which we live. This cosmic knowledge can be represented as that of seven worlds in principle but grouped under following three groups:
|1. The Supreme Sat-Chit-Ananda||The Triple divine worlds|
|2. The Link-World of Supermind||The Truth, Right, Vast, manifested in Swar,with its three luminous Heavens|
|3. The triple lower world
|Heaven (Dyaus, the three heavens)
The Mid-Region (Antariksha)
Earth (the three earths)
This pavilion should begin with presentation of the Dawn (Usha) with the following verse, 1.113.8,10, which is as follows: “She follows to the goal of those that are passing on beyond, she is the first in the eternal succession of the dawns that are coming, Usha widens bringing out that which lives, awakening someone who was dead. ... What is her scope when she harmonises with the dawns that shone out before and those that now must shine? She desires the ancient mornings and fulfills their light; projecting forwards her illumination she enters into communion with the rest that are to come".
At the end of the pavilion, the following prayer of Vamadeva could be a fitting close of the yoga of the Veda, namely, IV1.7; Iv.2.1; IV.4.5: “Three fold are those supreme births of this divine force that is in the world, they are true, they are desirable; he moves there wide-overt within the Infinite and shines pure, luminous and fulfilling. That which is immortal in mortals and possessed of the truth is a god and established inwardly as an energy working out in our divine powers. ...Become high uplifted, O Strength, pierce all veils, manifest in us the things of the Godhead.”
At the final concluding point of the pavilion, the following message of the Veda to humanity may be imprinted in a striking manner so that the viewer leaves the pavilion fully bathed in the Vedic message: X.191.2-4
“Join together, speak one word, let your minds arrive at one knowledge, even as the ancient Gods arriving at one knowledge partake each of his own portion. Common mantra have all these, a common gathering to union, one mind common to all, they are together in one knowledge; I pronounce for you a common Mantra, I do sacrifice for you with a common offering. One and common be your aspiration, united your hearts, common to you be your mind, so that close companionship may be yours.”
"saṁ gachadvam saṁ vadadhvam ....
Pavilion III: This pavilion may be devoted to the exhibition of Brahamanas and Shatapatha Brahamana (in particular). It will also exhibit the Vedic karmakanda and different kinds of shrauta-yajna. Stories such as those of King Harischandra, the story of Shunahshepa and the story of Itara which are in the Aitareya Brahamana can suitably be illustrated. Similarly, the story related to the greatness of Gayatri and that relating to Purodasha, sacrificial cake, can also be illustrated. The story of Manu and the fish given in the Shatapatha Brahamana can also be illustrated, since it explains the universe and symbolism of sacrifice. The richness of the Brahamana literature has recently been emphasized in the works of Pandit Madhusudan Ojha. These works can be utilized for organizing this pavilion. Prof. Dayananda Bhargava has made a detailed study of these works, and his services can be utilized for creating the contents of this pavilion.
Pavilion IV: This pavilion may be devoted to the synthesis of yoga in the Upanishads. This pavilion may concentrate upon the following Upanishads:
Isha, Kena, Katha, Prashna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya, Chhandogya, Aitareya, Brihadaranyaka, Shwetashwatara, and Kaushitaki. The synthesis of yoga of the Upanishads is based upon the integral vision of the ultimate reality which is consistently presented in all the above Upanishads, but particularly in the Ishopanishad, Kathopanishad, Mundaka Upanishad, Mandukya Upanishad, Shwetashwatara Upanishad and Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. Suitable quotations from these Upanishads on the nature of the ultimate reality may be highlighted in this pavilion.
Essential pre-requisite of the yogic methods may be highlighted. In this connection, the distinction between the good and the pleasant and the distinction between knowledge and ignorance may be presented with striking vividity in this pavilion. The following statement of Yama in Kathopanishad which relates to adhyatma yoga in I.2.12 may also be highlighted. Similarly, the psychological process also, of self-control given in the Kathopanishad II.3.10-16 may also be highlighted. The central point of this pavilion may be that of knowledge of immortality. Finally, the continuity of Vedic yoga and Upanishadic yoga may be brought out in order to show why the Upanishads are called Vedanta. Towards the end of exhibition in this pavilion two verses of Ishopanishad (6 and 7) may be brought out with striking emphasis, since they contain the quintessence of the integral realization that is the object of the Upanishadic yoga.
In addition, this pavilion may underline the following seven episodes of the Upanishads, namely,
Pavilion V: Pavilion of the synthesis of yoga in the Gita. This pavilion will highlight the following:
Sri Krishna's answer in three steps:
(1) Performance of action to be preferred to the renunciation of action provided that one renounces the enjoyment of the fruits of action.
Here arises the knowledge of the immobile Purusha and immortal Soul as distinguished from the mobile movement of Prakriti of three gunas.
The process of Buddhiyoga through which mind is controlled and intellect is concentrated on the immobile Purusha.
As a result, the state of equality is attained, and one becomes sthitaprajña.
Description of sthitaprajña (11.55-72).
During this first step of the solution, which is the first step of Karmayoga which, in turn, is synthesized with the knowledge of immobile Purusha and immortal soul, the following two important messages are to be underlined:
(1) "To action alone thou hast the right but never to the fruits of action. Never consider thyself the cause of the results of thy activities, nor shouldst thou be attached to inaction.” (II.47)
(2) "Equality, that is the meaning of yoga.” (II.48) "Yoga, that is the meaning of skill in actions.” (II.50)
b) The second step of the solution rises to a higher level. Here action itself is offered as a sacrifice to the Supreme Lord of sacrifice” (III.9). The secret of sacrifice: The law of sacrifice (III.14-20).
The ideal of solidarity and harmony of people The ideal of Lokasangraha (III.20).
Example of ideal man exemplified by the supreme Lord Himself (III.21-25).
The law of sacrifice leads to the knowledge of the divine birth and divine action, the secret of which, when known, leads to liberation (IV.9).
The secret of the divine birth: the process and purpose of the avatarhood of the divine birth (IV.6, 7, 8).
The ideal of divine action (divyam karma).
The secret of divine action rests upon the synthesis of Karma yoga and Jnana yoga (IV.19-33). “O Arjuna! All actions culminate in knowledge” (IV.33).
Description of the divine worker who synthesizes Karma yoga and Jnana yoga (V.3-29).
Perfection of the synthesis of Karma yoga and Jnana yoga reaches a peak in the realization of the immobile Brahman: Dhyāna yoga that combines with Rāja yoga as the means of this attainment of oneness with the Brahman (VI.11-15). This process also includes concentration on the Supreme Lord (VI.14).
The divine worker, who combines Karma yoga with Jnana yoga, Rāja yoga, and Dhyāna yoga for concentration on the immobile Brahman and also concentration on the Supreme Lord, attains to that peace of Nirvana and also abides in the Supreme Lord (V1.15-32). The culmination of this realization is described as follows:
"He who comprehends oneness of all, worships Me abiding with all beings, whatever work he may be doing, such a yogin abides in Me. O Arjuna! He who sees everything with eye of equality and the likeness of his own self, be it pleasure or be it pain, he is considered a perfect yogin" (VI.31,32).
The synthesis of Karma yoga and Jnana yoga prepares the way for the synthesis with Bhakti yoga. (Full exposition of this synthesis in chapters VII-XII). This synthesis has its foundation in integral knowledge (jñānań savijñānam) (VII.2).
Contents of integral knowledge: (a) The Supreme Lord has two natures: 1)Apara Prakriti or lower nature, which is also known as aștadhā prakriti or eight-fold Prakriti. 2) Para Prakriti or higher nature which is the stuff of the individual souls (VII.4, 5).
The nature of the supreme reality is that of the immobile Brahman but there is also mobility, the seed of which is in the Supreme Lord (VIII.4, 8, 9, 22).
The integral knowledge of the Supreme Lord unites Karma yoga, Jnana yoga and Bhakti yoga. The great pronouncement of this synthesis is in VIII.22: “This is the Supreme Person, O Arjuna! In whom abide all existences and by whom all this is pervaded, who is attainable by unswerving single minded devotion."
The secret of secrets of integral knowledge (described in chapter IX) declares the mystery of the Transcendence of the Supreme Lord: “All beings abide in Me but I do not abide in them. Yet these beings do not exist in Me, behold my divine mystery. Although my spirit is the source of all beings and sustainer of the beings, yet I do not abide in them. As the mighty wind moving everywhere abides always in the sky, in the same way all created beings abide in Me” (IX.4,5,6).
The synthesis of Karma yoga, Jnana yoga and Bhakti yoga is expounded in IX.16-34.
Integral knowledge includes the knowledge of a distinction between the birth and the life of an avatar (X.8), birth and life of the individual souls (IX.8), and the birth and life of vibhutis (IV. 6).
Description of vibhutis in chapter X (X.8, 20-42).
But the centre piece of the solution of the problem of Arjuna, which involves the highest synthesis of Karma yoga, Jnana yoga and Bhakti yoga, is expounded through the vision of the Supreme Lord (Ch. XI).
The pavilion may have as its centre the most dazzling depiction of viswarupa darshana. The dazzling light of this presentation should aptly bring to the viewers the truth of X1.12 which states: “If a thousand suns were to shine forth in the heaven and if these suns were to radiate simultaneously their light, then may that radiance have resembled the radiance of that Supreme Being.”
This vision has several aspects and these aspects can be presented through several distinguishing images (XI,16-30, 33, 34, 36-44, 50-55).
The answer to Arjuna's problem is contained in vishawarupa darshana: "Be the instrument of the divine action, since the divine himself, even when above all action and entirely immobile is in constant action in the world for purposes of lokasangraha, solidarity and harmony of people. It is by the knowledge of this divine action (Jnana Yoga), it is by union by the divine action (karma yoga) and it is by complete self-surrender to the supreme divine and his action (Bhakti yoga), that the right action can be performed, the right action that resolves the conflict between dharma and adharma and between one dharma and another dharma.
c) This leads us to the third step of self-surrender in the yoga expounded by Sri Krishna. This third step is expounded in chapter XII – XVIII, which ends with the mahavakya of the Gita, namely, “Fix your consciousness in Me, be devoted to Me, offer adorations to Me, verily you will attain Me ‒ this I truly promise to thee because thou art dear to Me. Renounce all Dharmas, take refuge in Me alone; I shall release thee from all sins whatsoever. Do not grieve.” (XVIII.65 – 66)
The path of this third step is prepared by the following steps:
i) Attainment of devotion that is rooted in integral knowledge and which is the motive of compassion for all people and action that is one with the divine action (XII.6 – 20).
ii) Attainment of the integral knowledge of Purushottama (who is mobile and immobile and Beyond) (XV.7, 16 – 20).
iii) Attainment of daivi-bhava (XVI.1,2,3).
iv) Attainment of the status of trigunatita, one who is above the three gunas (XIV.20) (description of the trigunatita XIV.22-27)
v) Methods of transcending three gunas:
a) Sattvic Shraddha, - luminous faith and beyond (XVII.3)
b) Sattvic Yajna, - luminous sacrifice
Sattvic Dana, - luminous gifts
Sattvic Tapas, luminous austerity and beyond (XVII.11,14-17);(XVII.20); (XVII.27)
c) Sattvic Tyaga, - luminous renunciation as distinguished from Sannyasa, and beyond
d) Sattvic Jnana, - luminous knowledge, Sattvic Karma, luminous action, Sattvic Karta, - luminous doership and beyond
e) Sattvic Buddhi, - luminous intelligent will, and beyond (XVIII.30)
f) Sattvic Dhriti, luminous steadiness and beyond (XVIII.33) —
g) Sattvic Sukha, luminous happiness and beyond (XVIII.37) —
vi) Action born from swabhava: brahma karma (action devoted to knowledge), kshatra karma (action devoted to heroism), vaishya karma ( action devoted to protection, exchange and harmony) and shudra karma (action devoted to obedience and service), and beyond (XVIII.41-48)
vii) Attainment of brahmic consciousness beyond all gunas and attainment of devotion that ends in knowledge and attainment of action that is reposed in the Supreme Lord (XVIII.53-57)
viii) Attainment of eternal and imperishable abode by divine grace and attainment of immortality by identity with the Divine Nature, attainment of sadharmya mukti (liberation that comes by identity with the Divine Nature (XII.20, XVIII.56,57,62,65).
At the exit point of the pavilion, the final message of the Gita may be reiterated: “Fix your consciousness in Me, be devoted to Me, offer your sacrifice to Me, offer adoration to Me, verily you will attain Me - this I truly promise you because you are dear to Me. Relinquish all dharmas or human standards of action, take refuge in Me alone; I shall verily release you from all sins whatsoever. Do not grieve.” (XVIII.65-66)