V ANNEXURE I
At the outset, the need for value-oriented education requires clarification.
VALUE-ORIENTED EDUCATION INHERENT IN THE CONCEPT OF EDUCATION
There are at least three fundamental assumptions of the educational process:
a.There is, first, the pursuit of man to know himself and the Universe and to relate himself with the Universe as harmoniously as possible. This pursuit constitutes the very theme of human culture. And education derives its fundamental thrust from the cultural setting at a given point of time.
b.Secondly, there is a process of transmission of the accumulated results of the past to the growing generation so as to enable it to carry forward the cultural heritage and to build the gates and the paths of the future. c.And thirdly, there is in the process of transmission, a deliberate attempt to accelerate as far as possible the process of human progress.
In its very nature, education is a normative endeavour. Being at once a product or instrument of culture, education tends to promote the highest aims of culture. Hence, education tends to be a process of training whereby individuals in the society are enabled to embody progressively those values, which we in our highest thought and aspiration come to regard as something most desirable. It is in this context that education encourages and fosters the arts and sciences as well as technologies whereby man and the Universe can he ideally interrelated. At the same time, the idea of human progress is built up, and education endeavours to discover and apply efficient means of the right rhythm of acceleration of individual and social progress as also of human progress in general.
Education is thus in its nature value-oriented.
Today's conditions necessitating value-oriented education.
The conditions through which human culture is passing today provide additional reasons for value-oriented education:
a. An increasing number of people of thought and action feel that humanity has been gripped by serious maladies and that these maladies
are the result of our disequilibrium between the ideals that mankind is labouring to realise during the recent centuries and the disconcerting actualities which refuse obstinately to change. With the passing of every decade, humanity seems to feel more and more acutely that the realisation of its ideals has become imperative, while at the same time, it seems almost impossible to accomplish this realization. It is, therefore, felt that humanity is passing through an acute crisis.
b.A huge structure is being built up with an increasing insistence on efficiency needed for industrialised society, leaving practically no room for the growth of profounder wisdom which can rightly guide human progress in the critical times through which we are passing today.
c.As never before, humanity is able to envisage several alternative possibilities of the imminent future. As never before, it is felt that human volition can play a decisive role in selecting, planning, designing and actualizing these possibilities. As never before, humanity is convinced that the most desirable course for the human race is to strive with fixed determination for human unity, global peace and for the advancing of the three great ideals of progress, namely, liberty, equality, and fraternity. As never before, there has been an increasing perception that the most effective means for achieving these desirable objectives is value-oriented education. d.This feeling is reinforced by the fact that while under the pressure of technological development, the world is shrinking and we are dreaming of the possibility of a planetary civilization, for which we have not yet secured a corresponding psychological development, which could enable human consciousness to sustain such a planetary civilization. On the contrary, there is a growing preponderance of those impulses, which can thrive only in ignorance, fragmentation, discord and violence.
e. In India, there is a feeling that the country is sinking under the weight of problems such as those of terrorism, corruption, and plutocracy, and it is realised that solutions need to be sought at a level that is far deeper than the level at which we are now thinking and acting and that special attention has to be paid to the promotion of values that can counteract the increasing destruction of the country and its culture.
Against this background, both from the global point of view and from the Indian point of view, we need to develop and practice value-oriented education.
But what is the meaning of values?
a.As understood in the context of educational philosophy, values refer to those desirable ideals and goals which are intrinsic in themselves and which, when achieved or attempted, evoke a deep sense of
fulfillment to one or many or all parts of what we consider to be the highest elements of our nature.
b.In a sense, the word "value" is basically indefinable, since it denotes a fundamental category and it is itself the highest genus of that category.
c.There is a common understanding that truth, beauty and goodness (satyam, shivam, sundaram) can be conceived as the supreme values of life. They are intrinsic in character and they are ends-in-themselves. Even if there are wide differences as to what is meant by these three terms, there is an agreement that they are the most desirable ideals and mere orientation towards them inspires development of those states of our being and becoming in, which we can hope to find some kind of ultimate fulfillment.
a.There is a view that values are relative and subjective in character. It is, therefore, argued that individuals should be left to themselves to determine their own value systems and that educational institutions should confine themselves only to those domains where objective knowledge is discernible or determinable.
b.There is also a view that value systems stem from religious beliefs, and since these beliefs are dogmatic in character, they conflict with the demand of reason, and hence, they have no place in education, where one of the chief objectives is to cultivate among students pursuit of rational and scientific temper.
c.According to some educationists, values, even if they are determinable, cannot be taught and for this reason also, it is argued that there is no
rationale to bring value-oriented education within the purview of schools and universities.
d.On the other hand, there is a view that value systems have determined the orientation of civilizations, and these value systems should be emphasised in the educational system. It is also argued that there should he a rigorous enquiry into those values, which transcend relativity and subjectivity. It is also argued that many religions and moral systems advocate certain common values and that these common values, when identified, could be recommended for any education system in its value-oriented programme. It is also argued that there is a common agreement in the world in respect of tights and responsibilities, and many of them are even incorporated in constitutions and legal systems. All these are value-oriented and these values should constitute the core of value-oriented education.
e.A recent and disturbing increase in the trend of drug addiction among youth tends to reiterate the necessity of education that promotes the values of self-control, discipline and right habits of thought and conduct among youth.
THE QUESTION OF THE RELATIVITY AND SUBJECTIVITY OF VALUES
If we examine the history of value systems, we find that there have developed several standards of conduct, which can be arranged in an ascending scale or ladder.
a.The first is personal need, preference and desire. There is no doubt that the standards, of conduct based on what the individual feels to be his own needs, whether these are constrictive or derived from desire or instinct or egoistic pressure, it is bound to be relative and subjective. The individual would then be the measure of all things, and what is good for one individual is good for him and what is good for another is good for that other. Might would be right; and there could be no place for any impartial or universal law of action. When man is primitive, historically or psychologically, he tends to be individualistic and egoistic and tends to create standards of action or conduct, which result in self-seeking and self-aggrandisement.
b.But no individual can live in isolation, and no individual can be allowed
by the very fact of his social existence, to impose upon others what an individual considers to be his good, based upon his personal need, preference or desire. Every social group tends to create its own standards of conduct and to impose it upon its individual members.
c.In erecting the group's standards, there are several stands of consideration. At the highest level of these strands is what may be called objective utilitarianism. According to it, an action is to be judged by the consequences it produces, and if the consequences are pleasant for the largest number in the society, then that action is judged to be better than any other action. d.There is also another form of objective utilitarianism, according to which an action is judged to be good not merely by reference to the pleasure that it produces but also by the degree to which it promotes both knowledge and character. According to this view, there is a hierarchy, and the value to be attached to knowledge is greater than the value to be attached to pleasure, and the value to be attached to character is greater than the value to be attached to knowledge. It maintains that an objective calculus can be created in every social group on the basis of these criteria and social law can be framed on the basis of this calculus.
e.It is argued that objective utilitarianism forms a higher step in the ladder of evolution of value-systems, and that the standards and prescriptions it proposes cannot be termed to be as relative or subjective as those created merely by personal need, preference of desire.
f.However, it is still subject to criticism in that it is not able to resolve the conflict between the social good and the individual good.
g.A higher law of morality seems to prescribe what maybe called intrinsic good or intrinsic right without reference to consequences. Indeed, at a higher level of development of civilisation and culture, we find a law of conduct emerging from the moral intention and will, and moral will is considered good because it is goodwill. Here goodwill is recognised to be goodwill intrinsically, merely by reference to intention and motive and not by reference to what issues in the form of actual action and its consequences.
h.In one of the forms of this view, which can be termed as rationalistic and objective intuitionism, an objective criterion is attempted to be laid
down by which the intrinsic Tightness can be adjudged. It points out that an action can be adjudged to be right if it can be willed universally without self-contradiction.
i. It is at this level of a value-system that we attain to the concept of absoluteness and objective of the good and the right, and we have the concept of love, justice, right reason, or of the categorical imperative.
j. From a certain point of view, the answers given by rationalistic intui-tionism, may meet the criticism that morality is relative and subjective. Shastras of Dharmas have often been erected at higher levels of culture, and they have been thought to be objective and universallyjustified on the grounds of right reason.
k. But we find that even in arriving at the standards of absolute love, absolute justice, absolute right reason, we are not able to resolve the state of disequilibrium. Right reason dispassionatley considering facts of nature and human relations in search of a satisfying norm or rule is unable to rest without modification either in the reign of absolute justice or in the reign of absolute love.
Man's absolute justice easily turns out in practice to be a sovereign injustice. Again, justice often demands what love abhors. It is, therefore, difficult to find an absolute and objective agreement where a given particular action can really be adjudged to be right, where love and justice can meet together in harmony and where absolute right reason can unalterably indicate in actual situations of life what is conceived to he absolute justice or absolute love.
1. A distinction needs to be made between the human thrust towards the values of the right reason, absolute love and absolute justice, on the one hand, and various manifestations of this thrust in the form of certain specific and particular actions, on the other. While it is true that there can be differences of opinion as to whether certain specific actions are absolutely good—or not—and here relativity and subjectivity do enter—there is still no doubt that goodwill is independent of personal need, desire or preference; the judgement of goodness of goodwill is free from relativity or subjectivity. In other words, there is in the human consciousness the possibility of the development of goodwill that can be considered to be objectively good.
m. This discussion has important consequences for value-education. If
value-education proposes to prescribe any particular specific action or any particular value-system by any specific and preferred criteria, then the criticism against subjectivity and relativity in regard to the same would stand with considerable force. But if the proposal is to promote thrust and aspiration towards goodwill, then the case for value-education can be set on a sound and strong footing.
n. This would mean that it is preferable to propose value-oriented education rather than value-education. For value-education is likely to end up with the prescription of do's and don'ts, and this prescription will have a weak ground. But if our aim is to provide in education conditions for the promotion of the growth of aspiration towards goodwill and cultivation of goodwill, and if an attempt is to provide to each individual the inspiration and means to transcend his own limited needs and preferences and egoism, so that in his own personality, subjectivity is progressively attempted to he transcended, then such education can he defended both philosophically and pedagogically. Such education can he properly called value-oriented education.
o. Value-oriented education should then he defined as a progressive and exploratory process of development, which promotes unconditional pursuit towards goodwill. This education leaves each individual free to determine the contents of the good and the right, provided they are motivated by goodwill.
p. Not value-education but value-oriented education, not prescription but exploration—this is the conclusion to which we seem to arrive, when we consider the domain of values and its study and practice through processes of education.
VALUES PRESCRIBED BY RELIGIONS AND MORAL SYSTEMS
a. In view of the above analysis, it appears that there is no need to labour unduly on preparing lists of values and to enter into controversies as to which values should be advocated, whether they should belong to one specific religion or the other, or of one particular moral system or the other, or of one particular culture or another. Value-oriented education is to be a process of development of goodwill, and its method would be that of an exploration of the realm of values, and, again, what is to be emphasised is to orient the students to the dimension of values
rather than to the prescription of do's and don'ts of any set of values. If properly explored, this would lead to the exploration of various other sets of values, so that each student would then be free to determine for himself or herself what values one should adopt as a result of a sincere exploration of the realm of values.
b.Under the guidance of this general and overarching spirit of value-oriented education, we may take the Socratic view that Virtue is Unity and that no virtue can be fully practised unless in the course of practice, all virtues are embraced. There is no harm in preparing lists of virtues, and we may even contemplate hierarchy or relationships among virtues. But all this can be encouraged as a part of exploration, allowing every student to arrive at his or her own conclusions.
c.Indeed, it is very useful to explore and compare one set of realms with other sets of values.
d.In the process of exploration, it is certainly salutary to emphasise those values, which foster unity and harmony, integration and integrity of the nation and human unity and peace. Inevitably, those values, which have been laid down as binding under constitutional law as rights or duties will also come to be emphasised and cultivated as a part of citizenship. Also, in our own times, there are universal declarations of rights and responsibilities and these also have to be underlined and cultivated amongst students. In the process of education, however, examination of these values and even a critical examination has to be fostered and has to be considered as a part of the pursuit of value dimension.
INTEGRAL VALUE-ORIENTED EDUCATION
a.A very important concept that has become predominant in recent educational thought is that of integral education. At the international level, this eoncept came to be centrally highlighted by UNESCO through its famous report "Learning to Be", which laid down "that the aim of development is complete fulfillment of the human being, in all the richness of personality, complexity of form of expression and various commitments." b.It is increasingYy realised that in the contemporary worid, the humanist and the technologist are finding themselves in grater and greater need
of each other and the scientist and the mystic are getting ready to embrace each other.
c. It is being acknowledged that human personality is complex and" that each major element of the personality needs to be integrated with the totality in a harmonious manner. In other words, the physical, the vital; the mental, the psychic and spiritual do not stand in juxtaposition, but they have among them a constitutional relationship. The physical and the vital can, to a great extent, be controlled and guided by the mental, and to a certain stage of development the mind can act as a leader. But the leadership of the mind is rather restricted and often fails and fails disastrously in controlling or leading the vital and the physical. Reason is opposed by Unreason, and conflict between the two, as seen today, is extremely grave. Moreover, as the rational, ethical, and aesthetic powers of the mind begin to develop, they begin to collide among themselves. It is, therefore, being recognised that the psychic and the spiritual powers of the human personality need to be brought forward so as to establish the true integration of all the powers of the being.
d. In our present system of education, we are too occupied with mental development, and we give preponderant importance to those qualities, which are relevant to subject-oriented, book-oriented and examination-oriented systems. In contrast, the concept of integral education implies a simultaneous integrated process of the development of the qualities and values relevant to physical education, vital education, mental education, psychic and spiritual education.
e. In the domain of physical education, the values that are implied are those of health, strength, plasticity, grace and beauty. In the domain of emotional education or vital education, the values that are pursued are those of illumination, heroism, and harmony. In the domain of the rational development, the values that are to be sought after are those of utmost impartiality, dispassionate search after truth, calm and silence and widest possible synthesis. The values pertaining to aesthetic development would be those of vision of beauty and creative joy of the deepest possible be those of beauty and creative joy of the deepest possible aesthetic experience and expression. Values that the moral being ought to seek are those of sincere goodwill and obedience to whatever one conceives to be the highest. In psychic education, the values to be sought after are those of the aim of life, the highest
evelopment of the individuality free from egoism and knowledge that guides the inmost and harmonious relationship between the individual and the cosmic, and fulfillment in the light of the supreme discoveries of the ultimate reality, whatever it may be. The values of the spiritual domain are those of highest unity and oneness and pursuit of perfection of all parts of the being and of instruments of personality.
f.Integral value-oriented education is a matter of research, and the results of this research indicate the need to simultaneously develop knowledge, will, harmony and skill, and that this development should be for each individual a system of natural organisation of the highest processes and movements of which he or she is capable.
g.It may be observed that integral value-oriented education could be pursued independently of any particular, moral or religious doctrine or any particular spiritual discipline. Whether one belongs to one religion or the other of to no religion, one can pursue this integral process through a process of exploration, even experimentally and experientially.
MORALITY AND SPIRITUALITY
a. In any sound philosophy of value-oriented education, an effort should be made to arrive at clear conceptions of morality and spirituality, since both are distinct and yet related, and since both need to be distinguished from religion. Again, this matter is very important in the context of the Indian system of education, since the Indian Constitution clearly states that "No religious instruction shall be provided in educational institutions wholly maintained out of the State Funds", and that "No person attending any educational institution recognised by the State and receiving aid out of State Funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institutions or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institutions or in premises attached thereto unless such person or, if such a person is a minor, his guardian has given his consent thereto."
b. As far as the distinction between morality and spirituality is concerned, it may be said that much depends upon what we intend to include in
our definition of the word "morality" or in the word "spirituality". In Indian thought, a distinction between morality and spirituality has been clearly made and we have two definite terms, naitik and adhyatmik each having its own specific and distinguishing connotation.
c.The word "morality" connotes a pursuit of the control and mastery over impulses and desires under the guidance and supervening inspiration of a standard of conduct formulated by thought in consideration of man's station and duties in the society or in consideration of any discovered or prescribed intrinsic law of an idea'. Morality is often conceived as a preparation for spirituality. Spirituality, on the other hand, begins when one seeks whatever one conceives to be the ultimate and the absolute for its own sake unconditionally and without any reservation whatsoever. Moreover, while morality is often limited to, the domain of duties, spirituality is fundamentally a search of the knowledge that liberates (sa vidyaya vimuktaye). As it is declared, the true knowledge is not intellectual knowledge but spiritual knowledge. d.Both the moral and the spiritual are to be distinguished from what is called "religious" when we speak of religious instruction. Religion, which can be called sampradaya has the following distinguishing features:
i.Specific religious dogma regarding the nature of Reality, laid down in scripture or by a traditional founder, prophet or incarnation;
ii.Every specific religion has, as its essential ingredient, certain prescribed acts, rituals and ceremonies;
iii.A religious authority to which religious matters are referred and the decision of which is final.
e.Both moral and spiritual values can be practiced irrespective of whether one believes in one religion or another or whether one believes irnio religion. Both morality and spirituality can be independent of the rituals or ceremonies and of any acts specifically prescribed by any particular religion. Furthermore, both of them are independent of any authority except that of one's own free judgement and direct spiritual experience.
f.It is also useful to distinguish religion from what in India is called "dharma". Dharma is not any religious creed or dogma nor system of
rituals, but a deeper law of the harmonious and interdependent growth of the deepest aspirations of the collectivity and of the individuals that constitute the collectivity. Dharma can be regarded as an ordered system of moral and spiritual values.
g.Spirituality proceeds directly by change of consciousness, change from the ordinary consciousness to a greater consciousness in which one finds one's true unegoistic being and comes first into direct and living contact and then into union with the Spirit. In spirituality, this change of consciousness is the one thing that matters, nothing else. Spirituality not only aims at the total change of consciousness, but its method is that of a gradual and increasing change of consciousness. In other words, spirituality is an exploration of consciousness through progressive change of consciousness.
h.In spiritual consciousness, and in the knowledge that it delivers, there is the fulfillment of the highest that morality and religion in the their deepest core seek and succeed only when they cease to be limited within their specific boundaries. It replaces the moral law by a progressive law of self-perfection spontaneously expressing itself through the individual nature. In this operation, no more is the imposition of a rule or an imperative on the nature of an individual. The spiritual law respects the individual nature, modifies it and perfects it, and in this sense, it is unique for each individual and can be known and made operative only during the course of the change of consciousness. In its progressive movement, it may, if necessary, provide a short of long period of governance by a moral law, but always as a provisional device and always looking for going beyond into a plane of spontaneous expression of the Right and the Good. To spiritual consciousness, moral virtue is not valuable in itself, but only as an expression of a complex of certain qualities, which are, for the time being, for the given individual, necessary and useful in an upward journey. For the spiritual consciousness, what is commonly called vice has, too, behind it a complex of certain qualities, which have a certain utility m the economy of Nature, and can, therefore, be converted by placing them in their right place, as a complement to what lies in consciousness behind what are commonly called virtues.
i.Spirituality is not confined merely to the aspect of conduct; it includes all works and strives by the method of a progressive change of con-
sciousness for the perfect harmonisation of all the aspects of works; and through this striving it realises also the unity of works with the highest knowledge and the deepest Love.
J. For spiritual consciousness, that which is commonly called agnosticism, scepticism, atheism, positivism or free thinking has behind it a concern and a demand for a direct knowledge, which, when rightly understood, recognised, respected and fulfilled, becomes a powerful element of spirituality.
K. For spirituality always looks behind the form to essence and to the living consciousness; and in doing so, it brings to the surface that which lies behind, and its action is therefore of a new creation. Spirituality transcends the forms and methods of morality and religion and recreates its own living and progressive forms.
I. In the words of Sri Aurobindo:
"Spirituality is in its essence an awakening to the inner reality of our being, to a spirit, self, soul, which is other than our mind, life, and body, an inner aspiration to know, tofeel, to be that, to enter into contact with the greater Reality beyond and pervading the universe which inhabits also our own being, to be in communion with. It and union with It and a turning, a conversion, a transformation of our whole being as a result of the aspiration, the contact, the union, a growth or waking into a new becoming or new being, a new self, a new nature."
VALUES OF INDIAN CULTURE
a. It is natural that Indian education underlines the importance of what can be called Indian values.
b. In Indian thought, a distinction has been made between the ego and the self. According to Indian thought, whereas egoistic personality is ridden with self-contradiction and internal conflict, a true selfhood is free from this contradiction and conflicts. And true self is the integrating centre in which physical, vital, mental and other personalities are harmonised. Pursuit of self-realisation is held out in Indian educational thought as one of the supreme spiritual values.
c. There are, indeed, certain other values which are uniquely Indian, in the sense that even though these values may be shared by India in
common with other countries, they are pursued in India either with a certain special zeal and dedication or pursued with a certain speciality or completeness. For example, the value that we attach to the ideal of tolerance is something special in India. In fact, the word tolerance itself is not adequate to convey the intended meaning. In the ordinary idea of tolerance, there is still a feeling that our own preferred idea is somewhat superior to the other contending ideas. On the other hand, what is peculiarly Indian is the sentiment and the recognition that various principal contending ideas are all equally legitimate ideas and that superiority lies not in holding one idea as some preferred idea but in trying to find such a synthesis that each idea finds its own highest fulfillment in it. What is uniquely Indian is that the value and ideal of synthesis has been pursued throughout the long history of Indian culture as the most desirable goal—and that too repeatedly and with very special insistence.
d.Along with the basic idea of synthesis, there is also the accompanying idea of unity, mutuality and oneness in diversity.
e.Similarly, what is meant by secularism in the Indian context is uniquely Indian. According to the Western idea, secularism means a tendency or a system of beliefs, which rejects all forms of religious faith or worship. It means something that pertains to the present world or to things, which are not spiritual or sacred. In the Indian context, however, secularism means comprehensiveness in which all religions receive equal protection, treatment and respect, and in which there is place for every one whether he belongs to one religion or another or to no religion. Again, Indian secularism encourages us to approach everything, whether material or spiritual, with a sense of sacredness. In Indian secularism, there is freedom for the propagation of each religion without hindrance or bar and there is also the freedom to promote and propagate synthesis of religions. At the same time, Indian secularism insists on the promotion of moral and spiritual values, which are common to all religions and to no religion as also on the promotion of a synthesis of science and spirituality. Secularism so defined and understood is, thus, a very special value that is uniquely Indian.
f.There are several other Indian values, which require a special mention and which should find their right place in our educational system. The
sense of joy that is behind various festivals in India, which are shared by people of the country is something, which can be understood only when one enters into the heart and soul of Indian culture. The Indian idea of the rhythm of life and the law of harmony, expressed by the word "Dharma" is also uniquely Indian. Again, the value that we attach to the pursuit of knowledge to the pursuit of purity, to the pursuit of wisdom is something unique, in the sense that these things are valued most and they are cherished most, and on the call of which we are inspired to renounce everything. We feel that all this and many other values, which are uniquely, Indian should be encouraged and fostered.
g. It is noteworthy that the great Indian values, some of which we have mentioned above, became dynamically vibrant during the period of India's struggle for freedom. In fact, this period was marked by the rise of great men and women who embodied these values and enriched them. Again, it was during this period that these values guided and shaped great movements and events. Thus a study of our nationalist movement provides a perennial source of inspiration, and it should be a part of a programme of value-oriented education.
* * *
I. Stories, fairy tales, legends, myths, plays, poems, anecdotes, biographical or autobiographical episodes to illustrate:
i.The ideal of Truth: to speak the truth whatever the consequences; Truth in Thought; Truth in feeling; Truth in Action; Truth alone succeeds;
ii. Aspiration for Perfection: Whatever you do, do it as perfectly as you can;
Hi. Dream of the New World: Where truth alone prevails, where beauty and goodness pervade;
iv.Healthy mind in a healthy body;
v.To see the invisible and to hear the inaudible;
vi.The body as a temple of the Spirit;
vii.To work with the body is indispensable for the true koowledge and experiences;
viii.Concentration is the key to all progress;
ix.Quest of self-knowledge: stories of Shevataketu, Nachiketas, etc.
x.Goodwill at any cost;
xiii.Distinction between appearance and reality;
xiv.Intelligence in animals and birds;
xv.Consciousness in matter;
XVIII. Story of Arjuna at the beginning of the Mahabharata was to illustrate distinction between thought, will, emotion, impulse, sensation, perception, and functions of the body;
XIX. Pursuit of beauty;
XX. Pursuit of goodness;
XXI. Meaning of perfection;
XXII. Harmony of thought, word, feeling and action;
XXIII. Joy of company of Nature;
XXIV. Jot of peotry;
XXV. Joy of music;
XXVI. Joy of clarity of thought;
XXVIII. Power of will;
XXIX. Joy of Mathematics;
XXX. Learning from History; Yogic mastery over body, life and mind;
XXXI. Work, not to come first but to do one's very best;
XXXII. Do not criticise anybody unless you can do better than the one you want to criticise;
XXXIII. Cultivate in youself those qualities which you want others to cultivate;
XXXIV. Perception of one's defects with a sense of humour and without depression;
XXXV. To learn to speak only what is necessary;
XXXVI. Perils of laziness;
XXXVII.Changing and transformation of human nature;
XXXIX. Human helplessness;
XL. Dedicated community service;
XLII. Equality (samatva) in success and failure.
II.Lists of noble aspirations and thoughts:
ii.Important proverbs and sayings;
iii.Thought for today: A list;
iv.Memorable lines of poetry;
IV.Exercises for the Development of Sense of Wonder:
i.Examples form Astronomy: distance, vastness, galaxies, expanding universe;
ii.Examples from Physics: What is matter behind what we see and touch?
iii.Examples from Chemistry: What is water? Is it mere oxygen hydrogen or something more?
iv.Caterpillar and its mutation into butterfly;
v.Magic of words;
vi.Process of understanding;
vii.Mystery of the human body;
viii.Mystery of consciousness;
ix.Wonder of mental silence;
x.Wonder of rhythm;
xi.Wonder of Nature's beauty;
xii.Architectural wonders of the world;
xiii.Wonder and power of smile;
xiv.Wonder of flowers;
xv.Wonder of twinkling stars;
xvi.Wonder of time;
xvii.Wonder of space;
xviii.Wonder that is God.
THEORY AND PRACTICE
18-20 January, 2002
HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PRESENTATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS GIVEN IN THE
PRE-SEMINAR DISCUSSION HELD ON 5 JANUARY, 2001
1.1The Pre-Seminar Discussion on Philosophy of Value-Oriented Education was organized in the Conference Room of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR). Participants deliberated on
several issues related to the theme of the Seminar.
1.2The Pre-Seminar discussion was presided over by Shri Kireet Joshi, Chairman, ICPR. A list of participants is at Annexure I.
1.3The following papers were circulated to the participants:
(i)Literature and Value-Oriented Education. Some Talking Points— Section IV.
(ii)A List of Topics (in the context of Education in Human Values)— Annexure III.
1.4 Highlights of presentations and suggestions given in the Seminar are as follows.
II.Concept and Scope of Education in Human Values
2.1The concept 'value' may be described as an emotional attitude which motivates a person direcdy or indirectly to act in most desirable manner preferred by him/her. Value is a norm, an abiding standard.
Values are needed for peaceful co-existence and progress.
2.2The scope of the 'Value-Based Education' needs to be decided in the first instance. Such steps will facilitate preparation of relevant and need-based materials on Education in Human Values.
2.3 Efforts need to be made to make a list of desirable values. In order to formulate strategies for planning and operationalization of programmes for Education in Human Values, in the first instance the values may
be classified appropriately according to the objectives of the programme. For Example,
(i)Personal and social values;
(ii)Values to be inculcated at different stages of education (elementary, secondary and college education/higher education);
(iii)Values to be inculcated among teachers and other functionaries in Education Department and other concerned Departments.
III. Development of Framework and Materials
3.1India is a multi-religious, multi-cultural country. After Independece, various Education Commissions and Committees have given recommendations about education in human values. The Preamble to the Constitution, the fundamental duties enshrined in the Constitution and core values mentioned in the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 depict significant values. The recommendations of these commissions and committees etc., need to be analysed and synthesized in order to prepare and operationalize a Framework for Value-Oriented Education. The literature in different languages is a rich repository of Value-Oriented education material. A forum comprising educationists, literary persons, historians, artists, parents, etc. need to be created for developing the proposed Framework for Value-Oriented education.
3.2The values enshrined in the Constitution of India (Preamble, Fundamental duties, etc.) and universal values such as truth, righteous conduct, peace, love and non-violence need to be inculcated in the citizens meticulously, particularly for peaceful co-existence and progress.
3.3The material for Education in Human Values could be drawn carefully from the books of various religions as also from the rich literature available in different languages of the world. Values should be religion-free—is a misnomer.
3.4Several legendary books of Indian Literature like Upnishadas, Yoga Sutras, Buddhist texts, Charak Samhita, Shrimad Bhagvad Gita, etc.
have mentioned the desirable values and methods of their inculcation in human persons. These texts may, inter alia, be appropriately used for planning and operationalization of the programmes of Education in Human Values.
3.5Certain significant values like 'punctuality' and 'truth' need to be inculcated in the people. Merely mentioning such values through printed material may not have the desired effect. Practical tips need to be provided to teachers and students in this regard.
3.6Human Values know nothing of the sort such as caste, colour and creed. There is no need to politicize the programmes of Education in Human Values because such steps will be detrimental to the cause of national integration and world brotherhood.
3.7While 'Dignity of labour' is a value, discrimination in assigning tasks to boys and girls need to be avoided (e.g., girls to clean classrooms, utensils, etc.)
3.8Religion is deeply rooted in the inner psyche of human persons. It is most important cohesive force for the society. It is a significant issue for consideration as to how education about religions, particularly in the context of Education in Human Values, needs to be given to students. While taking care that sectarian education may not be given to students, it needs to be ensured that education about religions may be given to students in proper perspective.
3.9The goal of education is to shape the student as a good human being and as a useful member of the society. In this process, the student acquires knowledge, understanding and skills leading to habit/behaviour formation. Education should enable the student to acquire/ imbibe socially approved behaviour patterns/values.
3.10In the context of making a Framework for Education in Human Values, it may be ensured that such a framework may not simply include values of middle class people. The education of tribals, slum dwellers and other disadvantaged sections of the society should not be lost sight of. The values in the context of such clientele may inter alia include (i) getting them literate and (ii) developing in them the skills for survival. The globalization is inter alia damaging 'diversity'. The folklores, stories, etc., available in tribal cultures need to be preserved and used in the programmes meant for Education in Human Values.
IV.Implementation of the Programmes on Education in Human Values
4.1The personality of the teacher influences the students immensely. Besides parents, the teacher is the Role Model for students. In order to make the teacher a good role model, appropriate inputs for education in human values need to be provided through pre-service training and recurrent in-service training. The teachers may be required to de-learn obsolete values and re-learn good values. Among other things, the teachers should not indulge in habits such as smoking and drinking liquor.
4.2Besides the teacher (as a role model), good stories, anecdotes, etc., exert powerful influence on the students. The curricular and co-curricular educational materials may inter alia include good stories from which the students may draw and imbibe good values.
4.3The organizations responsible for the programmes of Education in Human Values must decide their target groups and take appropriate steps to convey to them effectively the desired messages. The progress of the programmes needs to be monitored and evaluated from time to time.
4.4Value oriented education need not be prescriptive. The student may be given liberty to analyse the materials related to value education and draw meanings out of these.
4.5Both print and non-print media need to be used in the context of the meticulously planned programme for education in human values.
4.6The influence of media by way of assault of dominant culture on the culture of small communities is discernible on the students and general public. The educational programmes, coupled with programmes of education in human values, should enable the citizens to live together peacfully.
V.Monitoring of Implementation
5.1 The success of educational programmes needs to be evaluated meticulously. The criteria for success may not simply include indicators such as acquisition of'information', 'knowledge' and 'skills' but also to see that the target groups become 'good human beings'. Such steps will arrest the trend of fragmentation of societies.
VI. General Observations, Comments and Suggestions
6.1The NCERT has developed a lot of print and non-print exemplar and resource material in the context of Education in Human Values. This organization has also developed material on value education for pre-service and in-service education of teachers. The materials related to education in human values developed by the NCERT, the National Open School (NOS) and certain other organizations need to be used meticulously in the context of operationliztion of the programme of Education in Human Values.
Among other things, the NCERT has developed the following in the context of the programmes of Education in Human Values.
(i)Annotated Bibliography of works of about 300 NGOs;
(ii)Directory of Institutions working for Value Education;
These have been put on the website of the NCERT.
The NCERT brings out a half yearly Journal of Value Education.
6.2The Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs) could be used as potential forums for discussion on matters/issues related to meaningful education, including education in human values. However, it has been observed that such forums are generally utilized for discussion on matters related to Board's examinations (e.g., solving problems with CBSE etc.)
6.3The universities and apex educational organizations may set up departments for Comparative Education in Religions.
6.4Instead of emphasizing 'unity in diversity', we may accept 'diversity in unity'.
6.5Some political decisions/initiatives of some state governments (e.g. supply of good quality liquor for poor people at low/subsidised price) may not be in consonance with the programmes related to Education in Human Values.
6.6Marriages in the same community are preferred in certain communities. Such practices are not desirable from the medical/genetic point of view.
VII. Suggested Issues for the Seminar
7.1 Some issues suggested for discussion/consideration in the Seminar on the Philosophy of Value-Oriented Education are as follows;
- Teacher as a Role Model for inculcation of values in students;
- Preparation of specific material of education in human values or it may be suitably weaved in the textual material;
- Methodology for planning and operationlization of the programme of Education in Human Values;
-Delineation of values (home, media, teacher);
-Print and non-print material for awareness generation in the context of Education in Human Values.
VIII. Concluding Session
8.1 At the request of the Chairperson, Dr. Indra Nath Choudhury presented an overview of the pre-seminar deliberations.
8.2 The programme ended with a vote of thanks to the Chair.
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LIST OF PARTICIPANTS IN PRE-SEMINAR ON
VALUE-ORIENTED EDUCATION (NATIONAL SEMINAR)
HELD ON 5TH JANUARY, 2002
1.Professor Indra Nath Choudhury
2.Shri Kadir Zaman
3.Professor R.M. Kalra
4.Shri N.K. Ambasht
5.Shri Chitwan Jaipuria
6.Ms. Anajali Jaipuria
7.Professor D.K. Bhattacharya
10.Ms. Sushil Kaur
11.Dr. Prakash Pattanaik
12.Dr. Ravi Prakash Tekchandani
13.Dr. Shashi Prabha Kumar
14.Mrs. Sarita Saraf
15.Shri Gauri Saraf
16.Professor D.N. Panigrahi
17.Shri M. Venkateswaran
19.Dr. Gautam Vohra
20.Professor Kapil Kapoor
21.Dr. Chandra Mohan
22.Dr. Kavita Sharma
23.Professor Rajendra Dengle
24.Dr. Bharati B. Jhaveri
25.Professor Sisir Kumar Das
26.Professor Vimala Veeraraghavan
27.Shri Sushil Kumar
28.Dr. Nirmal Kumar
29.Ms. Neelam IC Gulati
30.Dr. Arun Mishra
31.Professor Raghunath Sharma
32.Dr. Mercy Helan
33.Professor R.C. Pradhan
34.Professor Kireet Joshi
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