Philosophy of Value-Oriented Education -Theory and Practice - Annexure 2

Annexure 2


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As per programme, the inaugural address was to be delivered by Professor Murli Manohar Joshi, Hon'ble Union Minister of Human Resource Development, Science and Technology and Ocean Development. Due to some important work, the Hon'ble Minister could not attend the inaugural session. In a communication sent to ICPR, the Hon'ble Minister requested Professor Kireet Joshi, Chairperson, ICPR to read the inaugural address on his behalf.

Professor D. P. Chattopadhyaya, Chairman, Centre for Studies in Civilizations (CSC) chaired the inaugural session.

The programme began with ' Vande Matararri and ' Saraswati Vandana' presented by teachers and students from the Doon School, Ashok Vihar, Delhi.

Professor R.C. Pradhan, Member-Secretary, ICPR welcomed the Chief Guest and the delegates to the seminar.

The Chairman, professor D.P. Chattopadhyaya, requested Professor Kireet Joshi to read out the inaugural address of Professor Murli Manohar Joshi, Hon'ble Union Minister of Human Resource Development. Thereafter Professor Joshi read out the inaugural address.


The address begins with the pregnant paradox stated in the Kenopanisad, which is directly relevant to all philosophers, scientists, educationists and other seekers of knowledge:

yasyamatam tasya matam matam yasya na veda sah/

avijhatam vijanatam vijnatamavijanatam//

—Kenopanisad 2.3

'He by whom, It is not thought out, has the thought of It; he by whom, It is thought out, knows, It not. It is unknown to the discernment of those who discern of It, by those who seek not to discern of It, it is discerned'.

This paradoxical statement deserves deep reflection and contemplation, since it contains the secret of the culminating point of the ontology of Being, epistemology of Object, and axiology of Value, which are the essential subjects of the extremely important Seminar.

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Highlights of the address of the Hon'ble Union Minister are as follows:

* Education is intrinsically and by definition Value-Oriented. To speak, therefore, of Value-Oriented Education is, in a sense, tautologous. In fact, education is a subset of a larger setting of culture, and culture consists of cultivation of faculties and powers pertaining to reason, ethics and aesthetics in the light of the pursuit of Values of Truth, Beauty and Goodness (satyam, shivam, sundaram). Culture also consists of infusing the influences of this pursuit into physical and vital impulses, so as to refine them and sublimate them to the highest possible degrees, and to transmit the resultant fund of experience through various modes of expression, including those of poetry, music, dance, drama, art, architecture, and craft. The basic thrust of culture and education is inevitably Value-Oriented.

* Since the 18th century, and even before that, there came about the decline of intellectual activity and freedom, the waning of great ideals, the loss of the gust of life, and, even in the moral and spiritual life, the rise of excessive ritualism. Public life began to become more and more irreligious, egoistic, and self-seeking. This entire process became accentuated by three factors, which can be summed up in terms of influences emerging from Macaulay, Materialism and Mercantile barbarism. Macaulay had explicitly stated the purpose of the education system that was introduced under his initiative by the British in India, namely, to create a class Indian blood and colour but English in taste, in opinion, in morals and intellect' who would be interpreters between the British and the teeming millions that they ruled. Unfortunately, the scheme of education that was introduced has even now continued to persist with peripheral modifications.

-It eliminated the study of poetry music and art, which constitutes perfect education of the soul;

-It eliminated the study of philosophy, dharma and spiritual knowledge—three elements, which are the supreme components of the Indian heritage;

-While it introduced some elements of world history and world geography and modern science, it presented the dominant British view of history and disturbed the Indian view of science, which always looked upon scientific inquiry as a part of the holistic quest

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in which Science, Philosophy and Yoga had a sound system of interrelationship;

-It omitted altogether physical education and skills of art and crafts and others related to science of living, which were kept alive in India through the ages;

-What has been lost in terms of pedagogy and richness of contents of knowledge and skills has still not been remedied, and urgent steps are necessary to review the entire scheme so that we can provide to

our students a genuine national system of education, which is at the same time open to the benefits of modern knowledge and modern ideals of progress towards Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.

* Macaulayan scheme of education does not provide the kind of scientific rigour, which is manifested in the Indian history of scientific knowledge; nor does it promote that avenue of inquiry by which the limitations of materialism can be understood and overcome.

* The issues that confront us relate not only to promote education widely and universally, but also what kind of education, so that India can recover her true spirit and it is empowered to stand out in the world as a leader of the future, in spirituality and science, in philosophy and art and in all fields of professions and occupations so as to be opulent and prosperous capable of fostering universal culture of peace, harmony and world-unity. For this aim to be fulfilled, we need to liberate our educational system from the Macaulayan mould, we need to deal with materialism both scientifically and philosophically, as also morally and spiritually, and we need to combat forces of barbarism, ignorance and division so as to inspire among the youth a burning quest for wisdom and courage, for excellence in works and skills, and for universality and all that contributes to individual and collective perfection.

* One of the best means of achieving these goals is the task that we have begun earnestly during the last few years—the task of Value-Oriented Education.

* We must first take into account the fact that during the freedom struggle, five greatest leaders of modern India, who were also educationists, challenged the British system of education and developed powerful philosophies of education so as to provide to the students not only the lessons of the Indian heritage but also to prepare them for the future greatness of India.

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-Maharshi Dayananda Saraswati inspired the Gurukula system of education and underlined the great role of the teacher in uplifting the talent and character of the pupil.

-Swami Vivekananda spoke of man-making education. Accepting Vedantic knowledge as the base, and acknowledging the truth of every religion and a synthesis of yoga, he opened the gates of the future before

the youths, filling them with a new spirit of inspiration, heroism and dynamic action.

-Mahatma Gandhi emphasized the training of the Hand, Heart and Head, overarched by the values of Truth, Non-Violence, Self-Control, Non-Covetousness and Renunciation, as also equal respect towards

all religions and life of simplicity that aims at reconstruction and reform of rural, social, and political organization based on equality, empowerment of the weak and the oppressed, decentralization and brotherhood.

-Gurudev Rabindra Nath Tagore established at Shantiniketan an experimental institution for a new aim and mode of education where the beauty and sublimity of Nature can serve as a living partner of teaching

and learning and where the values of poetry, music and art can vibrate in the rhythms of life of the development of personality and mingling of cultures of Asia and of the world that would promote internationalism

and world-citizenship, and universal fraternity that transcends all divisions of race and religion in the Religion of Man. And there arose also the Nationalist call of 'Vande Mataram' that gave birth to the movement

of the National System of Education with the aim of recreating the ancient Indian Spirit that was at once spiritual, intellectual, scientific, artistic and productive.

-Sri Aurobindo formulated the philosophy of education to embody the light and power of the Synthesis of Yoga and a programme of integral transformation of human life on the earth that would lead the evolution

of Nature into the birth of a new humanity and super-humanity.

* Besides these bold initiatives and experiments, we have here a great fund of educational research that can guide us in the tasks of value-oriented education and of the entire transformation of our educational systems.

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* We have also a favourable climate being created by some of the progressive experiments in the West, such as those promoted by Pestalozzi, Montessori, Bertrand Russell and others; the trend is towards child-centered education, and the basic idea is that the individual is not merely a social unit, but a soul, a being, who has to fulfil his own individual truth and law as well as his natural or his assigned part in the truth and law of the collective existence.

* The UNESCO's Reports: 'Learning to Be' brought out in 1971 and 'Learning: Treasure Within' brought out in 1996 have underlined education for values of international understanding, peace and integral development of personality. Emphasis on Complete Education for the Complete Human Being and on four pillars of learning, viz., Learning to Know, Learning to Do, Learning to Live with Others, and Learning to Be points to the need for a radical paradigm shift impelling all-round reforms in aims, contents and methods of education, as also of the system of examination, evaluation and certification.

* In the wide sweep of values, which are incontrovertibly admitted universally are those contained in the Declaration of Human Rights as also those in the Declaration of Human Responsibilities. Nearer home, we have also a remarkable and unique declaration in our own Constitution under Article 51A of Fundamental Duties, which if implemented in full—as we have resolved to do—we shall have secure guidance as to what values we have to promote in our educational system, so that all citizens can be empowered to fulfil their duties.

* Contemporary explosion of information and increasing spread of sophisticated information technology have brought forth deeper issues of education and educational methodology, in the context of which value-oriented education assumes wider dimensions. Not only open system of education can now become very effective, but it will also open new channels of communication of the message of value-oriented education, since they can be at once adapted to the needs of the individual and of groups and masses.

* At the stage at which we stand today, the recent advances in the field of knowledge provide us sounder foundations for the philosophy of value and philosophy of Value-Oriented Education. Already great scientists and philosophers of science have begun to acknowledge the need to bridge the gulf between science and value, just as there is a

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need to bridge the gulf between art and value. It is recognized that the development of science should be supplemented by enormous development of the value of human kindness.

*The programme of Value-Oriented Education should emphasize the relationship between Science and Value. In our presentation of values, we do not need to be prescriptive; we should encourage methods of explorations. As we explore deeper and deeper, we shall find that there are values, which are relative and subjective; but we shall also find that there is in us dimension of value and that this is an undeniable objective fact.

The Chairman invited Professor Rajendra Prasad to deliver the Keynote Address. In his address, Professor Prasad presented a modest proposal for restoring education its natural role of value education. Highlights of the address of Professor Rajendra Prasad are as follows:

*Any educational process essentially leads to the inculcation of some values or disvalues by the educatee who goes through it. If the educatee is cooperative and participative in the process and the conductors of the process conduct it with the seriousness and sincerity the norms set for it require, the process will be a success and will instill in the educatee some of the basic values he needs in order to live well as a person and as a member of his society. On the other hand, for some reason or the other, if the educatee is non-cooperative or non-participative in the process, or the process is ill conducted, it will be failure. It will then instill in the educatee, and through him in the larger society he belongs to, a number of highly pernicious disvalues.

*Both formal, and informal education (imparted in an individual's family and social setting) is value inculcating. The two are very closely related to each other. Each one of them can be supportive or obstructive of the others, depending on its own and the other's characters. This will require toning up the functioning of formal institutions as well as changing the values-attitudes of a large number of parents, guardians, and many others. That would amount to preparing the social or societal background, or ground, for the proper appreciation of the value of value-inculcating role of education and for enabling the latter to perform the role in the manner it can when left to flower up in a natural way.

*In order to see how a set of values is ingrained in the very process of

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educational practice conducted in a formally organized institution, say, a school, we need to have a comprehensive view of its major components, viz., (i) objectives, (ii) content, (iii) recipients, (iv) social reality, (v) method, (vi) infrastructure, and (vii) achievement of objectives through normal routine. Some significant strategies to achieve these objectives include:

- Let the educatee imbibe the education offered to him and develop his natural potentialities in a free and tensionless but constructive and disciplined manner.

- The subject matter has to be chosen with an eye on the objectives. But there has to be some flexibility in selecting the various components of the subject-matter in order to suit the socio-cultural and environmental background and imbibing potentialities of the educatee participating in the process.

- The content of any educational programme needs to be selected and presented in such a manner that the educatee turns out to be a bright, well-shaped object of great beauty.

- Since the recipients are individuals with a socio-cultural background, the social (including cultural) reality in which they live, or are likely to live after getting their education, have to be seriously taken note of

in planning an educational programme.

-While designing teaching-learning strategies, the teacher should treat the educatee as respectable, responsive individual having his self-dignity and such stock of potentialities waiting to be helped to flower up.

-The infrastructure of any educational programme includes the resources, human and material, necessary to enable the programme to be conducted satisfactorily and successfully.

-A school has to run according to a discipline applicable to all concerned. If the discipline is enforced in a fair manner and is generally observed, even resentment against injustice is not likely to assume an ugly

form. Moreover, observance of discipline generates a habit of rule-following which is a necessary condition of civilized life.

-Values such as punctuality, equality, sense of justice, awareness of

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rights, respect for discipline, expression of resentment against injustice in a disciplined manner, interest in the pursuit of knowledge, etc., are ingrained in the very nature of an educational practice conducted in a normal, routine manner, provided, of course, that each segment of it performs its routine honestly and tothe best of its ability. The latter is a big proviso but it is a proviso for any practice.

Professor Rajendra Prasad concluded his keynote address with the following words of the Mother of Sri Aurobindo Ashram:

Do not pretend - be

Do not promise - act

Do not dream - realize

The focus of the address of Shri M.K. Kaw, former secretary to the Government of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development was on the foundations of value-oriented education

Against the above agreement Shri Kaw stressed the need of clarity in understanding why we need value education in today's world. We have to begin by confessing that value education would not help a young man of today to be more successful, if success is assessed purely in terms of his ruthlessness in the pursuit of personal goals. In fact, we should accept that the violent, non-compassionate, totally mercenary and single-pointed chase of the glittering prizes of worldly life does not need any values. It is basic to the primitive, primordial man with his highly egoistical, animal instincts.

Some other points mentioned by Shri Kaw in his address are as follows:

* Value education is not required if we are complacently happy about today's world and judge progress only in terms of bigger and more profitable versions of what we already have.

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*A moment's consideration would show that values, which stem from secular sources like the Constitution of a country or the Renaissance or the French Revolution or the Communist Revolution or the Internet Revolution are transient and temporary, and change with the times. The only values that have stood the test of time and are held dear by most people around the world are the ones that emanate from the great spiritual traditions.

*It is important that value education be seen in its real form as the vehicle by which the rich spiritual traditions of humanity are restated, reinterpreted and reformulated for each succeeding generation of human beings. Value education cannot be secular alone. It has to be spiritual in the larger sense of the word that encompasses both the sacred and the secular.

*The Theory of Everything, which scientists seek in vain, can never be grasped by natural scientists working alone. Philosophy has to wear the mantle of holistic, integrated thinking and give to a benighted world a modern, universally acceptable philosophy of living.

*If right thinking people, professing different faiths sit together in an atmosphere of mutual trust, with the one-point agenda that they have to write down a common spiritual code for humanity based on the original teachings of all the great world teachers, the task is not unachievable.

In his address, Shri Siraj Hussain, Vice-Chancellor, Jamia Hamdard reflected on 'Value of Education in Universities', particularly highlighting the experience of the Jamia Hamdard. Highlights of the presentation of Shri Siraj Hussain are as follows:

*It is a tribute to the accommodating spirit of Indian ethos that Islam that came from Arabia did not remain a 'foreign' religion and developed a unique Indian flavour, which may not appeal to some puritans but inspires common Indian Muslims immensely. This unique intermingling of Hinduism and Islam led to the development of Bhaktii and Tasawwuf, which have affected the hearts and minds of millions of Indians in the last few centuries. This intermingling has also been reflected in art and architecture, music and paintings, poetry and philosophy and in almost all walks of human life.'

*Introduction of value education as a subject in universities and institutions

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of higher education has been a subject of intense debate in the last two years. Several institutions have already initiated modules on value education.

* Jamia Hamdard has also initiated a course on value education. Since Jamia Hamdard offers mainly professional courses and its students are very busy in attending theory and practical classes, it decided to follow the seminar mode for value education. In these seminars, the university invites eminent personalities for lectures and interaction with the students.

* Jamia Hamdard realizes the importance of dialogue between students of different faiths. It understands the desirability of continuous effort to gain knowledge about each other's faith and philosophy of life. The University wants its students to realize that there is a common thread that joins different beads representing different religions.

* The most important value in ancient India, in the words of Professor Humayun Kabir, was 'liberation of individual from bondage of evil.' It was believed that education will achieve freedom from ignorance. Since evil was thought to originate from ignorance, it was rightly believed that education will ensure man's emancipation from it. Intense questioning of teachers on all aspects of human life was the high point of educational methodology. Nothing was sacrosanct; everything could be questioned. It is a pity that this freedom to acquire knowledge and ask questions was not available to all sections of society; and over a period of time, learning by submission to authority became the dominant norm. Also acquisition of knowledge was denied to large sections of population whose intellectual deterioration was thus a forgone conclusion. It is only in the modern age, specially after the country's independence that these sections of our population have taken to acquiring knowledge and it is our earnest hope that this will lead to their educational renaissance.

In the ongoing debate on the desirability of introducing value education in universities, and professional institutions, it may be stated that there's a broad consensus about the need of imparting common moral values to our young generations, so as to enable our young men and

castiest, communal, regional and linguistic barriers which have been the bane of Indian society for a long time.

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*There is also a near consensus for a comprehensive approach to value education rather than a fragmented approach under which a variety of topics are discussed without a common thread joining them.

*The universality of values should become a source of strength for mankind. Also this should become a part and parcel of higher education as well as guiding principle for our life and a beacon for our youth so that they become capable of creating a balance between materialism and spirituality.

Professor D.P. Chattopadhyaya thanked the speakers of the inaugural session for their thought provoking presentations.

While giving Chairperson's remarks, Professor Chattopadhyaya highlighted the following:

*Learning and education are ajourney from the darkness to light, from the ephemeral to the durable, from the perishable to the imperishable. Learning is elucidative, evocative and inspirational.Education is enlightenment, attainment and accomplishment. Education is edification, much more than erudition. Learning is a delightful adventure into the world of ideas and ideals. Learning is an elevating process of self-transformation. The learned is enlightened in thought and action, in attitude and disposition, full of love for all, every thing and being of this seamless universe.

*Mulya, which is ordinarily said to be value in English language, is, literally speaking, what is to be obtained from mula, root, or source. Broadly speaking, while Science, in general, or Physics, in particular, is concerned with the world of things, Ethics (dharma) is, linguistically trace able to Greek ethikos (time-tested) custom, Sanskrit svadha essential indwelling or self) and concerned with beings. But thing/being discourse in English language smacks of a kind of dualism, as if suggesting that the world of thing is perhaps devoid of value. But if one enters into the heart of discourse via the Sanskrit-rooted languages, one easily realizes that this dualism is false and that the root (mula) of both thing and being is identical.

*The theory of moral education is teleological or purpose-oriented and spontaneous, i.e., characterized by a process, which is internally impelled and without external compulsion. Human beings become learnes and can continue to learn due to their very native inclinations

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and motivations (vrttis and pravrttis). They do not need external or unnatural intervention from without. This spontaneous theory of learning emphasizes the necessity of allowing all learners, in general, and children, in particular, to follow their own natural light or tendency. Negatively speaking, this view strongly discourages unnecessary or excessive institutional intervention in the process of learning. Too much of rules and regulations, social do's and don'ts, tend to impede, rather than encourage, the natural educational development of the children.

*Neither innate universalism nor institutional guidance in isolation seems to be able to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for ideal education or learning. But their combined contribution, it is argued, can possibly ensure the best way of learning.

*The received approach of value-education both in India and the west has been influenced by the consideration of desacar and lokariti, customs and uses of the country, and the norms and the virtues accepted by the people. In the Western tradition there are two main types of approach to values in general, and value-education, in particular. While one tradition is basically concerned with different norms or ideals of moral action, the other attaches more importance to the virtues of human life and the ways in which those virtues can be attained.

*Virtues cannot be attained without following some rules and regulations, which are basically character. The moral question of the relation between ends and means comes up here. Can end, morally speaking, justify means? The limits of pragmatism are to be recalled.

*The highest recognized values are satyam, sivam and sundaram. Satya stands for true, real, actual and genuine, sincere, honest, truthful, faithful, virtuous, good, successful, valid and their cognates. Clearly these nominal or abjectival forms of satya are value-impregnated. Siva means the Good in whom all things he. It connotes auspicious, propitious, gracious, favourable, benign, kind, benevolent, friendly, dear, happy and fortunate. Sundara connotes beautiful, handsome, lovely, charming, agreeable and noble.

*The highest values are not the only human values. There are many

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other secondary and tertiary values, which are reviewable under the above values. Dhana (deserved money, property or prize), yasa (honour, glory and renown), mana or sammana, fame, and khyati (opinion, view, declaration and assertion) are among the worldly values.

*Other very important human values are (i) knowledge, (ii) right conduct, (iii) goodwill, (iv) sacrifice, (v) self-effacement and (vi) self-control. All these values have two sides, substantive and instrumental. Value-in-use or value-in-exchange, generally speaking, pre-suppose the existence of values in their own right.

*Values in Education and Learning. Learning is itself a value. Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge, skill, valued dispositions etc., from the learner's point of view. Education is the word often used from the teacher's or educator's standpoint. Rightly speaking, one cannot be good teacher or educator unless one oneself is a perpetual learner. Openness to learning, learning new things, new ideas, etc., is a sign of good teacher. If the teacher always arrogates to himself the position or status of a teacher forgetting that he is also, perhaps more so, a learner, he cannot attain highest excellence in his practice.

*The best way of both teaching and learning is to be intimately familiar with the lives of great teachers, researchers and learners. Those who prove good learners in their life time prove to be great teachers of the humankind.

*Introducing themselves as learners, the good teachers succeed in presenting convincingly to the students the life stories of great persons in their concreteness. The method of teaching by citing examples turns out to be very efficacious.

While concluding his address, Professor D.P. Chattopadhyaya mentioned about some great souls who influenced immensely their disciples or general public. These inter alia include Nachiketa, Aristotle, Sant Gyaneswar, John Stuart Mill and Gandhiji.

Professor D.P.Chattopadhyaya requested Professor Kireetjoshi to speak a few words about the structure of the National Seminar on Philosophy of Value-Oriented Education.

Professor Kireet Joshi informed that first day of the seminar was to be devoted to the Educational Philosophies. The second day of the seminar would

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be devoted to the practices related to philosophy of Value-Oriented Education in various parts of the country. The third day of the seminar would be devoted to a new theme under which contribution of literature to Value-Oriented Education would be deliberated. The contribution of literature, such as stories, dramas and poems with regard to inculcation of values is immense. Inspiring passages from the literature impress the hearts of learners very much.

Professor Kireetjoshi mentioned that Upanisads could be termed a highly value-oriented literature. He also mentioned that the book titled 'Nai Nai Kahaniyan, brought out by NCERT depicts good human values. It would be beneficial to collect the fund of knowledge from the great literature available in India and elsewhere.

Professor D. P. Chattopadhyaya released the following books published by the Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, Shimla:

1. Where Morals and Mountain Gods Meet: Society and Culture in Himachal Pradesh, edited by Laxman S. Thakur.

2. Basic Objects: Case Studies in Theoretical Primitives, edited by Monima Chadha and Ajay K. Raina.

3. India's Tibetan Connection: Retrospect and Prospect by L. L. Mehrotra. Journal: Summer Hills: II AS Review, Winter Issue.

* * *

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18 January ,2002


Theme : Macaulay's Minutes, English Education and its Impact

Chairperson: Shri D.K Manavalan

Speaker: Shri R.C. Tripathi

*The paper describes precisely how the colonial value system was imposed on Indians through the education system. But was initiated and developed in the light of Macaulay's minutes on education. Through the medium of English language, education was provided to select few who were expected to imitate and imbibe the values of their colonial masters and percolate them down below. They were to be interpreters of western culture in India.

*According to Macaulay, western knowledge was superior to Indian traditional learning in terms of its content and cultural context.

*With a view to creating a social class which would be loyal to British rule, the promoters of western learning decried India's traditional sources of knowledge declaring that a single shelf of books of a western library was enough to drown the entire knowledge contained in Sanskrit and Arabic. Such a denunciation of the cultural, liberal and philosophical heritage of India was destined to create a sense of inferiority and lack of self-respect among Indians so that they would look at the British rulers with fear and awe.

The paper inter alia includes in its Annexure Macaulay's Minutes (February 1935), and extracts from the Charter Act of 1813.

Highlights of deliberations, observations and suggestions

*The encouragement of western value system through government's educational policy weakened the sources of traditional learning since they were devoid of state patronage and consequently starved of funds.

*The traditional value system and wisdom were lost in the mire of western impact. The social and cultural system of India was adversely affected since the foreign source of knowledge through foreign language could not promote originality and creativity among the learners. Only education through the mother tongue of Indians could lead to promotion of desirable aims and objects of learning having potential to create rational, spiritual and patriotic Indians and their all round development.

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* The ills of Macaulay's system of education should be discarded without discarding English and our own value-system should be imparted in our language.

The Chairman expressed his views that Hindi as well as regional languages of India needed to be prompted. Hindi may be learned by non-Hindi people and regional languages may be learned by the Hindi knowing people.

Sessions II, II

Theme: Educational Philosophies of the leaders of the

Renascent India.

Session II

Chairperson: Professor R.C. Pradhan

Session III

Chairperson: Shri K.S. Sarma

papers presented in sessions ii, iii

Paper I: Educational Philosophy of Maharashi Dayanand Saraswati

Speaker: Professor Jaidev Vedalankar

Paper II: Educational Philosophy of Swami Vivekananda

Speaker: Shri Sunil Kumar

Paper III: Gandhian Values in Education

Speaker: Professor Ramjee Singh

Paper IV: Educational Philosophy of Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore

Speaker: Professor Sisir Kumar Das

Paper V: Educational Philosophy of Sri Aurobindo

Speaker: Ms. Deepti

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19 January, 2002

Session IV

Theme: Mission of Value-Oriented Education

Chairperson: Professor Hari Gautam

Chairman, University Grants Commission

Professor Kireetjoshi, Chairman, ICPR welcomed Professor Hari Gautam and the speakers of the session. Professor Joshi lauded the reforms being undertaken by Professor Hari Gautam in the field of higher education that are based on his experience and vision about the system. He introduced the other speakers also who are holding significant positions in the education system of India.

In his opening remarks, Professor Hari Gautam emphasized the need of education in human values, particularly at the present juncture when the society was passing through the crisis of values. He hoped that the seminar would provide appropriate suggestions for a framework for implementing value-oriented education. The Chairman invited the speakers to present their views:


Paper VI: Value Education Initiatives of NCERT and its Future Vision

Speaker: Professor J.S. Rajput

*During last forty years, NCERT and its constituent units have contributed in promoting quality and standard of school education in the country. It has helped in building capacity of state-level resource institutions and developed partnership and linkages with state departments of education, state level resource institutions through inputs like development of curriculum and instructional materials, training, research, survey, extension, innovation, experimentation, documentation and dissemination.

*Promotion of value-oriented education system is one of the important tasks of NCERT. The National Curriculum Framework for School Education (2000) has highlighted the core values. It has also outlined approach to value education interventions in support of value education and need to internalize the components of value inculcation in the detailed curriculum at different stages.

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*Setting up of the National Resource Centre of Value Education and the Reference Library, networking with Institutions/NGO's, launching of the Journal of Value Education, revival of Community Singing programme and Institutional Appraisal and coordination of Value Education activities of prominent NGO's are some of the significant initiatives of the NCERT.

*Teacher Training initiatives include integration of value education issues in in-service and pre-service teacher education programmes at all levels.

*Research initiatives in the area of value education include promotion of sponsored research in the area of value education.

*The NCERT has visualized its programme of Education in Human Values as per the spirit of the Constitution of India, the National Policy on Education, recommendations of various Commissions/Committees on Education, the National Curriculum Framework, the Fundamental Duties enshrined in the constitution, and the Human Rights enunciated by the United Nations.

*Children must be made aware of all the religions. Value education is being integrated in the instructional materials and the teacher training programmes.

The event of 11 September, 2001 (when terrorists blew up the World Trade Centre twin towers in USA) has changed the world scenario. The need for peaceful co-existence is now being felt intensely. The world is moving to become a global village.

* Under the value education programme, the NCERT is working on the promise that every teacher is a carrier of values.

PaperVII: Value Orientation in Teacher Education

Speaker: Professor A.N. Maheshwari

*In spite of the recommendations of the several commissions on education that education in human values should be made an integral part of the curriculum, it is hardly visible in the State's schools, perhaps, because of lurking suspicion that value education might be used for religious education.

*India is multi-religious country and comprises of multicultural societies. The constitution of the Republic of India is based on the concept

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of secularism. Therefore, it is imperative to distinguish value education from religious education or even education about religions.

* If the teacher is personally committed to the values and practises them in his/her own life, it is a foregone conclusion that his/her students will imbibe the values for which teacher stands. Therefore, if values have to be nurtured in children it would be crucial that their teachers function as role models.

* For helping teachers in internalising values that should be developed in children through the schooling process, making education in human values an integral part of the curriculum of teacher education will be necessary.

* What is now required is to use the instrument of pre-service teacher education for ensuring that entrant teachers understand holistically the concept of education in human values, and are able to use direct and indirect techniques in formal and informal education for the development of values through the schooling process.

* There are two challenges that may have to be faced while providing value orientation to teacher education—stability and change. Stability demands preservation of culture and change demands technology. The National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) is developing resource material on indigenous thoughts on education and promotion of use of information and communication technologies in school education through teachers.

* The NCTE has been conducting orientation programmes on education in human values for teacher educators and repackaging electronically the contributions of the experts and those of the participants. The outcomes of its programmes are distributed to each of its recognized institutions on multimedia CD-ROMs and through the World Wide Web of the Internet.

Paper VIII: Value Education in Schools: Concerns and

Emerging Perspectives

Speaker: Shri Ashok Ganguly

* The stress should on all-round development of mind, body and soul. There should be perfect synchronization of academic excellence, physical excellence and human excellence. The first step to begin with

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is naturally through schools. It is necessary that every child be allowed to grow in self-reliance and self-purification. * The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has always consideredvalue education as a priority area, which should be fine-tuned with various aspects of learning both directly and indirectly. The Board has always facilitated the schools to implement value education in all the activities—scholastic as well as co-scholastic. * The curricular approach provided needed inputs for bringing out the values both directly and as a part of hidden curriculum. Emphasis was laid on various activities, which could facilitate the learner to access these values with ease and facility. These activities include:

i.Dramatics and Mono Acting

ii.Music and Dance

iii.Fine Arts and Liberal Arts

iv.Group Work and Discussions

v.Assembly Activities

vi.Co-scholastic Activities

vii.Physical Education and Sports

viii.Yoga and Meditation

*The Central Board of Secondary Education wants to ensure implementation of Value Education programme through interdisciplinary approach across all curricular areas.

*The Board has introduced the system of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation from March 2000 in which all the students at the secondary level would carry the Certificate issued by the school in a format designed by the Board along with the documents issued by it for the public examinations. The focus is not to evaluate the child only in cognitive domain but it must also include the affective domain.

Paper IX: Value Education: A Sociological Perspective

Speaker: Professor N.K. Ambasht

*Value may be defined as a ' set of socially approved behaviours, whether practised or cherished' Values can be of different dimensions and are referential to the context.

*Much of the Universal values emanate from two major sources— common features of all religions, such as love, universal brotherhood

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etc., and various charters of world bodies like the United Nations such as Charter of Human Rights to which almost all nations are signatories.

* In countries, like India, where various religious groups, communities, linguistic groups, tribes, geographical variations abound, values are varied and at times conflicting. The resolution of such conflicts is a matter of concern to the country at large. The conflicts arising out of contradictory values often lead to tensions.

* Values get intrinsically intertwined with education and the two cannot be separated. If we accept that it is education that shapes a man, then it becomes an attendant corollary that education inculcates values. The genesis of values, since it involves the codes of behaviour patterns, is often religion oriented as the religions necessarily concern themselves with code of behaviour and conduct.

* Education in single religion societies has to face lesser challenges than in multi-religious societies. The task is complicated by lack of understanding of these sociological factors that should go into the curriculum designing, planning and transaction processes. Simple inclusion of certain information in the textual materials is not sufficient to inculcate values. Transactional processes assume greater importance as values need to be practised again and again so as to become a part of spontaneous response system to a given stimulus or set of stimuli. That is why it is often said that values cannot be taught but are caught.

* In the curriculum objectives, values are the ultimate end of all educational endeavours. As such the role of education can be considered at two levels: 'conscientisation' level and 'assimilation into practice' level. Any material that is not related to the culture of learners is not suitable as it does not take the socio-cultural experiences of the child into account.

* Religion, being a source of socially approved norms of behaviour, should be acknowledged as a storehouse of resource for educational materials, both textual as well as behavioural.

* The secret of teaching values is to inspire and kindle quest among students by means of ones examples and mastery of knowledge. It is by embodying within us ourselves that we can radiate values to our students. Value orientation should not be conceived as an encounter of series of do's and don'ts.

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*The teacher makes the maximum imprint on the personality of the child after the parents. It follows that any effort to inculcate values among the children must follow the path via (a) parents, and (b) teachers.

*The task of value inculcation must begin with the behaviour modification of the teacher. The teacher must be the embodiment of all the values that we want to inculcate and perpetuate among the young learners.

Suggested Framework for Education in Human Values

i.Make teacher education, particularly primary teacher training programme a five-year programme.

ii.Make it a kind of indoctrination programme that develops a version to all socially undesirable behaviours.

iii.Make such programmes that lead to delearning of the values acquired earlier-cleaning of the slate process.

iv.Develop rigourous behaviour modification programme, full of practice, observation, and correctional activities in stimulus-response situations.

v.Empower them to withstand the undesirable temptations or behaviours.

vi.Make teaching a very paying profession so that usual temptations can be withstood and that she is able to maintain reasonably good and descent standard of living.

vii.Such programmes need to be recurrent in nature.

Paper X: The Emergence of Value Education in the

Institutes of Higher Learning

Speaker: Professor B.P. Khandelwal

* Values which formed an integral part of India's rich heritage have been receding into the dark. Every need is felt to revive the most significant value patterns that are indispensable part of our lives. The attractions of the western world have been changing the ideologies of our children. They are not aware of the richness of inherited traditions of our country, which stand on the strong foundations of values our ancestral possessed.

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*The world value as understood in the context of educational philosophy refers to those desirable ideals and goals that are intrinsic to themselves and, which when achieved or attempted evoke a deep sense of fulfillment.

*In the words of Sri Satya Sai Baba, 'Education is for man-making, nation building and promotion of peaceful world order'. The man making includes a five fold aspects of personality growth which are at the mental, physical, emotional, psychic and spiritual levels; and include the human values of truth, righteous conduct, peace, love and nonviolence.

*The first objective of higher education should be to turn out integrated personalities with noble ideals. The university campus should stress on

*This calls for an effective designing, programming and implementation of value education characteristics entwined into the learning processes taking place in the college and university campus.

The execution of value orientation in higher education requires a well chalked out planned actions and strategies. These are as follows:

i.Organizational arrangement for Planning and Monitoring.

ii.Intertwining of Value Education in Co-Curricular Activities: Formal or Informal, Direct or Indirect Courses.

iii.Encouraging Development Empirical Research.

Paper XI: Concept and Objectives of Value Education

Speaker: Dr. A.R. Seetharam

*Value Education, as it is generally used, refers to a wide gamut of learning and activities ranging from training in physical health, mental hygiene, etiquette and manners, appropriate social behaviour, civic rights and duties to aesthetic and even religious training.

*A civilized individual must possess certain minimum social skills. He has to establish decent relationship with people with whom he may come across for a short while or for a long duration.

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*Planners of value education curriculum then are faced with the problems of identifying values and character traits that will best equip the individual to take to his place in. modern society. The objectives of value education should be such that the curriculum should recognize the tensions that are brought about by the conflicts between tradition and change.

*Value education programmes for separate religious groups may lead to religious, cultural, social and political prejudice that in pluralist societies may disrupt national unity. In countries with a secular education system, the government should consider the contribution, which religions can make in developing an effective value education programme. It is believed that a good value education programme can be developed without relying on religion. At the same time, common teachings of all religions can be used to reinforce values and also teach religious tolerance and understanding to children.

*It should be an important objective of value education to make children aware of the fact that the whole world is now a community of interdependent nations and survival and well-being of the people of the world depends on mutual co-operation.

*To be educated in the real sense of the term is to be able to think right, to feel the right kind of emotions and to act in the desirable manner. Objectives of value education should therefore be concerned with all the three phases of personality development as they relate to the right kind of behaviour.

*Value education cannot be circumscribed by text-book material but should be left to the initiative and inspiration of the teachers. However, there are a few ways in which value education can be imported.

- Social and ethical values, examples from day-to-day situations, extracts from sayings of great men, incidents and problems, which develop value judgement among pupils, dramas, dialogues, simple poems (Kavya Vachana) and scriptures from world religions could form the major part of the content along with the biographies of great men.

- Personal, neighbourly and community values should be taught in the classroom and thoroughly discussed with the students.

- A variety of learning resources can be used for value education ranging from biographies, scriptures, proverbs, hymns and sayings

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of great men to current social and political events, stories from religion and mythology, moral dilemmas and schools events.

- Yoga and other activities that develop self-discipline among students could be included.

- Group activities like cleaning the school camps, visiting slums, service campus, visits to hospitals, visits to places of worship of different faiths should form part of content in value education. Discourses on the lives of spiritual leaders can bring out values like self-sacrifice, collective happiness, love for truth and ultimate values of life for which the great leaders lived.

- 'Personality Development Retreat' could be held to enable the students develop self-control, punctuality, sharing and caring respect for other faiths, cooperation and the values of silence (inner peace).

- Prayer, meditation and' Shramadan' could form part of the content of value education. They can help the students cultivate inner poise and an attitudinal shift, and develop the quality of 'dignity of labour'.

- Observing 'Jayantis' i.e., birthdays of great national and spiritual leaders and organizing youth organizations for character development like Balaka Sangha and Taruna Sangha can go a long way in inculcation of values in students.

Highlights of Observations and Suggestions

*Universal values need to be taught.

*Parents need to be motivated to ensure value inculcation in their children.

*Several programmes shown through TV are prejudicial to the cause of inculcation of values in the society. Such programmes may not be allowed to be telecast.

*The teacher should be a role model for the students. This will put the teacher at high esteem in the society.

*Education in Human Values need to be woven judiciously in the curriculum at all stages of education.

*As suggested by the Chairman, National Open School, the period of pre-service teacher education may be increased to five years. The Teacher Education Curriculum may inter alia include

appropriate inputs for education in human values. Education in Human Values

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may also be taken care of in the in-service teacher education programmes.

*A code of conduct may be prepared for the teachers and other educational personnel. The code of conduct may be implemented meticulously.

*The process of selection of teachers may be streamlined. The teachers of good moral character may be selected in the interest of the students in particular and the society in general.

*Teachers may be asked to visualize and implement some activities related to promotion of human values in / students. The Principals/ Headmasters may also monitor such programmes.

*One of the reasons of erosion in human values may be attributed to unnecessary political interference in education.

The Chairman, Professor Hari Gautam, requested Professor Kireet Joshi to give his comments and suggestions.

Professor Kireet Joshi gave the following observations and suggestions:

i.In a way the destiny of the nation is in the hands of apex organizations. These organizations may plan and implement meticulously the educational programmes, which may inter alia give appropriate inputs related to value-oriented education both in theory as well as in practice.

ii.Keeping in view the importance of Value-Oriented Education, a high level task force on Value-Oriented Education may be set-up under the Chairmanship of the Chairman UGC. The task force may be for a duration of at least 5 years. The task force may visualize and operationalize a comprehensive framework for education in human values. This may be a multi-pronged programme meant for students and other people.

iii.The modus operandi for Value-Oriented Education inter alia includes identification of values to be reflected in the curricula and teaching learning strategies, training of educational personnel and other concerned officials.

iv. The programme of Value-Oriented Education may inter alia include contribution of literature.

v. The voluntary organizations doing good work in Value-Oriented

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Education may also be included in the programmes planned by the apex and other educational organizations.

While giving the Chairperson's remarks, Professor Hari Gautam, Chairman, UGC gave the following observations and suggestions:

i.Today there is crisis of values. There is an urgent need for preparation and operationalization of comprehensive programme of Value-Oriented Education.

ii.India is the only country in the world, which has declared itself secular in its constitution.

iii.Keeping in view the erosion in human values in the society, we may make all out efforts for promotion of Indian ethos and culture.

iv.It is desirable that leaders of the nation may be conscious of their duties.

v.A sort of crusade or revolution is needed for vitalizing the programme of value-oriented education. Although it is an extremely difficult task, yet it has to be implemented by all means. A multi-pronged action

is needed at this juncture in this regard.

Professor Hari Gautam commended the work done by Professor Kireet Joshi in the field of Value-Oriented Education and requested him to provide leadership to meet the challenge of crisis in values.

19 January, 2002

Session: V

Theme: Innovative Practices in respect

of Value-Oriented Education

In the context of Value-Oriented Education, the Chairperson, Professor R.M. Kalra, quoted the great scientist Einstein, 'Don't ask for meaning of a word but look for its usage.' A sage philosopher said, 'Don't ask for values of a person but look for his action.' Generally there is a hiatus between what we say and what we do. The values should be an integral part of one's personality and it should influence his/her actions.

The schools are potential institutions for inculcation of desirable values in students. However, it is a matter for consideration as to how best the values could be transmitted/inculcated.

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With these observations, the Chairpersons invited the speakers one by one to make their presentations.

Highlights of Presentations

Speaker: Shri M.L. Khanna, Secretary,

DAV Colleges Managing Committee

*Character building is the highest objective of the DAV institutions.

*Ancient system of education in India imparted knowledge through scriptures. However, Macaulay's system of education destroyed that system. It is unfortunate that the system of education of Macaulay is

still continuing in some form or other.

*Social and moral values are considerably eroded in India leading to an era of corruption and disruption of the rule of law.

*In free India, the ancient roots of Indian culture and educational system need/ to be re-vitalized.

*Every Indian must be good and patriotic citizen apart from being a good man of character. The DAV institutions are endeavouring to promote this noble objective.

Theme: A Framework for Value Education of Scientists and Engineers

Speaker: Professor P.L. Dhar

*The scientific and technical education imparted in India is not giving emphasis on education in human values.

*There is a need to balance the scientific learning by moral teachings and value-based education.

*The inadequacy of scientific education is accentuated owing to the belief that value education is considered as sectarian in the secular state. It is a mistaken idea.

*Value education is considered to curtail the freedom of choice to the pupil. Therefore it was suggested and experimented that the 'laws of Nature' as applicable for the subjective world of man should be

taught just as 'the laws of Science' are taught to pupils through experiments.

*Values should permeate all the subjects appropriately. The role of the teacher is significant in the endeavour.

*Values Oriented Education is inter alia sought to be propagated through workshops and through demonstrating them in practice.

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Speaker: Professor Ms. Suzie

Sri Aurobindo International Institute of

Educational Research, Auroville.

* Values could be transmitted through simple activities, exercises and contact with the environment in which the child grows. The teacher's task is to observe the child in various situations. The child may be given freedom to find and discover the values. She described in detail the programme evolved in Auroville that aims at awakening higher studies of consciousness through exercises of body-awareness.

Speaker: Shri S.L.Jain, Principal

Mahavir Senior Model School

* In his presentation, Shri S.L.Jain gave several examples as to how the institution has been endeavouring to reach the inner self of the child.

* A list of values like values of leadership, oneness, compassion, self-reliance, perfection, family norms, non-violence, patience, social action etc. has been prepared. Pupils meet teachers after school hours to gain an insight into them through various activities. In the classes too, such values are highlighted.

* Activities are simple, like watching birds and animals, appreciating wildlife; visit to blind schools, reading poetry, painting competitions on various issues and values.

* Respect for all religions is emphasized through practical demonstration.

Speaker: Professor Gautam Vohra

* Action at grass root level is the most important way of inculcating values and performing worthwhile tasks. For instance, concern for the poor is shown through programme such as:

- working in the slum areas. The children of these areas are shown through demonstration how to clean and preserve the environment,

- removing regional imbalance by launching various development programmes,

- promotion of literacy programme in slum areas through non-formal education for children, and

- functional literacy programmes for adults.

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*Adoption of organic gardening for production of vegetables and food grains. (Used chemical fertilizers destroys fertility of the soil.)

*It is essential to have a perpetual discourse on science, religion and development.

Speaker: Professor Lele

*Role of basic values of human and society highlighting self-discipline, respect for others, patience, simplicity, compassion etc. are some of the values, which need to be inculcated in the children.

Speaker: Shri D.V. Batra

*There is a need for refresher course for parents also. If parents could not teach their own children values, we may not expect others to teach them. Values are within us and they must be discovered.

During the discussion, the following observations/suggestions were made:

*There is a need to put a check on the activities of institutions/ organizations propagating ideas that are prejudicial to the cause of national integration.

*The Chairperson emphasized that value conflicts in the minds of children need to be avoided through innovative means.

Session VI

Theme: Innovative Practices in respect of Value-Oriented Education

Chairperson: Shri M.M. Luther

Paper XII: Value-Oriented Education at

Sri Satya Sai Institute of Higher Learning

Speaker: Professor C. Kumar Bhaskar

*The objectives of Value-Oriented Education in Sri Satya Sai Institute of Higher Learning are: (i) to help the students cultivate self knowledge, and self confidence, so that each one can learn self sacrifice and self realization; (ii) to make spiritual uplift, self discovery and social service

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as the end of education through love and detachment; (iii) to emphasize on giving and forgiving and not on getting and forgetting; (iv) to encourage service, especially among the illiterate and the needy in the villages around; (v) to highlight the responsibilities of youth, rather than rights: for, the right is earned only by the proper discharge of the responsibility; (vi) to inculcate in students detachment, loving service, fraternity, humility, sincerity, fortitude, self reliance, independence, fearlessness, and respect for their culture; (vii) to develop in the students: Love All—Serve All and Hurt. Never—Help Ever Mentality; (viii) to make students internalize the mental outlook that education is for life and not for living wherein the end of education is character; and (ix) to shape the students into responsible citizens and impel/ motivate them to subordinate their individual interest before the national interest.

*The distinctive features of the Sri Satya Sai Institute of Higher Learning are: (i) residential character of the institute with students and faculty staying in the campuses; (ii) an open admission policy enabling students from all over the country to seek admission to various courses, irrespective of income, class, creed, religion or region, making it truly national character; (iii) free education for all, who are selected on the basis of merit, though a very comprehensive testing weigrated to intellectual attainments and initiative insight; (iv) integrated courses of five years duration in order to promote talent; (v) very favourable average teacher-pupil ratio for closure rapport between students and faculty; (vi) maximum number of working days, fuller utilization of vacation, national holidays and important festivals for educational purpose and extension work; and (vii) Sri Satya Sai Schools and other institutions belonging to the Sai organizations functioning as major feeder points to the institute which enables the institute to have inputs with the conducive attitude towards learning and discipline at higher education.

*Critical inquiry approach, total atmosphere approach and the integrated approach is adopted for value clarification.

*Community living, Satwic-vegetarian nutritious food eating self reliance activities, chanting of Vedas, moral awareness classes, village social work and social services are the key and salient features of educational practices in the institute.

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Paper XIII: Value Education in the Sri Aurobindo Ashram

(Delhi Branch)

Speaker: Shri Partho

*The Mirambika School is an attempt at practically realizing Sri Aurobindo's and the Mother's vision of integral education—an education that would systematically and simultaneously develop the body and its inherent capacities; the vital or emotional being and its inherent powers; the mind and its cognitive faculties; and the psychic and spiritual capacities inherent in every child.

*The learning process in Mirambika is considered to be an integral one, not only as an objective but also in its methodology. It would not breakup learning and teaching as separate processes. It would not divide the ideal from the practical. It would not teach a system of values and not be able to implement the same in detail. It would not divide the school from home and play field. And only such integrity would be able to resolve the crisis of values our society confronts today.

*Mirambika breaks many traditional systems of education. Mirambika does not follow any syllabus, no prescribed text books, does not conduct classes according to subjects and periods, no class room, and no insistence on formal discipline. Simultaneously it encourages inquiry, dialogue and debate and fosters honesty and trust in the children.

*The pedagogy of the school is that children learn at their own pace and in small groups, choose their own projects and do their own research. They make their own schedules and have to meet deadlines.

*Mother's International School is under the constraints of a conventional system: there are thirtysix students to a class room, the pedagogy is syllabus and subject based. Inspite of these constraints the school makes a genuine attempt to blend the vision of Sri Aurobindo's education to conventional schooling and providing the students a valuable experience.

*The inculcation of values begins at the time of admission itself. A suggested list of readings is given to all perspective parents to acquaint them with Sri Aurobindo's and the Mother's philosophy of education. Once the children are admitted, the parents are encouraged to give sometime to the school and the Ashram by giving at least a couple of hours of voluntary service. This is a very important step towards

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inculcation of values. Sharing of a common value system between the school and the home helps the children to assimilate the values better and deeper.

*The children from the early years grow up in an environment free from the stresses of competition. Though competitive activities do take place, there are many activities, which are of a co-operative nature. Students are equally enthusiastic for both kinds of activities. As a continuation of this, students in this school are also encouraged to develop other aspects of their personality so that an exclusive focus on academics is avoided.

*Other salient features are: encouraging Value-Oriented Education by providing them a range of skills and services based activities; Mandatory working for thirty hours with the under privileged (for Senior Secondary students), avoiding hierarchical structure and encouraging free association of teachers with students, creating a spiritual culture through meditation, devotional songs, reciting and re'ading inspirational passages from various texts and listening to several distinguished speakers discussing subjects related to cultural, social and spiritual values, promoting environmental consciousness and work values and conducting value education camps and workshops in the Ashram.

Paper XIV: Innovative Practices in Value»Oriented Education:

National Open SchooPs Endeavour

Speaker: Shri I.S. Asthana

*The National Open School tries to implement the views expressed by Swami Vivekananda on education. Swamiji said 'the education which does not help the common mass of people to equip themselves for the struggle of life which does not bring out strength of character, a spirit of philanthropy and the courage of a lion—is it worth the name?'

*NOS is promoting Adult Education on a wider scale. A course on' Good Parenting' is being developed. The basic objective of the course is to make the parents aware about nurturing the child with positive human values and good health.

*NOS developed material for promoting values among the teachers. Some of the titles of the material are Education in Human Values— Manual for Teachers (Part I) and Manaviya Mulya Vikas: Vyavaharik Acharan (in Hindi).

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*NOS has developed and is in the process of developing wide range of study materials in the area of value education for learners. Some of the enrichment materials developed by NOS are:

i.Bhartiya Sanskriti (3 parts)

ii.Mein Kaisa Banu

iii.Monographs about Great Men of India

Some of the materials under process are:

i.Education for life (life enrichment course)

ii.Yoga—a certificate course (both vocational and life enrichment course)

*NOS has also developed many audio-video programmes on value education. Some of the programmes are 'Genius of India', 'Culture and Heritage of India' and 'Religions of India' (video programmes). All the video programmes are currently being telecast through the TV Channel 'Gyan Darshan'.

*NOS has entered an agreement with Maharshi Mahesh Yogi's organization to telecast all its programmes on Maharshi Channel in 157 countries.

*In NOS, values are inherent in all programmes. Simultaneously sovereignty of the child is the basic principles in open schooling. Keeping these principles in view, an innovative experiment 'On-Demand Examination' is being currently implemented. The rationale behind this scheme is to free the child from tyranny and oppression of examinations.

Paper XV: Value Based Programmes of Study on HTV and Family


Speaker: Professor Gracious Thomas

*The Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) has developed and launched a value based programme of study on 'HIV and Family Education' with accurate and complete information on the sensitive issues. The course tried to provide an academically sound and socially acceptable programme of study keeping in view the socio-cultural and religious diversity of this great nation.

*The course tries to address various problems such as teenage pro-

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grammes, mental and emotional disorders among adolescents, sexual violence, substance abuse including injecting drugs, suicides, rape, eve teasing, family disorganization, divorce, single parenthood, child abuse including incest, spouse abuse, wife swapping, unabated spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

* The course tries to emphasize the role of parents and home in providing this value-based HIV and Family Education Programme. This value-based sex education should teach the learners the moral principle that it is never appropriate to risk with one's own another person's physical, emotional or spiritual welfare.

* This course purposefully directs learners to a standard of behaviour, which is not only achievable but also leads to the healthiest outcomes. While culture, merging social circumstances and peers may extend more influence today than ever before, our young people are still capable of developing the values and skills necessary to resist high risk behaviours.

Paper XVI: Implementation of National Programme for

Strengthening Value Education by the National Resource Centre for Value Education (NRCVE), NCERT

Speaker: Professor D.K. Bhattacharya

NCERT has developed exemplar/prototype instructional materials/ resource support materials in the area of Value-Oriented Education for students, teachers and teacher educators, curriculum planners and textbooks writers.

Some of publications are biographies of national leaders like Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose and Govind Ballabh Pant. Supplementary reading materials for school children titled Nai Nai Kahaniyan contains value-based stories.

The NCERT has produced recorded cassettes of fifteen community songs in twelve different languages.

NCERT has developed source books/guide books for teachers, teacher educators, curriculum planners and textbook writers. It has conducted a number of seminars, workshops and sensitization programmes at national and state levels on value education.

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* The national programme for strengthening value-Education approved under the Grants-in-Aid Scheme in Value-Education of the Department of Education, MHRD, Government of India, will be launched during 2002-2003 by National Resource Centre for Value Education (NRCVE). The important dimension of the programme are:

i.Development of a broad based decentralized management structure with networking and linkages for implementation of the programme at state, district and grass root levels and its monitoring.

ii.Development of strategies for massive awareness generation / sensitization programme.

iii.Development of strategies for material development relevant to school system and teacher education system.

iv.Development of strategies/designs for teachers training for incorporation into pre-service and in-service modes.

v.Promotion and funding of Research in the area of value education.

vi.Evolving minimum standards in respect of a Framework for Value-Oriented Education.

Paper XVII: Philosophy of Value-Oriented Education

Speaker: Professor Man Mohan Luther

* The objective of education is life-building, man-making and character-making. Any system of education, in order to be effective must, however, be firmly rooted in ethnic culture, heritage and socioeconomic environment.

* Today world is facing unprecedented socio-political challenges. Values earlier considered essential by all societies have been eroded. This calls for a new approach and a new vision of education.

*'Values refer to the form that we give to our choice in weaving the fabric of life.' Human behaviour is governed by values, which are an integral part of any culture. Achievements of any society are influenced by the values that it holds. Different values within a society are closely linked with its socio-cultural set up which changes from time to time.

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* Value-Oriented Education implies inculcation of values through every activity of educational institutions, curricular as well as extra-curricular. It's aim is to encourage students to explore and discover their immense potential and apply values and ethics to every aspect of their lives. It must, on one hand, make students good citizens and, on the other, help them to achieve optimum and harmonious growth and fulfillment of their physical, vital, mental, moral, aesthetic, spiritual and social potential.

* Universally acceptable human values, essentially secular and multicultural, free from controversy must form an integral component of the entire educational system, we need to deliberately and consciously shift emphasis in our educational system from information to knowledge and ultimately to wisdom. It requires an educational model, which is responsive and comprehensive, covering all aspects and all stages of education, and having unequivocal orientation towards values and ethics relevant to our tradition and culture.

* Spiritual education, yoga and meditation should be the part and parcel of Value-Oriented Education. The roles of Gurus and the parents are very important in imparting value-based education. Information technology should be fully used for imparting Value-Oriented Education.

* There is an urgent need for undertaking research in the following areas:

i.Continual assessment of the role of education in the rapidly changing social set up;

ii.Evolution of pragmatic plans for dedicated orientation towards values and ethics in the educational system;

iii.Designing and development of tools and infrastructure to build-up and sustain a suitable environment for value education in our educational institution;

iv.Evolution and continual upgrading of suitable educational models, by defining their parameters, particularly the relationship between skills, knowledge values and wisdom; and

v.An effective monitoring and evaluation system to evaluate results of action needs to be planned and organized.

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Date : 20 January, 2002

Sessions VII

Theme: Contribution of Literature to Value-Oriented Education

Chairperson: Professor I. N. Choudhury

Professor Kireet Joshi, Chairman, ICPR, released the book, Jharokha, authored by Smt. Sheela Singh.

Professor Joshi informed that the session was designed with the following motives:

i.There is a growing feeling that stories are powerful vehicles for Value-Oriented Education.

ii.Good stories need to be selected and propagated.

He referred to the NCERT's publication titled Nai Nai Kahaniyan as a good collection of stories. Professor Joshi appreciated Mrs. Manorama Jafa who edited this book, a copy of which was given to each participant as a complimentary copy by the NCERT. He requested the delegates to give the name of at least one good story/story book. The ICPR proposes to organize a Seminar on the role of stories for Value-Oriented Education.

While appreciating the theme of the session, Professor I.N. Choudhury congratulated Professor Kireet Joshi for allocation of a fill day of the seminar for presentations and discussion on 'Contribution of Literature to Value-Oriented Education'. Good literature has potential to kindle interest in readers. Such literature provides inspiration and happiness.

Professor Joshi narrated the following two very touching stories:

i.The Compliant Prodigal (by Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyaya), and

ii.A Cap for Steve (An American story),

Professor I.N. Choudhury invited the speakers of the session to present their papers.

Highlights of the Presentations:

Paper XVIII: Value-Oriented Education: Contribution of Writers

Speaker: Ms. Manorama Jafa

* Children's books are valuable for the conscious promotion of a value system and for developing a more humane society. Literature for

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children is the most important segment of literature as it moulds the character of the future citizens.

* A children's literature writer is required to know what children like, what they don't like and what literature should be given to them. There is a need for developing the potential of writers.

We need to find artists and publishers and developing good distribution network so that good books may reach children. The role of parents and teachers in promoting reading habits and a network of libraries is very important. Media can play a very significant role to bring to attention what significant publications are being brought out. Due recognition may be given to the authors of children's literature.

During her presentation, Ms. ManaromaJafa narrated briefly three stories titled: (i) Lalooand Piloo, (ii) Cheenu and Meenu (two sisters), and (iii) Gugu ki Bulbul. Such appealing stories touch the core of the heat of children. She advocated that children should have access to best children's literature.

Paper XIX: Elaboration of teaching-learning-Material at Sri

Aurobindo International Institute of Educational

Research, Auroville: The Aims of Life and The

Good Teacher and the Good Pupil.

Speaker: Professor Alain Bernard

* India's ancient wisdom and value system are great heritage for mankind.

* Humanity is one. The ideas and ideals of Sri Aurobindo are reflected in the institute. Evolution of mankind and its constant search for God, light, freedom, immortality are subjects of foul interest in the Institute.

* Auroville is meant to be a living laboratory. The organization strives for practical research in the ways by which it could create a new society, a society that will be governed by the power of the inner soul.

* In Auroville's framework, the most essential question in the study of values is not to prescribe but explore. This exploration is first to be centred around what is life and What is the aim of life.

* Auroville has produced two books titled (i) The Aim of Life, and (ii) The Good Teacher and the Good Pupil. The four aims of life have been illustrated with the help of contents from the following books:

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(i) Integral aim of life Isha Upanishad and the drama written
  by the Mother Ascent to Truth
(ii) Cosmic terrestrial aim of life Essay on Philosophy of Life in the
  Discovery of India by Jawaharlal Nehru
(iii) Materialistic terrestrial aim of life A Free Man's Worship by Bertrand
(iv) Scientific terrestrial aim of life The World as I See It by Einstein
(v) Supra terrestrial aim of life Bible
(vi) Supra-cosmic aim of life Dhammapada and Vivekacudamani
  by Samkaracharya

*In the book, The Good Teacher and the Good Pupil, the authors have taken examples of good teachers and good pupils both from East and West so as to have ultimately a harmonious and universal philosophy of life. This also implies a philosophy of child-centred education, philosophy of life-long education and philosophy of constant youth and freshness... . A good teacher knows that example is more important than instruction, and he strives not only to keep his ideals in front of him but also to progressively embody them. The example expected from the teacher is not merely his outward behaviour, but his inner life, his aims and sincerity with which he pushes these aims.... A good pupil realizes that both body and mind should be developed vigorously and rigorously.

*Today educational systems almost everywhere are: utilitarian in character, promoting an examination-oriented education. Their goals are limited and have no intrinsic relationship with the ideal process and ends of genuine teaching-learning.

*A question arises as to what system of education could encourage the flowering of good teachers and good pupils. The following suggestions are given as a modest attempt to this question:

i.Lectures should have much more modest place than they have today. A great role should be assigned to self-learning and to work on individual and collective projects.

ii.Programme of study should be much more flexible.

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iii. The examination system must be thoroughly revised. Texts should be designed to stimulate the pupils to make further progress.

Paper XX: Introduction to Auroville's Proposed

Value-Oriented Education Programme

Speaker: Professor Donald Kelman

*Realizing that the heart of education is not merely basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic, but more importantly the Value-Oriented Education, Auroville planned to develop afresh the curricula encompassing it from class 1st to 12th standard. The focus would inter alia be on 'To Know Oneself and to Control Oneself. Among other things the curricula may include exercises in aesthetic expression, including poetry, graphic arts, music etc., interwoven throughout twelve years of schooling.

*In order to realize Truth, Beauty and Goodness through the academic approach, stories, historical biographies, phenomena of science, and phenomena of consciousness need to be carefully chosen and employed throughout the twelve years curriculum. As a follow-up to academic study and aesthetic expression, the students would also be directed to opportunities where life as it actually occurs around them would be observed. Given these opportunities, they would encounter and discover reflections in the real world of what had been found during study so that the words and images read, viewed and discussed in the classroom would become a living reality for the students.

*Auroville will provide a living laboratory so that success will not be theoretical but actual.

Speaker: Shri Kaadir Zaman

* Education is the first step to civilize man. Therefore when we plan value orientation in education, the system needs to be approved by every segment of the social order within, which a community lives. When the value is not universal but determined by an individual or the vested interest, we do not seek a definition of such value nor have we to classify values and put them into various compartments identifiable with a

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particular social group. It is enough to say that such and such value is not acceptable because it has a vested interest. But if the community agrees upon a value 'good for all', then we should go by the historical situation and accept what is good for all at that particular moment of history.

*Almost thirtyeight years after independence the Government of India realized that our society had remained static and it development and change. Then in 1986 our National Policy on Education talked of the essential, universal and eternal values. With the change in terminology, a shift in the concept of value education is noticed in the year 1992 when our government focussed attention on 'nurturing a sense of pride in being an Indian, patriotism and nationalism tempered with the spirit of vasudhaiva kutumbakam'.

* India is a country known for ages for its multiplicity of tribes, clans, castes and sects and communities and is also divided into several economic classes. The manners of its citizens, their habits, their perceptions and their values are all varied. The concept of patriotism may be commonly sought but the concept of sense of pride of nationalism and of vasudhaiva kutumbakam may not be grasped or embraced by all its citizens. Tagore writes 'Life finds its truth and beauty not in any exaggeration of sameness but in harmony'.

*Discipline, of course, is a sine-qua-non of a healthy and progressing society but obedience and submission are rather misleading terms and can be construed differently by different levels and categories. Values should not be imposed from the above. They should be experienced, explored and developed by the individual himself keeping in view the historical situation of the society within which he exists.

*No discrimination be made as to the standard of education between the poor and the rich, girl or the boy belonging to any caste, creed or religion.

*Morning classes should start with songs and prayers acceptable to all.

*Folk songs, folk stories, plays and folk music be introduced wherever possible.

At least one period be allotted for physical training.

*History lessons should be based on facts and should not be twisted to suit an ideology of an individual or a social group. Lessons may include fairy tales but should not be mired in superstition. Use of terms with which people are not familiar be avoided.

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* Minorities and religious institutions are used as instruments of money-spinning and favouritism. Endowments by minority groups be restricted to social, cultural and educational purposes and they should not be the breeding grounds of political activity.

Paper XXI: School Curriculum for Global Peace

Speaker: Shri Steven Paul Rudolph

*It is time for us to take action for providing novel educational methods that promote world peace. Far too much has been said, and too little has been done practically to provide students and teachers tangible experiences that promote global peace and harmony. The antiquated syllabi followed by most schools and the limited benefit afforded by talk-and-chalk methodologies must give way to a new type of education that is less instructive and more constructive in its orientation.

*A peaceful person is one who is realized. And this realization comes about through learning. Learning occurs through a building process, where each individual constructs his or her unique understanding of the world based upon information input in connection with one's environment and experiences. If provided with the proper environment and experiences (as expert gardeners provide to their plants), learners will maximize their full potential towards becoming rational, pious, and peace-loving individuals.

*Jiva Institute is a non-profit research and development organization founded in 1992. It is working to create a healthy, wealthy and fearless society. As per National Curriculum Framework (2000), the NCERT has called on non-government organizations (NGOs) to come forward with solutions to the educational dilemma that India face today.

*Jiva Institute has tackled the challenges to develop a new curriculum in three ways: (i) enhancing the existing NCERT Curriculum, (ii) creating teaching and learning materials and methodologies for teaching value and peace-based curriculum, and (iii) developing a teacher training programme that helps teachers and school administrators create environments conducive to value and peace-based learning.

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Topic: Literature and Value-Oriented Education

Speaker: Professor Rajendra Dengle

Some basic questions include:

i. What reality we are talking about?

ii. Which reality do we appreciate most?

iii. What is most important for mankind?

* European literature is concerned with depicting social realism. Literature in their view is reflection of human persons as they are.

* Literature in Europe is critical and creative and it communicates and interacts with persons in the society.

* Value system must reflect in a person's behaviour. It must come from within.

* Professor Dengle recited Hindi version of two poems in German.

Speaker: Smt. Sheela Singh (Author in Punjabi)

Smt. Sheela Singh recited some of her poems in Punjabi. These poems depict/emphasize the following:

- Importance of time management

- Universal brotherhood

- Preservation of environment

Topic: A Tribal Literature: Constructing the Value-Oriented


Speaker: Dr. Prakash Pattnaik

*Highlighted aspects of tribal literature of Orissa (with illustrations from folk literature and tribal lore of Orissa with a view to explore possibility of their inclusion in Value-Oriented Education programme).

*The samples of folk literature include (i) the legend of Sibu Santara, (ii) Rangabati, (iii) Fool, (iv) Creative Trees, and (v) Mu Heih.

*The stories (folk tales, legends and myths) could be used as samples of folk or tribal literature of Orissa—possibilities of using such material for Value-Oriented Education need to be explored.


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Speaker: Dr. Ravi Tekchandani

*Value-based education may emphasize (i) the value of truth, (ii) elimination of negative attributes in human person (like anger and

*Values should transform the consciousness and right conduct.

*Negative elements like suspicion raised by 'Manthara' led to disaster in 'Ramayana'.

*An interesting story Leela Chanesar from Sindhi literature was read out by the speaker.

Session VIII

Theme: Contributions of Literature to Value-Oriented Education

Chairperson: Professor Kapil Kapoor

Speakers: Professor R.P. Sharma

Shri M. Venkateswaran

Professor Chandra Mohan

Dr. Kavita Sharma

Ms. Amita Mehra

Brig. Kapoor,

Highlights of deliberations and discussion:

* Till now the basic quest is for knowledge. There should be a paradigm shift from noetic approach to axiological approach. This means that education should try to develop feelings rather then simply making intellectual accomplishment.

* The central theme of education is man-making. But till now the emphasis is on developing reasoning capacity, which is claimed as value free. Education without value is redundant. The need of the hour is to bring value in the entire system of education of reasoning which is value neutral.

* Indian literature is fairly eloquent about values. The essence of our great ancient traditional literature is simplicity and sensitivity. There is a need for practising values in one's own life. Until and unless values are practised, they cannot bring change. The following Chinese saying is quite apt and relevant even today. It says:

'When I hear, I forget

When I see, I remember

When I do, I understand'

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*The literature of India has always been a torch bearer and has shaped the destiny of the people. Presently the challenge before us is as to how this literature could be harnessed to inject values in our lives.

*India has the God-centred existence. This is being disturbed by materialistic aspiration (LPG—Liberation, Privatization and Globalization) and hypocritic behaviour. There is a need to restore God-centred existence by re-discovering the values of great saints.

*There is a need for identifying universal values. These values are to be promoted among students.

*According to Plato, education of mind is prior to training of body. This is very relevant even in today's society.

*There are two major aims of education. One is individual development and the other is collective development. Over emphasis on individual's education will lead to disharmony. The collective education will make the person a good individual and a useful member of the society.

*The process of social engineering in our country is not effective so far. There is a need to realize the inter-connectedness of society. To achieve this, a mix blending between thinking and acting on one hand and science and technology on the other hand is needed.

*There is a need to see the things in totality. Education must try to raise the consciousness of human persons. To achieve this, Bertrand Russell proposed combination of thinking, willing and feeling. This suggestion is relevant even today.

*Everybody has a core within. Despite abundance of knowledge, we are unable to Practise it due to lack of inspiration.

*There is a vacuum at the higher level of education of India in terms of self-development and integral education in the field of education.

*Twelve core values have been earmarked for Defence personnel. These include: professional competence and sound knowledge of competence, capacity to impart knowledge to students, sincerity, loyalty, integrity, courage and conviction, team spirit, boldness of action, punctuality. It will be in the fitness of things if these values are cherished and practised by each citizen of India.

*India has a rich fund of literature. The basic purpose of literature is to mediate between Dharma Shastra and life. If we trace chronologically then there was a shift of emphasis in literature from pursuit of knowledge to Bhakti and then to action.

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Valedictory Session

Chairperson: Professor Kireet Joshi

Chief Guest: Shri T.N. Chaturvedi

Member Parliament (Rajya Sabha)

and Member, Executive Board, UNESCO

Professor R.M. Kalra welcomed the Chairperson and to chief guest. He gave an overview of the proceedings of the Seminar during 18th to 20th January, 2002.

Views of the Participants

Shri Suraj Prakash, Principal, CRPF School (and President National Progressive Schools) lauded the efforts made by Professor Kireetjoshi to bring a galaxy of philosophers, educationists, NGOs, teachers etc., at one platform. This forum provided a very good opportunity for exchange of ideas and information on several aspects of philosophy of Value-Oriented Education. Shri Suraj Prakash made an appeal that the delegates attending the Seminar may find time as per their convenience and interact frequently with Principals, teachers and students. In the context of Value-Oriented Education, a comprehensive programme needs to be planned and operationalized meticulously.

Professor Chandra Mohan, Secretary General, Comparative Literature Association of India stated that on all accounts the Seminar on Philosophy of Value-Oriented Education was a perfect seminar. The Seminar deliberated on vast range of themes such as educational philosophies of the leaders of the renascent India, vision of Value-Oriented Education of the heads of apex organizations in education, innovative practices in the context of Value-Oriented Education and contribution of literature to Value-Oriented Education. Professor Chandra Mohan appreciated the tireless efforts of Professor Kireetjoshi, Chairman, ICPR, for the last several years to the cause of Value-Oriented Education. The present Seminar benefited all due to the exchange of ideas and experiences of institutions/organizations and their future vision.

While mentioning that it was a very successful seminar, Professor (Ms.) Deepti appreciated the efforts being made by Professor Kireetjoshi to bring a sort of revolution in area of Value-Oriented Education. These efforts will benefit immensely the new generation. Professor Deepti expressed her view that spirituality should not remain confined to 'Ashrams' only.

While appreciating the outcomes of the Seminar, Shri Bhardwaj suggested that value-oriented programme of institutions/organizations could draw use-

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ful material/guidelines from our scriptures like Shrimad Bhagwad Gita, Upanishads, Yoga Darshan and UNESCO's documents 'Learning To Be' and 'Learning the Treasure Within'. He suggested that the Seminar may recommend that Education may be controlled by Educationists and not by bureaucrats (IAS Officers etc.)

Professor I.N. Choudhury appreciated the tasks accomplished during the three-day deliberations in the seminar.

Shri Chaturvedi, Wing Commander (Retd.), advocated that the programme of Value-Oriented Education may be organized in such a manner that it may touch the core heart of the people. Shri Chaturvedi mentioned about his effort to motivate people to plant trees and preserve them. The people are told about usefulness of trees for health as also from the standpoint of religion.

Professor R.M. Kalra requested the Chief Guest, Shri T.N. Chaturvedi to deliver the valedictory address.

Shri T.N. Chaturvedi stated that from the Seminar papers and overview of deliberations of the Seminar given by Professor R.M. Kalra and some of the delegates, he felt extremely happy about outcomes of the Seminar. He appreciated the effort made by Professor Kireet Joshi in organizing the Seminar at thisjuncture. The Seminar provided a good forum for exchange of ideas and information. He mentioned that in ancient period there was no control of government in the field of education. It would be in the fitness of things if education could be made self-regulatory. Highlights of observations/ suggestions given by the Chief Guest, Shri T.N. Chaturvedi, are as follows:

*It is high time now that a well thought plan for Value-Oriented Education may be prepared and operationalized meticulously. The task is gigantic and sustained efforts at various levels are needed for success of the programme.

*The address of Professor Murli Manohar Joshi on the inaugural day provided significant suggestions for promotion of the programme of Value-Oriented Education. These suggestions could be useful while preparing the framework for Value-Oriented Education.

*Values are sum total of ways of living of people. In each society, culture/ values are transmitted from one generation to another.

*Values influence behaviour patterns of people and provide standards of judgment. There is a need to bridge gap between what one professes and how he/she acts.

*The educational philosophies of Maharishi Dayananda Saraswati, SwamiVivekananda, Mahatma Gandhi, GurudevRabindraNathTagore

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and Sri Aurobindo influenced greatly the education system of India. Besides these stalwarts of the Renascent India, certain other great souls like Sadhu Vaswani, Krishnamurti and organizations like Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan have been contributing immensely to the cause of Value-Oriented Education.

* Several Commissions and Committees after Independence have given very significant recommendations about education in human values. Even the Sargent Commission (1944) had recommended value-based education. Article 51A in the Constitution of India about Fundamental Duties inter alia needs to be kept in view while preparing a detailed framework for Value-Oriented Education.

Chairman's Address

Professor Kireet Joshi profoundly thanked Shri T.N. Chaturvedi for delivering the valedictory address and sharing with the delegates his ideas and experiences about Value-Oriented Education. Professor Kireetjoshi pointed out that two significant points were raised during the seminar:

i.Values should be taught not as a separate subject but may be woves in to the study materials of various subjects.

ii.An important question is as to why good innovations are not infused widely into the system, since it is seen that many good innovations in school education could not make significant dent in the education system.

Professor Kireetjoshi observed as follows:

i.Due to Macaulay's system of education, which is still prevalent in one way or the other, we could not go beyond certain subjects in the curriculum viz. English, Mathematics, Science, History, Geography. This scheme eliminated subjects like poetry, drama, music etc., from the curriculum and proved detrimental to the cause of Value-Oriented Education and marred initiatives and aesthetic sense of students.

ii.Innovations in education are successful up to Class VIII i.e., the pre-Board stage. From Matriculation onwards, the examination oriented education system is detrimental to the cause of innovations in education. iii.The remedy lies in adoption of the principles of Swadhyaya i.e., self study and quest for knowledge.

iv.The values propounded by the educational philosophies of the leaders

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of the Renascent India are very significant and need to be taken care of while planning and operationalization of the programmes of Value-Oriented Education. This will inter alia liberate education from the system propounded by Macaulay

Professor Kireet Joshi gave an overview of some significant recommendations that emerged from the Seminar and highlighted:

*The suggestion of setting setting up of a high power Committee for Education under the Chairmanship of the Chairman UGC, which may look after various aspects of Value-Oriented Education i.e. planning, implementation and monitoring of the programme. After the address of Professor Kireet Joshi, the delegates agreed with the recommendations of the Seminar through voice vote.

At the close of the Seminar, Professor R.C. Pradhan proposed a vote of thanks.


1.A detailed framework for Value-Oriented Education in the country may be prepared and operationalized. The Framework may inter alia include:

*Elaboration of the scope of Value-based education.

*Clientele to be covered with clear demarcation of role and functions of the apex organization at school education and higher education levels.

*Plan for cooperation, coordination and networking among various organizations.

*Plan for effective monitoring of the programme and also periodic evaluation.

2.The Government of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development, may set up a high level Task Force for planning, implementation and monitoring of the programme of Value-Oriented Education.

The Task Force may be headed by the Chairman, UGC.

3.Development of Framework and Materials:

Efforts need to be made to make a list of desirable values. In order to formulate strategies for planning and operationalization of programmes for Education in Human Values, in the first instance the values may

be classified appropriately according to the objectives of the programme.

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For example,

- Personal and social values.'

- Values to be inculcated at different stages of education (elementary, secondary and college education/higher education).

- Values to be inculcated among teachers and other functionaries in Education Department and other concerned Departments.

- India is a multi-religious, multi-cultural country. After Independence, various Education Commissions and Committees have given recommendations about education in human values. The preamble to the constitution, the fundamental duties enshrined in the constitution and core values mentioned in the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 depict significant values. The recommendations of these commissions and committees etc., need to be analyzed and synthesized in order to prepare and operationalize a Framework for Value-Oriented Education. The literature in different languages is a rich repository of Value-Oriented Education material. A forum comprising of educationists, literacy persons, historians, artists, parents, etc. need to be created for developing the proposed Framework for Value-Oriented Education.

- The values enshrined in Constitution of India (preamble, fundamental duties etc.) and universal values such as truth, righteous conduct, peace, love and non-violence need to be inculcated in the citizens meticulously, particularly for peaceful co-existence and progress.

3.2Religion is deeply rooted in the inner psyche of human persons. It is religion most important cohesive force, for the society. It is a significant issue for consideration as to how education about religions, particularly in the context of education in human values, needs to be given to students. While taking care that sectarian education may not be given to students, it needs to be ensured that education about religions may be given to students in proper perspective.

3.3The material for Education in Human Values could be drawn carefully from the books of various religions and also from the rich literature available in different languages of the world.

3.4Several books of Indian Literature like Upanishads, Yoga Sutras, Buddhist texts, Charakasamhita, Shrimad Bhagavad Gita etc., have mentioned the desirable values and methods of their inculcation in human persons. These texts may inter alia be appropriately used for planning and opera-tionalization of the programmes of Education in Human Values.

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3.5Certain significant values like 'punctuality', 'truth' need to be imbibed in the people. Merely mentioning such values through printed material may not have the desired effect. Practical tips need to be provided to teachers and students in this regard.

3.6Human values transcend caste, colour and creed.

3.7The goal of education is to shape the students as a good human being and as a useful member of the society.

3.8The folk lore, stories etc., available in tribal cultures need to be preserved and used in the programmes meant for education in human values.

4.Implementation of the Programmes of Education in Human Values:

4.1The personality of teacher influences the students immensely. Besides parents, the teacher is the Role Model for students. In order to make the teacher a good role model, appropriate inputs for education in human values needs to be provided through pre-service training and recurrent in-service training.

4.2Besides the teacher (as a role model), stories anecdotes etc., exert powerful influence on the student. The curricular and co-curricular educational materials may inter alia include good stories from which the students may draw and imbibe good values.

4.3The organizations responsible for the programmes of Education in Human Values must decide their target groups and take appropriate steps to convey to them effectively the desired messages. The progress of the programmes needs to be monitored and evaluated from time to time.

4.4Value-Oriented Education need not be prescriptive. The student may be given liberty to analyze and explore the materials related to value education and draw meanings out of these.

4.5Both print and non-print media need to be used in the context of the meticulously planned programme for education in human values.

4.6The influence of media by way of assault of dominant culture on the culture of small communities is discernible on the students and general public. The educational programmes, coupled with programmes of education in human values, should enable the citizens to live together peacefully.

5.Monitoring of Implementation:

5.1 The success of educational programmes needs to be evaluated meticulously. The criteria for success may not simply include indicators such as

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acquisition of information', 'knowledge', and 'skills' but also to see that the target groups become 'good human beings'. Such steps will arrest the trend of fragmentation of societies.

6. Training of Personnel:

.1 In the pre-service and in-service teacher education programmes, there should be a conscious effort to include print and non-print material related to human values. A sensitization module on Human Values may

be made an integral part of all teacher education programmes organized at different levels.
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