Philosophy of Value-Oriented Education -Theory and Practice - Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1



      (PART I)


Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1



Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


I am honoured to be invited to this Seminar of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research. I am grateful for being given an opportunity to speak on the Minutes of Macaulay, which have influenced us and our history and education in many ways.

      The Year 1835 is an important year in the history of Indian education. It was this year when Thomas Bebington Macaulay wrote his famous Minutes and presented them to the Governor General in Council suggesting that the English education was a panacea for the ills of the Indian society as also a part of the English responsibility. These minutes have been described variously by various people on a wide range of scale. We have a view (Hindustan Times, 08.11.1998) by Francois Gautier, the South Asia correspondent of 'Le Figaro', talking of the Indians "Haunted by Macaulay's Ghost" of being taught to reverse the evil trend and have an education that could inspire to learn through the Vedas and other literature and be taught to admire the genius of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. "India'sDharma, her eternal quest for truth, should be drilled in the child from an early age. And from this firm base, everything then can be taught—from the most modern forms of mathematics, to the latest scientific technologies". We have another opinion (The Pioneer-28.12.2001) of Hiranmay Karlekar, "Shyamaprasad Mookerjee and Macaulay", according to which, "To attack Macaulay's children would be to attack all of them and the subsequent generations of Indians who have given India independence, democracy and development" and all these children, according to Karlekar include a galaxy of names like Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Rabindranath Tagore. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya, Swami Vivekananda, Sri Surendranath Banerjee, W.C. Bannerjee, Aurobindo Ghose, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, M.G Ranade, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Gandhiji, Nehru, Bose and so on. We need to study the question of Macaulay's Minutes in depth to understand what they mean and therefore should go to the basic material.

      2. The minutes of Macaulay are Annexure I to this Paper. We need to go through each line and para of the minutes to understand its meaning, purpose and impart before we derive our conclusions. We should also understand the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

background, which led to the writing of these minutes. It is necessary that we also go through the Charter of 1813, of the British Parliament, an act that authorized the East India Company to trade in India, Extracts of which Charter are Annexure II to this Paper. However, for the sake of facility para XL III (from page 698) relating to "Provision for schools, Public Lectures or other Literary Institutions for the Benefit of Natives; regulated by Governor-General in Council, subject to Control of Board; but Appointments to offices therein made by Local Governments" is reproduced below:

"XLIII. And be it further enacted, that it shall and may be lawful for the Governor General in Council to direct, that out of any Surplus which may remain of the Rents, Revenues and Profits, arising from the said Territorial Acquisitions, after defraying the Expenses of the Military, Civil and Commercial Establishments and paying the interest of the Debt in manner hereinafter provided, a sum of not less than one lakh of rupees in each year shall be set apart and applied to the Revival and Improvement of Literature and the Encouragement of the learned Natives of India, and for the Introduction and Promotion of a Knowledge of Sciences among the Inhabitants of the British Territories in India; and that any Schools, Public Lectures and other Institutions, for the Purposes aforesaid, which shall be founded at the Presidencies of Fort William Fort Saint George or Bombay or in any other Parts of the British Territories in India, in virtue of this Act, shall be governed by such Regulations as may from time to time be made by the said Governor General in Council; subject nevertheless to such Powers as are herein vested in the said Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India, respecting Colleges and Seminaries: Provided always that all Appointments to offices in such Schools; Lectureships and other Institutions, shall be made by or under the Authority of the Governments within which the same shall be situated."

      3. The Year 1813 was also the year when James Mill had got published his "History of India" making the periodization of Indian History into three periods, i.e.the Hindu Period (ending in 1100 AD), the Muslim Period, (ending in 1707 AD) and the British Period (since 1707 to date), which was the modern and the continuing present. This history was part of the training and orientation material for the servants of the East India Company. This is a different subject. We have now classified into the ancient, medieval and modern periods.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

4. Without going into other details, let us take the Minutes of Macaulay. We find Macaulay rejecting in the opening para, the question of taking the matter back to the British Parliament; he refers to difference if any and suggest that he would prepare a short Act rescinding that Clause of the Charter of 1813 from which the difficulty arises. Such an eventuality, however, did not arise because Lord Bentinck, Governor General in Council approved the Minutes on the 7th March 1835 the emphasizing following:

      i. that the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science amongst the natives of India and that all funds appropriated for the purposes of education would

         be best employed on English education alone;

      ii. that while the colleges of oriental learning were not to be abolished, the practice of supporting their students during their period of education was to be discontinued;

      iii. that Government funds were not to be spent on the printing of oriental works; and

      iv. that all the funds at the disposal of the Government would henceforth be spent in imparting to the Indians a knowledge of English literature and science.


      5. Dr S. Radhakrishnan quotes H.H. Wilson in his Report of the University Education Commission (Dec.1948-49, Vol.1 - p.12) that there was a petition signed by about 8000 people, the Mohammedans of Calcutta, Maulavis and native gentlemen of the city who, after objecting to it upon general principles said that the evident object of the Govt, was conversion of the natives. To allay these suspicion, Lord Bentinck enunciated a policy of religious neutrality. "In schools and colleges... interference and injudicious tempering with the religious beliefs of the students mingling direct or indirect teaching of Christianity with the system of instruction might be forbidden. "This policy of neutrality was not acceptable by the missionaries. Attention to annexure II-paras XLVII to XLI pages 699-701 of the Charter of 1813 is drawn: these are self-explanatory. This however is not the subject for discussion here.

      6. When Macaulay comes to the gist of the matter, he concludes that dialects commonly spoken among the natives of this part of India contain neither literary nor scientific information and are so poor and rude that it will not be easy to translate any valuable work into them. Admitting his personal ignorance of Sanskrit and Arabic, he asserts that Orientalists themselves could not deny "that a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

native literature of India and Arabia." This is in 1835 AD. Sir William Jones, an English Judge serving at the High Court of Calcutta, observed in 1786 in his Third Anniversary Discourse to the Asiatic Society of Bengal:

"The Sanskrit language is more copious than the Greek and Latin and more exquisitely refined than either; yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong indeed that no philologist could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which perhaps no longer exists; there is similar reason, though not quite so forceful, for supporting that both the Gothic and the Celtic, though blended with a very different idiom had the same origin with the Sanskrit; and the old Persian might be added to the same family, if this were the place for discussing any question concerning the antiquity of Persia."

    7However, Sanskrit and Arabic (Persian) were deemed to be inadequate and therefore, the people, were to be taught in some foreign language, who cannot at present be educated by means of their mother tongue? Educationists and analysts will have to make up their minds as to what is the best medium of instruction for a child—the mother tongue or a foreign language? We also need to examine whether Sanskrit and Arabic were "so poor and rude" and inadequate compared to English language, which had only a history of about 700 years about the time Macaulay was writing his minutes! We cannot disagree with him when he observes, "whether we look at the intrinsic value of our literature, or at the particular situation of this country, the English tongue is that which would be the most useful to our native subjects". The political view for a colony warrants that natives follow the commands and imitate the masters.

      8. Arguing his case in favour of English language, Macaulay ridicules the Committee of Public instruction and asserts with pride the growth of English Language despite the burden of the Latin and Greek and claims that it is this language which will provide true science, true philosophy and history as against the geography and history of "kings thirty feet high and reigning thirty thousand years, stories that would move laughter in girls at an English boarding school". Another instance of Russia is cited by Macaulay, which was as ignorant and barbarous as his own ancestors before the crusades. Russia, according to Macaulay, was made modern by teaching those foreign languages in which the greatest mass of information had been laid up." "The languages

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

of Western Europe civilized Russia. I cannot doubt that they will do for the Hindoos what they have done for the Tartar". I will not like to make any comment on the history of Russia and this observation of Lord Macaulay.

      9Macaulay is convinced that "a nation of high intellectual attainment undertakes to superintend the education of a nation comparatively ignorant." 'The learners cannot prescribe the course which is to be taken by the teachers". It would be worthwhile to read these observations in the light of the British Parliament Debate of 1792-93 when the House of Commons debated the renewal of the East India Company's Charter, two decades prior to the year 1813. William Wilberforce, the leader of the Evangelical Party carried a resolution emphasizing the adoption of such steps as would lead to advancement in useful knowledge of the inhabitants of the British India and to achieve the objective, missionaries and schoolmasters were to be commissioned. This move was opposed by people who urged that the Hindoos had "as good a system of faith and morals as most people". One of the Directors is reported to have observed that "they had just lost America from their folly in having allowed the establishment of schools and colleges and it would not do for them to repeat the same act of folly in regard to India." Much water had flown down both the Thames and the Ganges by 1835. The British Empire was gaining sound footing in India and Asia. "It would be bad enough to consult their intellectual taste at the expense of their intellectual health".

      10. Free and accessible education appears to be the basic human right in this 21st Century. So is also pronounced in the U.N. charter of human rights. Macaulay observes that, "it is not the fashion for the students in India to study at their own charges." "Nothing is more certain than that it never can in any part of the world be necessary to pay men for doing what they think pleasant and profitable." On all such subjects the state of the market is the decisive test. "Bounties and premiums, such as ought not to be given even for the propagation of truth, we lavish on the false taste and false philosophy." According to Macaulay, money spent on the cause of Arabic and Sanskrit is bounty-money paid to raise up "champions of error". He calls the oriental interests nursed into health by the artificial means and scorns at participation of any system that may give life to them. The relevance of Sanskrit books for the Hindu Law or Arabic books for the Muslim Law did not appear a major obstacle as the Law Commission was there to digest all the laws of India. Likewise, the languages need not be continued to be studied, for Macaulay, only because they contain sacred texts or injunctions. According to Macaulay, teaching through Indian languages may be only perpetuating "false history, false astronomy, false

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

medicine because we find them in company with a false religion". Neutrality in religious teachings is an ideal worth emulating; but to reject other beliefs as false without trial or examination is facetious.

      11. Macaulay is confident and that confidence over the years has been proved right that the natives can learn English with proficiency. That the Hindoos could learn languages better that Europeans becomes a ground to prescribe a medium of instruction, which the natives must learn. But Macaulay's intention was not to educate all the people, the masses of India. "We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect." "To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed from western nomenclature and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for carrying knowledge to the great mass of the population. "Macaulay, thus, thought of creating an "English India", which was on a higher pedestal as against "the vernacular India" or the rural India. He succeeded in the design. The English speaking elite look down upon their compatirot who may not be able to speak or write in English! Language, a means of communication, a medium, became more important than knowledge. In fact, it came to be realized as a synonym for knowledge. The Indian languages, particularly the ancient and classical languages, lost state patronage and in due course also place of pride even amongst their own people.

      12. The adoption of the English language as the medium of instruction tended to produce an unfortunate effect on the cause of education, creative imagination and original thought. Gandhiji described in 1921 the English system of education an unmitigated evil. Even Raja Rammohun Roy, a great votary of English education, wrote copiously on Vedanta and defended it against the hostile criticism of missionaries and himself went on to establish a Vedanta College in which an eminent Sanskrit Pandit gave instruction and the teaching of European science was to be countenanced provided it was done in Bengali or Sanskrit. It was believed that introduction of English education would facilitate and promote science in India. However, promotion of science is not the same thing as promotion of cultural contacts with the Britishers or learning English or admiring English literature. One cannot regard science as a finished product to be imported and yet promote it. Promotion of science depends on the spirit of free enquiry and discovery. Process of scientific discoveries cannot be separated from that of practical inventions. Can indeed the spirit of free enquiry and discovery be promoted if the young mind is

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

imprisoned within the opaque walls of a foreign language? Prof G.C. Pande has discussed this aspect. The fact is that "the use of a foreign language in place of the mother tongue in the educational process tends to stifle originality by interposing a psychological barrier between the language of learning and the language of every day life. Significant originality occurs at the level of concept and image formation. Concepts and images are like sluices through which the material of practical experience passes into thought and attains a new birth into an autonomous looking world. When the student habitually uses one language in his daily life and quite another in serious thought, his world of thoughts tends to become more and more conventional and opaque to him. If Sanskrit education at the end of the 18th century tended to overburden the student with masses of pre-existing concepts, which he could modify and refine but hardly dare overthrow, the English education did not improve the situation at all. In fact, it made it worse because while the Sanskrit scholar provided his own norm and standard and had the freedom to re-interpret the past, which could speak only through the muffled voice of books, the new English student and scholar in India had to constantly approximate to the changing and assertive standards of a foreign country. If the past appeared authoritative to Sanskrit scholars, the past as well as the changing present of a foreign tradition appeared to be authoritative to the new English Scholar in India". "The basic fact remains that language is not a transparent but highly creative symbolism which embodies ways of looking at the world and classifying experience. Different languages, thus, are not perfectly translatable, nor equally relevant to different cultures. Since education is the very process of culture, the use of English for education in India was bound to produce difficulties."

      13. The value of mother tongue is realized in independent India, but the situation has become worse. There is the habit of regarding knowledge as a finished western product. Our educators and students must run faster to imitate the rapidly changing west." The poverty of original thought since Independence is the standing proof of the sterile imaginativeness of our educational system in which higher studies, the teaching of science, social prestige and employment opportunities are largely tied up with English. Diverse cultural contacts do contribute to benefits but not when mediated through compulsion or political subjugation. For progress, values sought to be imbibed from another culture are selectively adapted to ones own needs, perception and traditional values. A lip-service to incompatible or ill-understood ideas of another culture will only take the form of imitation. Only a

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

mature Rammohun Roy or Mahatma Gandhi can delve deep into another civilization and come out with constructive ideas and ideals, which could be at once traditional and modern and truly rational.

      14. It may be pertinent to mention here that the Japanese succeeded in promoting science in their country without using English language in the manner it was done in India. Russia, China, Korea, France, Germany are some other countries which have done well without being children of Macaulay. The great galaxy of names of the 19th and 20th centuries are those, who had European educational background, in addition to the classical and traditional system of education. Ramkrisna Paramahans Vivekananda and Maharshi Dayananda are distinct examples, so also Aurobindo Ghose and Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru, Patel and Subhash Bose. All these eminent men went beyond the pale of the Macaulay's system of education to the British and European universities and imbibed the spirit of enquiry so essential for growth of new dimensions and inventions. The prescription of English imposed restrictions in several ways. Dr. Dharampal has brought out in his book "The Beautiful Tree" the vast evidence and literature on the indigenous system of education that was operating in the county in the 18th century. We read and hear that Tipu Sultan was the first to use a prototype of modern missiles and the Marathas had a powerful navy. A Ranjit Singh could hold in check the push of the British at least during his life time. But the children of Macaulay have now come to learn the benificence of yoga or ayurveda or meditation since it is coming through the medium of English language. We have become the interpreters and must interpret what is given to in that language. In the process, Indian languages and literature have not shown the vibrancy expected so much from a country of one billion people. We have begin to consider anything not available in English as sub-standard. How can our own languages contest such a mindset!

      15. Macaulay had his justification in his approach while writing the minutes. He had little respect for the niceties of the parliamentary practice and procedure and only scorn for the natives and their languages and culture. He carried in his mind "the White Man's Burden" to educate and civilize the world and therefore, govern and determine the course of the life of the millions of the Indians. It is not my endeavour here to go into the question of indigenous education in 18th or 19th century India, nor into the questions of its reach amongst the masses. 'The Wonder That Was India' had ceased to exist; the flow of wealth from America, Africa and Australia had given the English an edge and English officials, aided by the landowners and local traders, dictated a

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

foreign educational policy that neglected the great majority of Indians. Macaulay had, in fact, left these teeming millions at the mercy of the "interpreters" and had cleared his conscience. No wonder at the beginning of the 20th century, Lord Curzon lamented that there was only one English school for a million of Indians. And Mahatma Gandhi said on Oct 30,1931 at Chatham House, London that India was more illiterate that day than it was fifty or hundred years preceding that. The colonial mindset with the imperial decree is still governing the Indian frame of mind in general. We need to come out of it. There is nothing wrong in learning a language or languages. But the mother tongue comes first if one wants to promote genius and creativity. A sound understanding of the mother tongue may give us people having sound understanding, clear vision and a confident person, proud of his rich heritage and enthusiastic to make its richer for the future.

      16. Macaulay had observed, "Indeed it is unusual to find, even in literary circles of the continent, any foreigner who can express himself in English with so much facility and correctness as we find in many Hindoos. "These were not the Hindoos out of or the product of the Macaulay system. But Macaulay had in mind the desire "to make natives of the country thoroughly good English scholars and that to this end our efforts ought to be directed." Demographical change as attempted in some countries by some people and governments was just not possible or applicable to India, a land for which alternatives routes through seas were charted out about three centuries ago by Vasco de Gama and an attempt was also made by Columbus. Considering the size of the land and people, any such attempt was impractical for the people of Britain, who were conscious of it all the time. Therefore, the people and their outlook had to be influenced. Other people, including the Muslims who came to India, settled down and exchanged customs, beliefs and practices and helped in the growth a of strong and vibrant culture and country which is described in the annals of several European travellers. The British on the other hand, had another thing in mind. India was a colony to them; its people and wealth their resource. The people could not be enslaved by force for all the time and so a system and a psychological approach to change the mindset. There was a kind of glasses given to Indians and the world had to be seen only through those glasses of the English language. English was given primacy, which no other language even an European language could deem in India. In the minds of the natives there was no other language or literature or knowledge but English that was to be learnt. In the process only "a single window" was created to the world and the Indian psyche was put in chains. If an idea or thought was worth consideration, it had

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

to come through the vehicle of the English language alone. Anything else was superfluous, subsidiary and redundant. The wonder had ceased to exist and imitation and interpretation became the rule of every day life for an Indian.


As it seems to be the opinion of some of the gentlemen who compose the Committee of Public Instruction, that the course which they have hitherto pursued was strictly prescribed by the British Parliament in 1813, arid as, if that opinion be correct, a legislative act will be necessary to warrant a change, I have thought it right to refrain from taking any part in the preparation of the adverse statements which are now before us, and to reserve what I had to say on the subject till it should come before me as a member of the Council of India.

It does not appear to me that the Act of Parliament can, by any art of construction, be made to bear the meaning which has been assigned to it. It contains nothing about the particular languages or sciences which are to be studied. A sum is set apart "for the revival and promotion of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India, and for the introduction and promotion of a knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories." It is argued, or rather taken for granted, that by literature, the Parliament can have meant only Arabic and Sanscrit literature, that they never would have given the honorable appellation of 'a learned native' to a native who was familiar with the poetry of Milton, the Metaphysics of Locke, and the Physics of Newton; but that they meant to designate by that name only such persons as might have studied in the sacred books of the Hindoos all the uses of cusa-grass, and all the mysteries of absorption into the Deity. This does not appear to be a very satisfactory interpretation. To take a parallel case; suppose that the Pacha of Egypt, a country once superior in knowledge to the nations of Europe, but now sunk far below them, were to appropriate a sum for the purpose of reviving and promoting literature, and encouraging learned natives of Egypt', would anybody infer that he meant the Youth of his pachalic to give years to the study of hieroglyphics, to search into all the doctrines disguised under the fable of Osiris, and to ascertain with all possible accuracy the ritual with which cats and onions were anciently adored? Would he be justly charged with inconsistency, if, instead of employing his young subjects in deciphering obelisks, he were to order them to be instructed in the English and

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

French languages and in all the sciences to which those languages are the chief keys.

      The words on which the supporters of the old system rely do not bear them out, and other words follow which seem to be quite decisive on the other side. This lac of Rupees is set apart, not only, for 'reviving literature in India' the phrase on which their whole interpretation is founded, but also for 'the introduction and promotion of a knowledge of the sciences among the inhabitants of the British territories,'—words which are alone sufficient to authorise all the changes for, which I contend.

      If the Council agree in my construction, no Legislative Act will be necessary. If they differ from me, I will prepare a short Act rescinding that clause of the Charter of 1813, from which the difficulty arises.

      The argument, which I have been considering, affects only the form of proceeding. But the admirers of the Oriental system of education, have used another argument, which, if we admit it to be valid, is decisive against all change. They conceive that the public faith is pledged to the present system, and that to alter the appropriation of any of the funds which have hitherto been spent in encouraging the study of Arabic and Sanscrit, would be downright spoliation. It is not easy to understand by what process of reasoning they can have arrived at this conclusion. The grants, which are made from the public purse for the encouragement of literature differed in no respect from the grants which are made from the same purse for other objects of real or supposed utility. We found a sanatarium on a spot which we suppose to be healthy. Do we thereby pledge ourselves to keep a sanatarium there, if the result should not answer our expectation? We commence the erection of a pier. Is it a violation of the public faith to stop the works, if we afterwards see reason to believe that the building will be useless? The rights of property are undoubtedly sacred. But nothing endangers those rights 80 much as the practice, now unhappily too common, of attributing them to things to, which they do not belong. Those who would impart to abuses the sanctity of property are in truth imparting to the institution of property the unpopularity and the fragility of abuses. If the Government has given to any person a formal assurance; may, if the Government has excited in any person's mind a reasonable expectation that he shall receive a certain income as a teacher or a learner of Sanscrit or Arabic, I would respect that person's pecuniary interests—I would rather err on the side of liberality to individuals than suffer the public faith to be called in question. But to talk of a Government pledging itself to teach certain languages and certain sciences, though those languages

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

may become useless, though those sciences may be exploded, seems to me quite unmeaning. There is not a single word in any public instructions, from which it can be inferred that the Indian Government ever intended to give any pledge on this subject, or ever considered the destination of these funds as unalterably fixed. But had it been otherwise, I should have denied the competence of our predecessors to bind by any pledge on such a subject. Suppose that a Government had in the last century enacted in the most solemn manner that all its subjects should, to the end of time, be inoculated for the small-pox: would that Government be bound to persist, in the practice after Jenner's discovery? These promises, of which nobody claims the performance, and from which nobody can grant a release; these vested rights, which vest in nobody; this property without proprietors; this robbery, which makes nobody poorer, may be comprehended by persons of higher faculties than mine. I consider this plea merely as a set form of words, regularly used both in England and in India, in defence of every abuse for which no other plea can be set up.

      I hold this lac of rupees to be quite at the disposal of the Governor-General in Council, for the purpose of promoting learning in India, in any way, which may be thought most advisable. I hold his Lordship to be quite as free to direct that it shall no longer be employed in encouraging Arabic and Sanscrit he is to direct that the reward for killing tigers in Mysore shall be diminished, or that no more public money shall be expended on the chanting at the cathedral. We now come to the gist of the matter. We have a fund to be employed Government shall direct for the intellectual improvement of the people this country. The simple question is; what is the most useful way of employing it?

      All parties seem to be agreed on one point, that the dialects commonly spoken among the natives of this part of India, contain neither, literary nor scientific information, and are, moreover, so poor and rude that, until they are enriched from some other quarter, it will not be easy to translate any valuable work into them. It seems to be admitted on all sides, that the intellectual improvement of those classes of the people who have the means of pursuing higher studies can at present be effected only by means of some language not vernacular amongst them.

      What then shall that language be? One-half of the Committee maintain that it should be the English. The other hall strongly recommend the Arabic and Sanscrit. The whole question seems to me to be, which language is the best worth knowing?

      I have no knowledge of either Sanscrit or Arabic. But I have done what I could to form a correct estimate of their value. I have read translations of the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

most celebrated Arabic and Sanscrit works, I have conversed both here and at home with men distinguished by their proficiency in the eastern-tongues. I am quite ready to take the oriental learning at the valuation of the Orientalists themselves. I have never found one among them who could deny that a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of India and Arabia. The intrinsic superiority of the western literature is, indeed, fully admitted by those members of the Committee who support the Oriental plan of education.

      It will hardly be disputed, I suppose, that the department of literature in which the eastern writers stand highest is poetry. And I certainly never met with any Orientalist who- ventured to maintain that the Arabic and Sanscrit poetry could be compared to that of the great European nations. But when we pass from works of imagination to works in which facts are recorded, and general principles investigated, the superiority of the Europeans becomes absolutely immeasurable. It is, I believe, no exaggeration to say, that all the historical information which has been collected from all the books written in the Sanscrit language is less valuable than what may be found in the most paltry abridgments used at preparatory schools in England. In every branch of physical or moral philosophy, the relative position of the two nations is nearly the same.

      How, then, stands the case? We have to educate a people who cannot at present be educated by means of their mother-tongue. We must teach them some foreign language. The claims of our own language it is hardly necessary to recapitulate. It stands pre-eminent even among the languages of the West. It abounds with works of imagination not inferior to the noblest which Greece has bequeathed to us; with models of every species of eloquence, with historical compositions, which, considered merely as narratives, have seldom been surpassed, and which, considered as vehicles of ethical and political instruction, have never been equalled; with just and lively representations of human life and human nature; with the most profound speculations on metaphysics, morals, government, jurisprudence, and trade ; with full and correct information respecting every experimental science which tends to preserve the health, to increase the comfort, or to expand the intellect of man. Whoever knows that language has ready access to all the was intellectual wealth, which all the wisest nations of the earth have created and hoarded in the course of ninety generations. It may safely be said, that the literature now extant in that language is of far greater value than all the literature which three hundred years ago was extant in all the languages of the world together. Nor is this all. In India, English is the language spoken by the ruling class. It is spoken by the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

higher class of natives at the seats of Government. It is likely to become the language of commerce throughout the seas of the East. It is the language of two great European communities which are rising, the one in the south of Africa, the other in Australasia; communities which are every year becoming more important, and more closely connected with our Indian empire. Whether we look at the intrinsic value of our literature, or at the particular situation of this country, we shall see the strongest reason to think that, of all foreign tongues, the English tongue is that, which would be the most useful to our native subjects.

      The question now before us is simply whether, when it is in our power to teach this language, we shall teach languages in which, by universal confession, there are no books on any subject which deserve to be compared to our own; whether when we can teach European science, we shall teach systems which, by universal confession, whenever they differ from those of Europe, differ for the worse; and whether, when we can patronise sound philosophy and true history, we shall countenance, at the public expense, medical doctrines, which would disgrace an English farrier, astronomy—which would move laughter in girls at an English boarding school—history, abounding with kings thirty feet high, and reigns thirty thousand years long—and geography, made up of seas of treacle and seas of butter.

      We are not without experience to guide us. History furnishes several analogous cases, and they all teach the same lesson. There are in modern times, to go no further, two memorable instances of a great impulse given to the mind of a whole society—of prejudices overthrown—of knowledge diffused—of taste purified—of arts and sciences planted in countries which had recently been ignorant and barbarous.

      The first instance to which I refer, is the great revival of letters among the western nations at the close of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth century. At that time almost every thing that was worth reading was contained in the writings of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Had our ancestors acted as the Committee of Public Instruction has hitherto acted; had they neglected the language of Cicero and Tacitus; had they confined their attention to the old dialects of our own island; had they printed nothing and taught nothing at the, universities but chronicles in Anglo-Saxon, and romances in Norman-French, would England have been what she now is. What the Greek and Latin were to the contemporaries of More and Ascham, our tongue is to the people of India. The literature of England is now more valuable than that of classical antiquity. I doubt whether the Sanscrit literature be as valuable as that of our Saxon and

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Norman progenitors. In some departments—in history, for example, I am certain that it is much less so.

      Another instance may be said to be still before our eyes. Within the last hundred and twenty years, a nation which had previously been in a state as barbarous as that in which our ancestors were before the crusades, has gradually emerged from the ignorance in which it was sunk, and has taken its place among civilised communities. I speak of Russia. There is now in that country a large educated class, abounding with persons fit to serve the State in the highest functions, and in nowise inferior to the most accomplished men who adorn the best circles of Paris and London. There is reason to hope that this vast empire, which in the time of our grandfathers was probably behind the Punjab, may in the time of our grandchildren, be pressing close on France and Britain in the career of improvement. And how was this charge effected? Not by flattering national prejudices; not by feeding the mind of the young Muscovite with the old woman's stories which his rude fathers had believed: not by filling his head with lying legends about St. Nicholas: not by encouraging him to study the great question, whether the world was or was not created on the 13th of September:, not by calling him 'a learned native,' when he has mastered all these points of knowledge: but by teaching him those foreign languages in which the greatest mass of information had been laid up, and thus putting all that information within his reach. The languages of Western Europe civilised Russia. I cannot doubt that they will do for the Hindoo what they have done for the Tartar.

      And what are the arguments against that course which seems to be alike recommended by theory and by experience? It is said that we ought to secure the co-operation of the native public, and that we can do this only by teaching Sanscrit and Arabic.

      I can by no means admit that when a nation of high intellectual attainments undertakes to superintend the education of a, nation comparatively ignorant, the learners are absolutely to prescribe the course which is to be taken by the teachers. It is not necessary, however; to say any thing on this subject. For it is proved by unanswerable evidence that we are not at present securing the co-operation of the natives. It would be bad enough to consult their intellectual taste at the expense of their intellectual health. But we are consulting neither, we are withholding from them the learning for which they are craving, we are forcing on them the mock-learning which they nauseate.

      This is proved by the fact that we are forced to pay bur Arabic and Sanscrit students, while those who learn English are willing to pay us. All the declamations

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

in the world about the love and reverence of tile natives for their sacred dialects will never, in the mind of any impartial person, out weight the undisputed fact, that we cannot find, in all our vast empire, a single student who will let us teach him those dialects unless we will pay him.

      I have now before me the accounts of the Madrassa for one month, the month of December 1833. The Arabic students appear to have been seventy seven in number. All receive stipends from the public. The whole amount paid to them is above 500 rupees a month. On the other side of the account stands the following item: Deduct amount realised from the out-students of English for the months of May, June and July last, 103 rupees.

      I have been told that it is merely from want of local experience that I am surprised at these phenomena, and that it is not the fashion for students in India to study at their own charges. This only confirms me in my opinion. Nothing is more certain than that it never can in any part of the world be necessary to pay men for doing what they think pleasant and profitable. India is no exception to this rule. The people of India do not require to be paid for eating rice when they are hungry, or for wearing woollen cloth in the cold season. To come nearer to the case before us, the children who learn their letters and a little elementary Arithmetic from the village school master are not paid by him. He is paid for teaching them. Why then is it necessary to pay people to learn Sanscrit and Arabic? Evidently because it is universally felt that the Sanscrit and Arabic are languages, the knowledge of which does not compensate for the trouble of acquiring them. On all such subjects the state of the market is the decisive test.

      Other evidence is not wanting, if other evidence were required. A petition was presented last year to the Committee by several ex-students of the Sanscrit College. The petitioners stated that they had studied in the college ten or twelve years; that they had made themselves acquainted with Hindoo literature and science; that they had received certificates of proficiency and what is the fruit of all this! "Notwithstanding such testimonials," they say, 'we have but little prospect of bettering our condition without' the kind assistance of your Honorable Committee, the indifference with which we are generally looked upon by our countrymen leaving no hope of encouragement and assistance from them." They therefore beg that they may be recommended to the Governor-General for places under the Government, not places of high dignity or emolument, but such as may just enable them to exist.

      "'We want means," they say, "for a decent living, and for our progressive improvement, which, however, we cannot obtain without the assistance of

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Government, by whom we have been, educated and maintained from childhood. " They conclude by representing, very pathetically, that they are sure that it was never the intention of Government, after behaving so liberally to them during' their education, to abandon them to destitution and neglect.

      I have been used to see petitions to Government for compensation. All these petitions, even the most unreasonable of them, proceeded on the supposition that some loss had been sustained—that some wrong had been inflicted. These are surely the first petitioners who ever demanded compensation for having been educated gratis—for having been supported by the public during twelve years, and then sent forth into the world well furnished with literature and science. They represent their education as—an injury, which gives them a claim on the Government for redress, as an injury for which the stipends paid to them during the infliction were a very inadequate compensation. And I doubt not that they are in the right. They have wasted the best years of life in learning what procures for them neither bread nor respect. Surely we might, with advantage, have saved the cost of making these persons useless and miserable; surely, men may be brought up to be burdens to the public and objects of contempt to their neighbours at a somewhat smaller charge to the State. But such is our policy. We do not even stand neuter in the contest between truth and falsehood. We are not content to leave the natives to the influence of their own hereditary prejudices. To the natural difficulties, which obstruct the progress of sound science in the East, we add fresh difficulties of our own making. Bounties and premiums, such as ought not to be given even for the propagation of truth, we lavish on the false taste and false philosophy.

      By acting thus we create the very evil which we fear. We are making that opposition which we do not find. What we spend on the Arabic and Sanscrit colleges is not merely a dead loss to the cause of truth; it is bounty-money paid to raise up champions of error. It goes to form a nest, not merely of helpless place-hunters, but of bigots prompted alike by passion and by interest to raise a cry against every useful scheme of education. If there should be any opposition among the natives to the change, which I recommend, that opposition will be the effect of our own system. It will be headed by persons supported by our stipends and trained in our colleges. The longer we persevere in our present course, the more formidable will that opposition be. It will be every year reinforced by recruits whom we are paying. From the native society left to itself, we have no difficulties to apprehend; all the murmuring will come from that orienal interest which we have, by artificial means, called into being, and nursed into strength.

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 There is yet another fact, which is alone sufficient to prove that the feeling of the native public, when left to itself, is not such as the supporters of the old system represent it to be. The Committee have thought fit to lay out above a lac of rupees in printing Arabic and Sanscrit books. Those books find no purchasers. It is very rarely that a single copy is disposed of. Twenty-three thousand volumes, most of them folios and quartos, fill the libraries, or rather the lumber-rooms, of this body. The Committee contrive to get rid of some portion of their vast stock of oriental literature by giving books away. But they cannot give so fast as they print. About twenty thousand rupees a year are spent in adding fresh masses of waste paper to a hoard, which, I should think, is already sufficiently ample. During the last three years, about sixty thousand rupees have been expended in this manner. The sale of Arabic and Sanscrit books, during those three years, has not yielded quite one thousand rupees. In the mean time the School-Book Society is selling seven or eight thousand English volumes every year, and not pays the expenses of printing, but realises a profit of 20 per cent, on its outlay.

      The fact that the Hindoo law is to be learned chiefly from Sanscrit books, and the Mohomedan law from Arabic books, has been much insisted on, but seems not to bear at all on the question. We are commanded by Parliament to ascertain and digest the laws of India. The assistance of a Law Commission has been given to us for that purpose. As soon as the code is promulgated, the Shasters and the Hedaya will be useless to a Moonsiff or Sudder Ameen. I hope and trust that before the boys who are now entering at the Madrassa and the Sanscrit College have completed their studies, this great work will be finished. It would be manifestly absurd to educate the rising generation with a view to a state of things, which we mean to alter before they reach manhood.

      But there is yet another argument which seems even more untenable. It is said that the Sanscrit and Arabic are the languages in which the sacred books of a hundred millions of people are written, and that they are, on that account, entitled to peculiar encouragement. Assuredly it is the duty of the British Government in India to be not only tolerant, but neutral on all religious questions. But to encourage the study of a literature admitted to be of small intrinsic value, only because that literature inculcates the most serious errors on the most important subjects, is a course hardly reconcilable with reason, with morality, or even with that very neutrality which ought, as we all agree, to be sacredly preserved. It is confessed that a language is barren of useful knowledge. We are to teach it because it is fruitful of monstrous superstitions. We are to teach false History, false astronomy, false medicine, because we find

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

them in company with a false religion. We abstain, and I trust shall always abstain, from giving any public encouragement to those who are engaged in the work of converting natives to Christianity. And while we act thus, can we reasonably and decently bribe men out of the revenues of the State to waste their youth in learning how they are to purify themselves after touching an ass, or what text of the Vedas they are to repeat to expiate the crime of killing a goat?

      It is taken for granted by the advocates of oriental learning, that no native of this country can possibly attain more than a mere smattering of English. They do not attempt to prove this; but they perpetually insinuate it. They designate the education, which their opponents recommend as a mere spelling book education. They assume it as undeniable, that the question is between a profound knowledge of Hindoo and Arabian literature and science on the one side, and a superficial knowledge of the rudiments of English on the other. This is not merely an assumption, but an assumption contrary to all reason and experience. We know that foreigners of all nations do learn our language sufficiently to have access to all the most abstruse knowledge which it contains, sufficiently to relish even the more delicate graces of our most idiomatic writers. There are in this very town natives who are quite competent to discuss political or scientific questions with fluency and precision in the English language. I have heard the very question on which I am now writing discussed by native gentlemen with a liberality and an intelligence which would do credit to any member of the Committee of Public Instruction. Indeed it is unusual to find, even in the literary circles of the continent, any foreigner who can express himself in English with so much facility and correctness as we find in many Hindoos. Nobody, I suppose, will contend that English is so difficult to a Hindoo as Greek to an Englishman. Yet an intelligent English youth, in a much smaller number of years than our unfortunate pupils pass at the Sanscrit College, becomes able to read, to enjoy; and even to imitate, not unhappily, the compositions of the best Greek authors. Less than half the time which enables an English youth to read Herodotus and Sophocles, ought to enable a Hindoo to read Hume and Milton.

      To sum what I have said, I think it clear that we are not fettered by the Act of Parliament of 1813; that we are not fettered by any pledge expressed or implied; that we are free to employ our funds as we chose; that we ought to employ them in teaching what is best worth knowing; that English is better worth knowing than Sanscrit or Arabic; that the natives are desirous to be taught English, and are not desirous to be taught Sanscrit or Arabic; that neither as the languages of law, nor as the languages of religion, have the

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Sanscrit and Arabic any peculiar claim to our engagement that it is possible to make natives of this country thoroughly good English scholars; and that to this end our efforts ought to be directed.

      In one point I fully agree with the gentlemen to whose general views I am opposed. I feel with them, that it is impossible for us, with our limited means, to attempt to educate the body of the people. We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals, and in intellect. To that class we may leave it to refine the vernacular dialects of the country, to enrich those dialects with terms of science borrowed from the western nomenclature, and to render them by degrees fit vehicles for conveying knowledge to the great mass of the population.

      I would strictly respect all existing interests. I would deal even generously with all individuals who have had fair reason to expect a pecuniary provision. But I would strike at the root of the bad system, which has hitherto been fostered by us. I would at once stop the printing of Arabic and Sanscrit books. I would abolish the Madrassa and the Sanscrit College at Calcutta. Benares is the great seat of Brahmanical learning; Delhi, of Arabic learning. If we retain the Sanscrit College at Benares and the Mahomedan College at Delhi, we do enough, and much more than enough in my opinion, for the eastern languages. If the Benares and Delhi Colleges should be retained, I would at least recommend that no stipends small be given to any students who may hereafter repair thither, but that the people shall be left to make their own choice between the rival systems of education without being bribed by us to learn what they have no desire to know. The funds, which would thus be placed at our disposal would enable us to give larger encouragement to the Hindoo College at Calcutta, and to establish in the principal cities throughout the Presidencies of Fort William and Agra schools in which the English language might be well and thoroughly taught.

      If the decision of his Lordship in Council should be such as I anticipate, I shall enter on the performance of my duties with the greatest zeal and alacrity. If, on the other hand, it be the opinion of Government that the present system ought to remain unchanged, I beg that I may be permitted to retire from the chair of the Committee. I feel that I could not be of the smallest use there—I feel, also, that I should be lending my countenance to what I firmly believe to be a mere delusion. I believe that the present system tends, not to accelerate the progress of truth, but to delay the natural death of expiring errors. I conceive that we have at present no right to the respectable name of a Board

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

of Public Instruction. We are a Board for wasting public money, for printing books, which are of less value than the paper on which they are printed was while it was blank; for giving artificial encouragement to absurd history, absurd metaphysics, absurd physics, absurd theology; for raising up a breed of scholars who find their scholarship an encumbrance and a blemish, who live on the public while they are receiving their education, and whose education is so utterly useless to them that then they have received it they must either starve or live on the public all the rest of their lives. Entertaining these opinions, I am naturally desirous to decline all share in the responsibility of a body, which, unless it alters its whole mode of proceeding, I must consider not merely as useless, but as positively noxious.


The 2nd February 1835 

Source : Macaulay's Minutes on Education written in the years 1835, 1836 and 1837


              H. Woodrow, ESQ. M.A.

              Inspector of Schools, Calcutta and

              formerly Fellow of CHIVS College, Cambridge

              Printed by C.B. Lewis, Baptist Mission Press, 1862

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

  C.A.P. CLV


     An Act for continuing in the East IndiaCompany, for a further Term, the Possession of the British Territories in India, together with certain exclusive Privileges; for establishing further regulations for the Government of the said Territories, and the better Administration ofjutice within the same; and for regulating the Trade to and from the Places within the Limits of the said Company's Charter.

      [21st July 1813]

      Whereas by an Act of the Parliament ofGreat Britain, passed in the Thirty third Year of His present Majesty's Reign, for continuing in the possession of the British Territories in India, together with their exclusive Trade, under certain Limitation, and for other Purpose; the Poffe3ssion and Goernment of the British Territories in India, together with an exclutive Trade in, to and from the East Indies, and other the Limits described in an Act made in the Ninth Year of the R?eign of King William the Third, or in a certain Charter of the Fifth Day of September, in the Tenth Year of the same King, were continuted in the United Company of Merchants of Engliand trading to the East Indies, for a Time thereby limited, under certain Regulations and Conditions: and whereas  by an Act of the Parliament of Ireland, passed in the same Thirty third Year of His present Majesty' s Reing, for regulating the Trade of Ireland, to and from the Esst Indies, under certain Conditions and provisions, for a time therein mentioned, the exclusive Privileges granted  to the said United Company by the said Act of the Parliament of Great Britain were confirmed, subject to certain Conditions






33 G.3.c.52











9 & 10 W.3.

c.44$ 61.


10 W.3.

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$ 71.33 G. 3. c. 52.












Former erritorial Acquisitions on India, with late Acquisitions on Continent of Asia, or in any land North of the Equator, to continue in Government of East India Company, for further Term. 


and Restrictions: And whereas it is expedient   that the Territorial Acquisitions mentioned in the said Act of the Parliament ofGreat Britain of the Thirty third Year of His present Majesty, together with such other Territorial Acquititions on the Continent ofAsia, or in any Islands situate to the North of the Equator, as are now in the Possession and under the Government of the said United  Company, with the Revenues there of, should, without Prejudice to the undoubted Sovereignty of The Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland'm and over the same, or to any claim of the said United Company to any Rights, Franchisies or Immunities, remain in the Possession and under the Governmentof the said United Company for a further Term; subjectto such powers and Autorites for the superintendance, Direction and Controul over all Acts, Operations and Concerns, which relate to the said Civil or Military Government or Revenues of the said Territories,and to such further or other powers, Authorities,Rules, Ragulations, and Restrictions, as have been alrady made or provided by any Act or Acts of parliament in that Behalf, or are made and providid by this act :And whereas it is expedient that, from and after the Tenth day of April One thousand eight hundred and fourteen, the right of trading, trafficking and adventuring, in to and from all ports and places within the Limits of the saidUnited Company's present charter, save and except the Dominions of the Emperor of China, should be open to all His Majesty's subjects, in common with the said United Company, subject to certain Regulations and Provisions; but that the existing Restraints respecting the Commercial Intercourse with china should be continued, and the exclutive Trade in Tea preserved to the said company, during the further Term hereby limited;'   

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

May it therefore please Your Majesty that it may be enacted; and be it enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, That the Territorial Acquisitions mentioned in the said Act of the Parliament of Great Britainof the Thirty third Year of His present Majesty, together with such of the Territorial Acquisitions since obtained upon the continent of Asiaor in any Islands situate to the North of the Equator, as are now in the Possession of and under the Government of the said United Company, with the Revenues thereof respectively, shall remain and continue in the Possession and under the Government of the said United Company, subject to such Powers and Authorities for the Superintendance, Direction and Controul over all Acts, Operations and Concerns which relate to the Civil or Military Government or Revenues of the said Territories, and to such further and other Powers, Authorities, Rules, Regulations and Restrictions, as have been already made or provided by any Act or Acts of Parliament in that Behalf, or are made and provided by this Act, for a further Term, to be computed from the said Tenth Day of April One thousand eight hundred and fourteen, until the same shall be determined by virtue of the Proviso hereinafter contained.

      II. And be it further enacted, That the sole and using the Business of Marchandize in, to and from the Dominons of the Emperor of China, and the trafficking in Tea, in, to and form all Islands, ports, Havens, Coasts, Cities, Towns and places, between the cope of Good Hope and the Streights of








Trade China and Trade in tea. Former Acts not re-pealed by or repugnant to Act,continued during further Term.

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Magellan, in such manner as the same Rights now are or lawfullyay be exercised or enjoyed by the said United Company, by virtue of any Act or Charter now in force, but not further or otherwise; and all and singular the Profits, Benefits, Advantages, Privileges, Franchises, Abilities, Capacities, Powers, Authorities, Rights, Remedies, Methods and Things whatsoever, granted to or vested in the said Company by the said Acts of the Thirty third Year of His prefent Majesty or either of them, for and during the Term limited by the said Act of the Parliament of Great Britain, and all other the Enactments, Provisions, Matters and Things contained in the said Acts of the Thirty third Year of His present Majesty, or in any other Act or Acts whatsoever, which are limited, or may be construed to be limited, to continue for and during the Term granted to the said Company by the said Act of the Parliament of Great Britain of the Thirty third Year of His present Majesty, so far as the same or any of them are in force, and not repealed by or repugnant to this Act, shall continue and be in force during the further Term hereby granted to the said Comapany; subject to such Alterations therein as may be made by any of the Enactments, Provisions, Matters and Things in this Act contained.

         III. Provided always, and be it further enacted, That at any time upon Three Years' Notice to be given by Parliament after the Tenth Day of AprilOne thousand eight hundred and thirty one, and upon Payment made to the said United Company, of any Sum or Sums of Money, which according to the Provisions of a certain Act of the Thirty third of the Reign of His present Majesty, intituled An Act for placing the Stock, called East India Annuities, under the Management of the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, and ingrafting the same on the









33 G.3.(1.)




On Expiration of Three Years' Notice by par-liament, any time after 10th April 1831, and Payment of What is due from public to C o m p a n y, Term and ex-clusive Trade to cease.

33 G.3.c.47.$ 7.


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Onus Probandi



Three Pounds per Centum Reduced Annuities,in Redemption of a Debt of Four millions two hundred thousand Pounds owing by the Public to the East India Company; and for enabling the said Company to raise a Sum of Money by a further Increase of their Capital Stock, to be applied in Discharge of certain Debts of the said Company, shall, or may, upon the Expiration of the said three Years, become payable to the said Company, according to the true Intent and Meaning of the said Act, then and from thenceforth, and not before or sooner, the said Term hereby granted to the said United Company, and all Right, Title and Intereft of the said United Company, to or in any exclufive Trade continued to the said Company under the Provisions of this Act, shall ceate and determine.

IV. Provided also, That nothing in the said -Proviso last herein-before contained, or in any Proviso in the said Act of the Ninth Year of King tion or Com-William the Third, or in the said Charter of the Fifth Day of September in the Tenth Year of His Reign, or in any other Act or Charter, Contained, shall extend or be construed to extend, to determine same, be subject to Forfeiture, nor shall the Owners, Master or Crew there of, or any other Person on board the same, be liable to any of the Pains, Penalties, Forfeitures or Disabilities hereinbefore mentioned, on account of being or having been within the said Limits: Provided nevertheless, that the Proof of such Ship or Vessels having been driven or forced beyond the said Limits by Stress of Weather or other inevitable Accident, and of having returned within the said Limits with as much convenient Speed as the Safety of the said Ship or Vessel or the circumstances would admit, shall lie on the Party claiming the Benefit of such Exemption; any thing in this or any other Act contained to the contrary notwithstanding.

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Colleges and Seminaries Abroad Sub-ject to Control of Board.




Provision for Schools, Public Lectures or other Literary Institutions for Benefit of Na-tives; regulated by Governor General in Council, sub-ject to Control of Board; but Appointments to Officers there in made Local Governments.



XLII. And be it further enacted, That the said Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India, by force and virtue of this Act, shall have and be invested wit full Power and Authority to superintend, direct and controul all Orders and Instructions whatsoever, which in any wise relate to or concern any Rules, Regulations or Establishments whatsoever of the several Colleges established by the said Company at Calcutta or Fort Saint George, or of any Seminaries which may beestablished under the Authority of any of the Government of the said Company, in the same manner, to all Intents and Purposes, and under subject to all such and the like Regulations and Provisions, as if such Orders and Instructions immediately related to and concerned the Government and Revenues of the said Territorial Acquisitions in the East Indies.

      XLIII. And be it further enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for the Governor General in Council to direct, that out of any Surplus which may remain of the Rents, Revenues and Profits, arising from the said Territorial Aquisitions, after defraying the Expences of the Military, Civil and Commercial Establishments, and paying the Interest of the Debt, in manner hereinaster provided, a Sum of not less than One Lack of Rupees in each Year shall be set apart and applied to the Revival and Improvement of Literature and the Encouragement of the learned Natives of India, and for the Introduction and Promotion of a Knowledge of the Sciences among the Inhabitants of the British Territories in India, and that any Schools, Public Lectures or other Institutions, for the Purposes aforesaid, which shall be founded at the Presidencies of Fort William, Fort Saint George or Bombay, or in any other Parts of the British Territories in India, in virtue of this Act, shall be governed by such Regulations as may from time to time be

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

made by the said Governor General in Council; subject nevertheless to such Powers as are herein vested in the said Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India,respecting Colleges and Seminaries: Provided always, that all Appointments to Offices in such Schools, Lectureships and other Institutions, shall be made by or under the Authority of the Governments within which the same shall be situated.

      XLIV. And whereas the said United Company have lately established, in England, a College, for the appropriate Education of young Men designed for their Civil Service in India, and also a Military Seminary for the appropriate Education of young Men designed for their Military Service in India: And whereas it is expedient that the said College and Military Seminary should be further continued and maintained, and that proper Rules and Regulations should be constituted and established by Authority of Law, for the good Government of the said College and Military Seminary respectively; Be it therefore enacted, That the said College and Military Seminary shall be continued and maintained by the said United Company during the further Term hereby granted to the said Company; and that it shall and may be lawful for the said Court of Directors, and they are hereby required, forthwith, after the passing of this Act, to frame such Rules and Regulations for the good Government of the said College and Military Seminary respectively, as in their Judgment shall appear best adapted to the Purposes aforesaid; and to lay the same before the Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India, for their Revisal and Approbation, who shall thereupon proceed to consider the same, and shall and may make such Alterations therein and Additions thereto as they shall think fit; nevertheless, all

 College and Military Seminary in England, continued; and Directors, with Approbation of Board, to make Rules and Regulations for same.

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such Rules and Regulations shall and may be subject to such future Revision and Alteration by the said Court of Directors, with the Approbation of the said Board, as circumstances may from time to time require in that behalf; and all such Rules and Regulations so framed, approved, revised or altered, shall be deemed and taken to be good and valid in Law, and shall be binding and effectual upon all Perfons and in all Matters belonging, or relationg to the said College and Military Seminary respectively; any Law, Charter or other Matter or Things to the contrary notwithstanding Provided always, that nothing herein contained shall prevent the said Court of Directors from  making such Representation, with respect to any -Alterations in or Additions to such Rules and Regulations which may be made by the said Board -of Commissioners, as the said Court of Directors shall at any time think fit.

      XLV. And be it further enacted. That, from and after the passing of this Act, it shall and may be lawful for the Lord Bishop of London for the -time being, to have and exercise, and he is hereby risuiction-authorized and empowered to have and exercise such Visitatorial Power and Jurisdiction over all such Persons, Matters and Things, belonging or relating to the said College, and in such manner, as shall be appointed and established by the said Rules and Regulations of the said College in that behalf; any matter or thing whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding.

       XLVI. And be it further enacted, That it shall not be lawful for the said Court of Directors to nominate, appoint or send to the Presidencies of Fort William, Fort Saint George or Bombay, any Personin the Capacity of a Writer, unless such Person shall have been duly entered at such College, and have resided there Four Terms, according to the


Directors may make Repre-sentations, re-specting Altera-tion or Addition by Board.


Bishop of Lon-don to exercise Visitatorial Ju-risdiction

Person appointed Writer, to have kept four Terns at college, and pro-duce Certificate of Conformity

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Establishments in College & c.subject to Bord



Principal, and Professors, exempted from parochial Residence. 43 G.3.c.84.& 19


Rules and Regulations thereof; and shall also produce to the said Court of Directors a Certificate under the Hand of the Principal of the said College, testifying that he has, for the Space of Four Terms, been a Member of and duly conformed himself to the Rules and Regulations of the said College.

     XLVII. And be it further enacted, That no  Order for the Establishment of any Office, or the Appointment of any Person to fill the Situation of  Principal at the said College, or Head Master of the Military Seminary, shall be valid or effectual until the same shall have been approved by the said Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India.

      XLVIII. And whereas for the due Performance of the public Duties of Religion at the said College, as well as for the Maintenance of sound Learning and religious Education, it is expedient that the Principal and some of the Professors of the said College should be Clergymen of the Established Church; And whereas it may be expected, that among Clergymen best qualified for such Situations, for their Character and Attainments, some may be possessed of Benefices in Church; Be it enacted, That every Spiritual Person holding the Situation of Principal or Professor in the said College, and actually preforming the Duties of the same, shall be and he is hereby  exempted from Residence on any Benefice of  which he may be possessed, in the same manner as the Spiritual Persons specified in an Act passed in & 19, the For tythird Year of His present Majesty's Reign, intituled An Act to amend the Laws relating to Spiritual Persons holding of Farms; and for enforcing the Residence of Spiritual Persons on their Benefices in England, are by the said Act exempted from Residence on their respective Benesices; any Act, Matter or Thing to the contrary notwithstanding.

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If a Bishop and ThreeArchdea- cons shall be established in Letters Patent: their Salaries to be paid by Co-mpany

         XLIX. And whereas no sufficient Provision hath hitherto been made for the Maintenace and Support of a Church Establishment in the British Territories in the East Indies and other Parts withinthe Limits of the said Company's Charter; Be it therefore enacted, That in case if shall please His Majesty, by his Royal Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the said United Kingdom, to erect,  founci an constitute, one Bishoprick for the whole of the said British Territories in the East   Indies, and Parts aforesaid; One Archdeaconry for the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal; One - Archdeaconry for the Presidency of Fort Saint Pany- George on the Coast of Coromandel; and One Archdeaconry for the Presidency and Island of Bombay on the Coast of Malabar, and from time to time nominate and appoint a Bishop and Archdeacons to such Bishoprick and Archdeaconries respectively; the Court of Directors of the said Company, during such time as the said Territorial Acquisitions shall remain in the Possession of the said Company, shall and they are hereby required to direct and cause to be paid, certain established Salaries to such Bishop and Archdeacons respectively; that is to say, from and out of the Revenues of the said Presidency of Fort William in Bengal to said Bishop, Five thousand Pounds by the Year, at an Exchange of Two Shillings for the Bengal Current Rupee; and to the said Archdeacon of the said Presidency of Fort William, Two thousand Pounds by the Year, at the like Exchange; and from and out of the Revenues of the Presidency of Fort Saint George, On the Coast of Coromandel, to the Archdeacon of the said Presidency of Fort Saint George, Two thousand Pounds by the Year, at an Exchange of Eight Shillings for the Pagoda at Madras; and from and out of the Revenues of the Presidency and Island of Bombay, on the Coast of

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Salaries to commence on taking Office, and to cease when Functions




Bishop to have no Jurisdiction or Functions, except such as may be limited by Letters patent.  



His Majesty may grant to Bishop, by Letters patent, such Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction as he may think necessary













Malabar, to the Archdeacon of the said Presidency and Island of Bombay, Two thousand Pounds by the Year, at an Exchange of Two Shillings and Three pence for the Bombay Rupee.  .

     L. And be it further enacted, That the said  Salaries shall take place and commence from and  after the time at which such Persons as shall be appointed to the said Offices respectively, shall take upon them the Execution of their respective Offices; and that all such Salaries shall be in lieu of all Fees of Office, Perquisites, Emoluments and Advantages whatsoever; and that no Fees of Office, Perquisites Emoluments or Advantages whatsoever, shall be accepted, received or taken, in any manner or on any Account or Pretence whatsoever, other than the Salaries aforesaid; and that such Bishop and Archdeacons respectively shall be entitled to such Salaries so long as they shall respectively exercise the Functions of their several Offices in the East Indies, or Parts aforesaid, and no longer.

      LI. Provided always, and be it further enacted, That such Bishop shall not have or use any Jurisdiction, or exercise any Episcopal Functions whatsoever, either in the East Indies or elsewhere, but only such Jurisdiction and Functions as shall or may from time to time be limited to him by His  Majesty by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of United Kingdom.

       LII. And be it further enacted, That it shall  and may be lawful for His Majesty, from time to  time, if he shall think, fit, by his Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the said United Kingdom, to grant to such Bishop so to be nominated and  appointed as aforesaid, such Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, and the Exercise of such Episcopal Functions, within the East Indies, and Parts aforesaid, as His Majesty shall think necessary for the administering

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Holy Ceremonies, and for the Superintendence and good Goverment of the Ministers of the Church Establishment within the East Indies and Parts aforesaid; and Law, Charter or other Matter or Thing to the contrary notwithstanding.

         LIII. And be it further enacted, That when  and as often as it shall please His Majesty to issue any Letters Patent respecting any such Bishoprick  or Archdeaconry as aforesaid, or for the Nomina-tion or Appointment of any Person thereto, the Warrant for the Bill in every such case shall be countersigned by the President of the Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India.

       LIV. And be it further enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for His Majesty, by Warrant under his Royal Sign Manual, Countersigned by to the Chancellor of the Exchequer for the time

being to grant to any such Bishop and Archdeacons respectively, who shall have exercised in the East Indies or  Parts aforesaid, for Fifteen Years, the Office or Offices of Bishop or Archdeacon, or

either of them, the following Pensions; that is to say, to any such Bishop, a Pension not exceeding Fifteen Hundred Pounds per Annum, and to any such Archdeacon, a Pension not exceeding Eight hundred Pound per Annum; which said Pension shall be paid and defrayed quarterly by the said Company, and shall be deemed and taken as Part of the Political Charges of the said Company

    . LV. And be it further enacted, That, for and during the Continuance of the Possession and Government of the said Territorial Acquisitions and Revenues in the said United Company, the Rents, Revenues and Profits arising from the said Territorial Acquisitions, after defraying the Charges and Expences of collecting the same, shall be applied and disposed of to and for the

Uses and Purposes hereinafter expressed, in the

Warrant for Letters Patent countersigned by president of Board.




His Majesty may grant pensions to Bishops and Archdeacons who have dis-charged Func-tions in india for Fifteen Years.









Applications of Revenues arising from Territorial Acquisitions in India.

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

following Order of Preference, and to or for no other Use or Purpose, or in any other manner whatsoever, any Act or Acts of Parliament now in force to the contrary nowithstanding; that is to say, in the first place, in desraying all the Charges and Expences of raising and maintaining the Force, as well European as Native, Military, Artillery and Marine, on the Establishments in the East Indies and parts aforesaid, and of maintaining the Forts and Garrisons.

in maintaining Forces;
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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


स्वामी दयानन्द के शिक्षा दर्शन में मूल्यों का महत्व

जयदेव वेदालंकार

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


      Why are Indian organizations not world class?

      Throughout the ages, Indian workers were known for their ability to produce unique world class products. It was for our goods that foreigners came to India to partake in our grandeur and thereafter for loot

      and plunder. Obviously, we had created the environment, systems and organizational structures where our workers could give their best.

      In contrast, our educated managers of today have failed to create the systems, which can inspire our workers to give their best.

      Obviously, our education and training and our management style are at fault.

      At a very fundamental level, this fault can be attributed to:

      * lack of development of powers of concentration of mind; and

      * lack of a holistic and long term vision, i.e. lack of spirituality.

      Because of these two reasons:

      * we are unable to apply our mind for perfection, quality and excellence;


      * we have become very petty and narrow-minded and think only of immediate gains instead of the long term good.

If we look at the recent news items we find that spirituality has entered corporate America in a big way. Similarly, executives in Australia and New Zealand are also now realizing that to meet the challenges of the competitive age "Most of the corporate bodies, instead of focussing on merges or acquisitions, are now directing their efforts to get their executives trained in self-development and spiritualization."

      Once words like 'virtue', 'spirit', and 'ethics' got through the corporate door, God wasn't behind. Executives generally aren't an introspective lot, but in the dawn of the New Economy—with no job security or clear career path, with more responsibility and less certainty than ever—stressed out managers increasingly are turning "inside" for answers.

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      * Our Self is the source of all perfection, happiness, power and glory;

      * The purpose of life is to know and to strive to manifest the perfection within, in and through our daily work and interactions;

      * Self-development is the control of mind towards perfection;

      * Understanding that we alone are responsible for all our joys and sorrows and for developing the powers of mind, gives us the inspiration to strive towards the goal by constantly holding on to good thoughts,

          living a regulated and disciplined life and cultivating good habits;

      * To give the conviction that company of good thoughts and daily self-study of ennobling books, life and teachings of sages, and some forms of meditation is necessary to manage unwanted thoughts and

         develop powers of mind—viveka, control, concentration and that is only with greater control over mind that we can achieve greater success, peace and joy.


      * To be a star performer today, mere IQ and qualifications are not enough. More important is: How well we handle ourselves and others. This requires EQ, emotional stability, a big heart, and also SQ,

         spiritual intelligence, a feeling of oneness with all and a spontaneous feeling of love, care and concern for others.

         In whatever we do, are we striving for Quality and Excellence? Excellence and feeling of oneness can be cultivated through training and control of our mind. The inspiration to strive for the highest and the

         best can be kept alive by daily meditation, self-study and reading of the life and teachings of saints and sages and by considering our work and duties as worship.


      Indian culture and heritage can be understood in the light of the life and teachings of Sw. Vivekananda who has been declared, by the GOI  (1984/85), as the ideal for the youth and his Birthday on 12th January

      has been declared as the National Youth Day.

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To develop the habit of reading inspiring thoughts every morning and every evening in the schools can create study circles in each class and provide Time and Space in the Time Table in the first and the last class, of say 15-20 minutes each, for reading of good, inspiring books along with the practice of some form of Silence/Meditation. The Study circles should meet often and discuss the issues, seek classification and take on seva-oriented projects. The class teachers can take the lead in inspiring arid providing enthusiasm.


      * Each soul is potentially divine;

      * The goal is to manifest this Divinity within, by controlling nature, external and internal;

      * Do this either by work or worship, or psychic control, or philosophy— by one or more or all of these and be free;

      * This is the whole of religion. Doctrines, or dogmas, or forms, are but secondary details;

      * The Vedas teach that the Soul is divine, only held in the bondage of matter; perfection will be reached when this bond will burst, and the word they use for it is, therefore, Mukti—freedom, freedom from

         the bonds of imperfection, freedom from death and misery;

      * The background, the Reality, of everyone is that same Eternal, Ever Blessed, Ever Pure, and Ever Perfect One;

      * It is the Atman, the Soul, in the saint and the sinner, in the happy and the miserable, in the beautiful and the ugly, in men and in animals; it is the same throughout. It is the Shining One;

      * Here I stand and if I shut my eyes, and try to conceive my existence, "I", "I", "I"—what is the idea before me? The idea of a body. Am I, then, nothing but a combination of material substances? The

         Vedas declare, "No". I am a spirit living in a body. I am not the body. The body will die, but I shall not die. Here am I in this body; it will fall, but I shall go on living;

      * There is no change whatsoever in the Soul—Infinite, Absolute, Eternal, Knowledge, Bliss, and Existence;

      * Know then, that thou art He, and model your whole life accordingly, and he who knows this and models his life accordingly, will no more grovel in darkness;

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* This truth about the Soul is first to be heard. If you have heard it, think about it. Once you have done that, meditate upon it. No more vain arguments! Satisfy yourself once that you are the infinite spirit. If that

          is true, it must be nonsense that you are the body. You are the Self, and that must be realized. Spirit must see itself as spirit. Now the spirit is seeing itself as the body. That must stop. The moment you begin

          to realize that, you are released;

      * "The background, the reality, of everyone is that same Eternal, Ever Blessed, Ever Pure, and Even Perfect One. Each soul is potentially divine (infinite perfection, shanti and ananda)." Education is

          the manifestation of the perfection;

      * "The education which does not help the common mass of the people to equip themselves for the struggle of life, which does not bring out strength of character, a spirit of philanthropy, and the courage of lion

          —is it worth the name? Real education is that which enables one to stand on his own legs";

      * "We are responsible for what we are, and whatever we wish ourselves to be, we have the power to make ourselves." "Men in general lay all the blame of life on their fellowmen, or, failing that on God, or

         fate. We reap what we sow. We are the makers of our own fate. None else has the blame, none has the praise";

      * "Go on doing good, thinking holy thoughts continuously, that is the only way to suppress base impressions. Never say any man is hopeless because he only represents a character, a bundle of habits, which can

         be checked by new and better ones. Character is repeated habits, and repeated habits alone can reform character."


      Indian organizations are today unable to offer world class results. How do we educate and train the youth who can create the environment and systems where people willingly work together to produce best results, for the good of people? This is our major challenge today. Our present education, training and administrative systems have failed to instill in our people the spirit of service and the striving for continuous improvement and quality in our work.

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      If we look back into our history and culture, we find that our educational systems, leadership values and managerial processes, designed by Rishis, were such that Indian workers could produce unique world class goods which had made India great, the "sone-ki-chidiya", attracting traders, as well as looters from all over.

      After all the foreigners came to India only because of our riches not because we were poor! From holding 23% of world trade we now have only less than 0.2%. From being 1st we have gradually fallen to 5th (in 1947) to about 150th today.

      Is this progress? Is modem education not at fault? Where have we gone wrong? What were the Indian insights? How can they help produce excellence today?

      How a person behaves, feels and thinks and how he conducts himself in a given set of circumstances is largely determined by his value system and the nature of his mind. Knowing the nature of one's mind and how to concentrate, control and direct it in the right direction, is the aim and purpose of education and development.

      The present education system is based on western ethos, which ignores the polishing and development of the inner instrument of man—his mind—and worse, it ignores the innate divinity, the Self within and focuses only on the body, mind and intellect.

      This lack of focus on developing the powers of concentration of the mind and ignorance of the need for the unfoldment of the innate perfection, peace and happiness of the Self, is therefore directly responsible for the lowering of our character and values.

      Indian ethos talks of Rtm (rhythm), a natural harmony, and when we are in tune with this Rtm, we are in a state of dynamic equilibrium, a state of ananda. How to achieve this samatva? The West has now come out with the theory of left brain and right brain, where the left is logical, rational, etc. and the right is holistic, creative, innovative, intuitive, and can create the synthesis between various facets of the One Truth. Unfortunately the entire education system today is focussed only on the left brain development.

      How do we acquire this equanimity of mind? Our self-development programmes will have to focus on this aspect.

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


      We need a set of universal values, which can be taught not only across the country, but globally. A suggested list of five values are being considered as a part of the national curriculum for Education in Human Values. These universal values are:

      i. Good or righteous conduct: Conduct that is not wholly based on selfishness but keeps in view concerns of larger and larger groups, bahujana-hitaya, bahujana-sukhaya, and leads towards the idea that the whole world is our family, is good conduct. When an individual behaves as if he or his group alone matter, then naturally there will be clash of interest and ego will develop which will give rise to negative feelings of lust, greed, anger, attachment, arrogance and jealousy.

      ii. Non-violence: If we propagate that we should go on fulfilling our desires (which in any case are infinite and perhaps can never be satisfied), or that the goodies are limited therefore grab what you can, then we are sowing the seeds of violence. We need to tell people that self-denial and cooperation with each other are much higher values. Spontaneous care and concern for others cannot be forced. It will arise when people know the Highest Truth and the Higher Goal and Purpose of Life.

      iii. Love: Love arises when people get the intellectual conviction that if I help others I am only helping myself, and if I hurt others I am only hurting myself. We are all One, interconnected, interrelated, and interdependent and can live together in Rtm, harmony only if we love one another, see only their positive points and create an emotional bond with the One Truth, the whole universe.

      iv. Truth: Truth is seeing that Reality is One, it is seeking the truth behind all phenomenon and trying to harmonize the wide variety so that it all hangs together in a dynamic equilibrium. Truth is accepting all this variety as a struggle to realize our Oneness with all. That is the purpose of life.

      v. Peace: Peace is the fruit of the practice of the four Values and the realization of the purpose of life. Only when we follow good conduct, become non-violent, are full of love and pursue the path of truth that we can attain the state of perpetual peace and happiness, which we are

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 all seeking from life. Our present tensions and miseries are there only because we are knowingly or unknowingly harming others, are full of negative emotions and indulging in loose passions, falsehoods, etc.

      When we know who we are in essence, that the welfare of one is the welfare of all, that none of us can be a cancer on the whole, that therefore the best policy is to love all, help all, co-operate, be non-violent and pursue the noble path of truth; then alone will all our actions become good for us and for the whole world.

      We need a healthy and universal world-view-of-reality explained in a logical and rational manner so that we can get the intellectual conviction in it. We then need to learn how to control our mind so that it can help and not hinder our path to Perfection. This is our objective.

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When somebody asked Gandhi, "What is your goal in education?" Gandhi replied, "Character-building. I would try to develop courage, strength, virtue, the ability to forget oneself in working towards great aims. This is more important than literacy; academic learning is only a means to this greater end."1 Literacy is neither the beginning, nor the end of education. "Literary training by itself adds not an inch to one's moral height and character-building is independent of literary training."2Here I am reminded of the words of Albert Einstein according to whom, "the most important human endeavour is the striving for morality in our actions. Our inner balance and even our very existence depend on it. Only morality in our actions can give beauty and dignity to life."3 Modern education, based on Cartesian reducationist approach of strict partition between mind and matter teaches us to know about everything except of our inner being. We do not know how much of slave we are of our selfish desires and passions. We may be performing some good acts, unaware that at the bottom of our motivation is a desire for reward, for recognition, for honour, for a 'good return' on 'investment' mode in the form of a temporary sacrifice. So, instead of serving others through these good acts, we end up by serving our own ego.4 The tragedy is that we go on performing bad acts without recognizing that they are bad. The worst is that even if we know that they are wrong, we cannot desist from them, and knowing what is right, we cannot perform it. Our education does not provide us with the capacity to discriminate between right and wrong and to bridge the gap between our prophecy and practice. Hence, thinking 'at the abstract level keep us on the ivory tower untouched by the reality of life. Hence the ideals of liberty, equality, fraternity, etc. are considered desirable on thought level and meant for others rather than ourselves. Even if we deviate from these ideals, we are hardly aware of it.

      To Gandhi, these values of education are not meant for intellectual disussion but for operation in our daily life. If often seems that literate and the so-called educated people are experts of evil habits. The queer teaching methods of today break up the unity of life into two fragments—learning and living. Hence only one who is a master of one's own thoughts can truly practise any ideal, whether it be socialism, democracy or national integration, etc. To

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subscribe to an ideal merely at the intellectual level is hypocrisy and self-deception; it is not brought to the level of practice and conduct. This is what Socrates meant when he said, "knowledge is virtue" or as the Buddha said "Learning is a good thing but it availeth not. True wisdom is obtained by practice only." Even when Christ said, "Love thy neighbour as thyself," he wanted to obliterate the gap between theory and practice. Hence, Gandhian aim of education is human transformation rather than simply to acquire information. Today, ethics, morality compassion and such values are accepted in theory, but are difficult to implement in practice, whereas Gandhi thinks that the very implementation of these values in practical life is the very core of education.


Today there is progressive erosion of values and the resultant pollution of public life. This crisis of values is a highly dangerous development.5 Education seems to be the last hope of humanity because man cannot be made moral under threat or coercion. It is only through the educational processes that people can realize that exploitation, violence and hatred cannot sustain our social stability and peace. A coherent and an operationally viable value system would be inculcated and made more lasting through educational reorientation. This should be borne in mind that "modernization does not imply a refusal to recognize the importance of or to inculcate necessary moral and spiritual values. On the other hand, modernization, if it is to be a Living Force, must derive its strength of the spirit." 6 The expanding knowledge and the growing power, which it places at the disposal of modern society must, therefore, be combind with "the strengthening and deepening of the social responsibility and a keener appreciation of moral and spiritual values."7 All the educationists and education commissions lament the weakening of social and moral values in the younger generation because it is creating many problems. Hence, there has been a serious thinking for the synthesis between science and spirituality, technology and culture, and knowledge of the outer world with the knowledge of the self, the meaning of life. Hence, if education is to be relevant and useful, it must become value-oriented. Even since our Independence, all Education Commissions (1948,1953 and 1964) and the two National Policies (1968 and 1986) have shown awareness and also cencern of introducing social and moral values as component parts of educational processes. In 1959, the Central Advisory Board of Education had appointed a special Committee on Religious and Moral instructions under the Chairmanship of Sri Sri Prakash. But this is

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a tragedy that though the Report has been before the nation, neither the educational institutions nor the educational administrative machine has been keen much less enthusiastic about its implementation until we have been threatened by an all-enveloping culture of corruption and violence. Its undesirable effect on the life and character of the rising generation is more than evident. We should not be shy of talking about moral and spiritual values. Anything that helps us to behave properly towards others is of moral value.


      To my humble self, the root cause of this growing alienation of our educational system with moral and spiritual values despite explicit recommendations of all the Education Commissions, lies in the political leadership and its so-called wrong emphasis on distorted secularism. For example, the relevant clauses9 of the Indian Constitution ... .The framers of the Constitution perhaps failed to take note of the fact that religion is inseparable from life. Besides, Indian culture is deeply rooted in religious and spiritual value. There are many who feel that morality can take the place of religion. We have to understand that the great virtues of loyalty, courage, discipline and self-sacrifice may be used for good and bad ends. "These are essential for a successful citizen as well as for a successful villain."10 Apart from the crucial philosophical question, why should we become moral, we must understand that virtue and vice are determined by the direction in which we move, i.e. our philosophy of life. Hence, morality is taken in a larger sense, it is not enough. Then if we exclude spiritual training in our educational institutions, we would be untrue to our whole historical development and cultural heritage. Hence, 'Secularism' as mentioned in the Preamble of our Constitution, should never mean 'no to religion' but simple that there is no State religion and the State must not be partial to any one religion. On the other hand we had introduced a reverent study of the essentials of all religions, it would have been uniquely rewarding today and much of the virus of religious fundamentalism would have been wiped out. This value of Sarvadharma-Samabhava is not a fad of Gandhiji, but is also in consonance with the spirit of our country. Secularism, as it has been presented by no less a national figure than Nehru, is a negative idea. Itsing tells us that the University of Nalanda was the meeting ground of the different sects and creeds with their "possible and impossible doctrine." Banabhatta's Harsha-Carita refers to Divakaramitra's hermitage of crowds of

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

students belonging to different creeds—Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, Lokayata, etc. In Akbar's Court, there used to be friendly discussion among the followers of the different religions. We can conclude that the proper study of the different religions of the world showing their fundamental unity that they meet in perfect harmony, the Religion of Man. The horizon of religion has been expanding. Swami Vivekananda decries the concept of Personal Religion and stoutly advocates the value of Universal Religion. Tagore speaks of the Religion of Man rather than of a particular sect or community. Gandhi, like Wordsworth's Skylark, sticking to the mooring of his own Hindu religion has advocated of equal respects for all religions. No educational system should have objection to it. Secularism should not mean an irreligious or anti-religious policy; it should belittle the importance of religion as such. Of course, we have to make a distinction between 'religious education' and 'education about religions'. The former is concerned with the teaching of the tenets and practices of a particular religion, whereas the latter is a study of religions and religious thought from a broad point of view—the eternal quest of spirit. "It is necessary for a multi-religious democratic State to promote a tolerant study of all religions,"11 is that its citizens can understand each other better and live with greater understanding and fellow-feeling. If tolerance and mutual understanding are rated as high value in the development of a democracy, highlighting the fundamental similarities in the great religions of the world and the emphasis on the cultivation of certain broadly comparable moral and spiritual values is very purposeful. The Kothari Commission Report laments the absence of provision for education in social, moral and spiritual values, because "in the life of the majority of Indians, religion is a great motivating force and is intimately bound up with the formation of character and inculcation of ethical values."12

      We should not forget that there will be natural points of correlation between the moral values sought to be inculcated and the teachings of the great religions. All religions stress certain fundamental qualities of character,13 such as honesty and truthfulness, consideration for others, kindness, compassion, sacrifice and benevolence, etc. However, it is recommended that besides indirect instruction of values, specific provision for direct moral instruction at the lower level like narration of stories from great religions regarding moral values, accounts of the lives of great religious and spiritual leaders in the study of social studies or literature, celebration of the festivals of different religions, and study of comparative religions and for silent meditation at the higher level of education have been recommended by the Commission.14 Earlier the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Emotional Integration Committee appointed by the Government of India in 1961 headed by Dr. Sampurnanand has recommended explicitly that, "education will be incomplete if students are not helped to appreciate spiritual values, which the various religions present to the people."15 It recommends talks open to all on the teachings of various religions by able and competent persons and "the idea of national unity and unity of mankind should be introduced."16 The document of the National Policy on Education 1967 emphasizes "the cultivation of moral and social values. The educational system must produce young men and women of character and ability committed to national service and development."17 The abortive Draft of National Policy on Education 1979 during the Janta regime giving emphasis on Gandhi's ideas and experiments has advocated the need of "moral education as forming part of the content through inter-related curricular and co-curricular programmes in all subjects and should be the responsibility of all teachers and the entire institution."18 The document 'Education for our people' prepared under the chairmanship of Justice V.M. Tarkunde is critical of the existing educational system which lays greater emphasis on individualism, competition, verbal fluency, or linguistic ability, and more acquisition of information. It suggests that, "in the new system of education, we should recognise the significance of social objectives, cooperation and team works ... and the values of truth, equality, freedom, justice and dignity of the individual."19 Even the Report of the Committee of Members of Parliament on National Policy of Education in 1967 listed as "the most important and urgent reforms needed to transform the existing system of education in order to strengthen national unity, promote social integration, accelerate economic growtn and generate moral, social and spiritual values."20 It has again and again emphasised the cultivation of moral, social and spiritual values of strengthening the moral fibre of the youth.21 The curriculum designed by the NCERT in 1975 has in most unmistakable terms emphasised that "the school curriculum should have a care centering round the objectives of character-building,"22 "cultivation of such qualities as compassion, endurance, courage, decision making, resourcefulness, respect for others, the team spirit, truthfulness, faithfulness, loyalty to duty and the common good."23 The inclusion of values in the objectives of education both at the primary stage,24 and the secondary stage,25 has been carefully designed by the NCERT but also they have not been implemented.


It is true that the Wardha Education Conference on Basic Education in 1937

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

under the chairmanship of Dr. Zakir Hussain did not contain any reference to moral and reigious education,26 Mahatma Gandhi clarified his position to a delegation led by Hindustani Talimi Sangh in June 1938. "We have left out the teachings of religion from the Wardha scheme of education because we are afraid that religions as they are taught and practised today lead to conflict rather than unity. But I hold that the truths that are common to all religions can and should be taught to all children."27 Gandhi was critical of modern education which ignores the culture of the heart and the hand, and confines itself simply to the head."28 Though Gandhi "did not believe in State religion though the whole community had one religion" because religion was a purely personal matter and he did not like State interference in it. He was even opposed to State aid, partly or wholly, to religious bodies, "but this did not mean that State would not give ethical teaching. The fundamental ethics were common to all religions."29 Teaching of fundamental ethics is undoubtedly a function of the State.30 Character-building is the goal of education according to Gandhi.31 The National Education Conference (18-20th December 1977) organised by A.T. Nai Talim Samiti recommends "the inculcation of ethical, moral and human values and proper understanding of the essential unity of and equal respect for all religions"32 to be included in the courses of study from the pre-primary to the University levels.

      In short, culture of heart and development of character was the uppermost in the mind of the Mahatma. Character is above intellectual knowledge which is valueless without character. An ounce of virtue is worth tons of high scientific knowledge or skill. The true "aim of education is not only to prepare a man for a profession, but to make him perform functions other than the production and transmission of wealth or his direct self-preservation."33 He must be awakened of duty to society, nation and humanity. Ideas and ideals quicken the moral life of a people and bring dynamism and purity in social life. 'The end of all education, all training, should he man-making"34 —says also Swami Vivekananda. Education is not the amount of information that is put into our brain and runs riot there, undigested all our lives. We must have life-building, character-making assimilation of ideas. "If education were identical with information, the libraries would be the greatest sages in the world and encyclopaedias the Rishis."35 We may have the most intellectual people the world ever saw and yet we may not come to God at all. On the other hand, irreligious men have been produced from the most intellectual training. Hence, it is one of the evils of Western civilization—intellectual education alone without taking care of heart. "It only makes men ten times more selfish."36

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


It is a tragedy, students are taught everything of universe except his own self. Constant hammering on secularism and modernity have turned the springs of the heart into a commercial account book and naturally, a guardian or a student goes by the market-value of the educational degrees. The present intense individualism forbids the new generation to look beyond his own self. That is why the attempts of all present-day social reformers are doomed to fail. We forget that Science without Spirituality is a demon and Spirituality without Science is a defenseless woman. The greatest exponent of Secularism in modern India Pt. Nehru had to admit "life with science only as its guide and without a spiritual basis is very likely to lead to disaster for humanity."38 The present Western materialism is driving scientific research to the discovery of more and more facts about the external and physico-chemical world. But it is "one aspect only of truth." The other aspect must be sought by an inward journey of exploration. Unless this is done, our emotions and feelings are not linked with the welfare of society and then the educational enterprise will be socially irrelevant. Though, the question of religious education is very difficult, yet we cannot do without it. "India will never be godless. Rank atheism cannot flourish in this land. (But) our religious teachers are hypocritical and selfish, they will have to be approached."39 Besides, "true religious teaching is not matter of literature." The essence of religion is a sound character, faith in God and the conviction that the soul is other than the body. This essential religion can only be learned from the company of good men. My only plan for religious teaching, therefore, is to choose good men as teachers—says Vinoba.40


Education was very close to the heart of Gandhi because he knew that it is the most powerful instrument of human and social transformation. However, he had revolutionary ideas about educational goals and strategies. He tried to break certain established idols also. First, to him literacy is neither the beginning nor the end of education. Secondly, mere intellectual knowledge is only one aspect of education; there are other aspects like proper training of will and emotions and character-building. Thirdly, individual development is not like a watertight compartment. It goes side by side with the development of society. Hence, individualistic values of education is a wrong and worn out conception. Fourthly, we can neither deny the contribution of Science nor we can shut our eyes towards the exploration of our inner self. As said in the


Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 Report. "Man's knowledge and mastery of outer-space and the space within his skull, are out of balance which mankind must seek to redress."41 We have a choice between atom and ahimsa, between co-existence, or non-existence, between universal welfare or global doomsday. We have been living in an age of tension. Hence, unless we develop an attitude of duty without attachment (anasakti), we cannot keep our peace of mind and happiness. Similarly, our modern culture has become the culture of extravagance and endless wants, hence, we adopt an attitude of voluntary simplicity and non-possession (aparigraha), we shall become a slave of our desires and wants. For all these things, we shall have to look within-education of the Spirit, rather than education of matter. Lastly, if education has to become relevant, it must cultivate the value of peace. Peace-education has a tremendous relevance in the present global crisis.42 We have to find out the alternative to war and violence. Peace-education and Peace-Research is not a fad of Gandhi, it is a necessity for the preservation of the present civilization.


      1. Gandhi, M.K., Remakers of India, Carlten Washburne, 1932. pp. 104.105.

      2. Gandhi, M.K., Younglndia, 1.6.1921.

      3. "Foremost Task of Education", Science, Ahimsa Centre, Gujarat Vidyapith, Ahemdabad.

      4. Ananthu, T.S., "Gandhi's Critique of Education", Hind Swaraj: A Fresh Look (Ed.) Nageshwar Prasad, New Delhi: Gandhi Peace Foundation, 1985, p.208.

      5. Challenge of Education : A Policy Perspective, New Delhi: Ministry of Education, Para 1.24, p. 10.

      6. Report of the Education Commission, 1964-66, p.19.

      7. Ibid., p. 19.

      8. Art. 28, "No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds." See Art. 30.

      9. Report of the Committee on Religious and Moral Instructions, New Delhi: Ministry of Education, 1959, Para 30.

     10. Report of the University Education Commission, 1948-49, New Delhi: Ministry of Education, 1962. Para 29, p.300.

     11. Report of the Education Commission, 1966, Para 1.79, pp.36-37.

     12. Ibid., Para 8.94, p.358.

     13. Report of the Education Committee, 1964-66, Para 8.97, p.359.

     14. Ibid., Para, 8.98. p.359; Para 1.76, p.35.

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

15. Report of the Committee on Emotional Integration, 1961, Delhi: Publications Division, 1962, Para, 11.3.5.

      16. Ibid., Para 11.15.

      17. National Policy on Education, New Delhi: Ministry of Education, 1968, Para 3, p.2.

      18. Draft National Policy onEducation 1979, New Delhi: Ministry of Education, Para, 1.3, p.2.

      19. Educationfor Our People—A Policy Frameforthe Development of Education overtheNext Ten Years, New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1978, Para 2, p.2; Para, 3.2, p.18.

      20. Report of the Committee of the Members of Parliament on National Policy of Education, 1967, New Delhi: Ministry or Education, Para 2, p.l.

      21. Ibid., Para, 7, p.2; Para 17, p.6.

      22. The Curriculum for the Ten Year School: A Frame work 1975, New Delhi: NCERT, 1975, Para 2, 9, p.5.

      23. Ibid.

      24. Ibid., Para,, 3.4.5, p.13.

      25. Ibid., Para 3.2.8., p.ll.

      26. Educational Reconstruction, Wardha: Hindustani Talimi Sangh, 1956.

      27. Ibid., p.147.

      28. Gandhi, M K., Young India, 1.9.1921.

      29. Gandhi, M.K., Harijan, 16.3.1947.

      30. Gandhi, M.K. Harijan, 23.3.1947.

      31. Remakers of India, pp. 10-5.

      32. Nation Education Conference: Consensus on Action Programme, Wardha, 1977, Para 2, p.5.

      33. Hardayal, L., Thoughts on Education, New Delhi: Viveka Swadhyaya Mandal, 1969, p.50.

      34. The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Mayavati Memorial Edition, Almorah: Advaita Ashram, 1962, Vol. II, p. 15.

      35. Ibid., Vol. Ill, p. 302.

      36. Ibid., Vol. I, P. 412.

      37. Science and Spirituality : An Explanation, Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram. "Message to Seminar", p. 3.

      38. Johnson, R.E., Scientific Approach to Spirituality. Karnal: Gram Bhawan Prakashan, 1905, pt

      39. Gandhi, M.K., Hind Swaraj, Ahmedabad, Navajiwan, 1958, p. 22.

      40. Bhave, Vinoba, Thought on Education, Varanasi: Sarva-Seva-Sangh Prakashan, 1964 (2nd edn.), (Tr.), p. 125.

      41. Report of the Education, 1964-66, p. 22.

      42. Agrawal, M., Gandhi Marg (Peace Education), Special Number July-August, 1984, p.l.

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1






Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


      Or we may find when all the rest has failed

Hid in ourselves the key of perfect change.

      —Sri Aurobindo, Savitri, p.256

      "Our call is to young India. It is the young who must be the builders

of the new world.—Sri Aurobindo

There are in the history of the earth, moments, hours, special turning points, when all the old standards no longer hold good, when a spirit is abroad that shakes to the core, comfortable beliefs in well-trodden paths. Such occasions demand from us a special heroism for we must surrender our attachment to the settled order of things so as to robustly seek new solutions. We are at just such an instant, that Sri Aurobindo, writing in The Life Divine seems to have been describing where he says that Mankind is in the throes of an evolutionary crisis in which is concealed a choice of its destiny. For a stage has been reached in human evolution where an enormous though one-sided development has taken place. Yet, in certain directions, the human mind stands arrested and bewildered and can no longer find its way. Man has created a structure of external life to serve largely his baser instincts and this structure has now become so huge and so complex as to be unmanageable for his still very limited spiritual and moral capacity, "a too dangerous servant of his blundering ego and its appetites." It is obvious to even the most ordinary mentality that something else is needed: a greater aim, a seeking for a higher truth and good and beauty, "for the discovery of a greater and diviner spirit which would intervene and use life for a higher perfection of the being."

      The twentieth century saw science step aside from its earlier high-standing ideals and become largely a mere hand-maid to technology, often aiding and abetting the selfish self-aggrandizing impulses of nations and peoples.

      "At the same time Science has put at [man's] disposal many potencies of

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

the universal Force and has made the life of humanity materially one; but what uses this universal Force is a little human individual or communal ego with nothing universal in its light of knowledge or its movements, no inner sense or power which would create in this physical drawing together of the human world a true life-unity, a mental unity or a spiritual oneness. All that is there is a chaos of clashing mental ideas, urges of individual and collective physical want and need, vital claims and desires, impulses of an ignorant life-push, hungers and calls for life satisfaction of individuals, classes, nations, a rich fungus of political and social and economic nostrums and notions, a hustling medley of slogans and panaceas for which men are ready to oppress and be oppressed, to kill and be killed, to impose them somehow or other by the immense and too formidable means placed at his disposal, in the belief that this is his way out to something ideal." 1

Utilitarianism and Education

      Humanity stands at the crossroads, and the choices we make today will create the world that our children shall inherit. If a revolution in perspective can take place perhaps we shall be able to create systems of education that can truly empower the youth to comprehend, inwardly and outwardly, the world they confront. On the other hand, educational aims may continue to remain largely utilitarian, that is valuing merely what is useful rather than what is Good and True and Beautiful. And so the system shall continue to construct 'products' whose personalities are oriented mainly towards the pursuit of successful careers and money making. For it is this aim that dominates educational pursuits and institutions, handicapping and dwarfing what should be a sacred vocation.

      And thus it will remain, that at an age when children should be dreaming of beauty, of greatness and perfection, dreams that may be too sublime for ordinary common sense, children now dream of money and worry about how to earn it. What is of greatest value to them in their education is merely what may be useful when they grow up so that they too can earn a lot of money. What happens to the aspiration to learn for the sake of knowledge, to study in order to know the secrets of Nature and life, to educate oneself in order to grow in consciousness, to discipline oneself in order to become master of oneself, to overcome one's weaknesses, incapacities and ignorance, to prepare oneself to advance in life towards a goal that is nobler and vaster, more generous and

1 Sri Aurobindo, The Life Devme, p. 1054

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

more true? All of these, which ought to be the true aim of education, are swallowed up by the terrible modern-day malady of utilitarianism.

The Lessons of History

      There have been cultures and civilizations in humanity's past that based their self-development upon deeper and truer value systems—Ancient India, Hellenic Greece, Renaissance Europe—all are counted as the greatest ages of mankind. But the malady of modem man is the extreme importance he gives to the aptitude for and acquisition of money alone. It is first and foremost a reversal of this perspective, of this economic barbarism, that can give Education a new value-orientation.

      But to truly change one single factor we have also to transform our society and its present value-system for our educational institutions are born of its soil. We can all agree that globalization with its many negative economic connotations has to be replaced by a growing sense of concern for the All; the uncontrolled urge for ever increasing powers and desires superceded by mutuality and brotherhood. But, we ask, how is it possible to build a greater harmonic life in this atmosphere of generalized confusion and discord?

      Man has harmonized life in the past by organized ideation and limitation, he has created societies based on separative fixities—ideas, customs, religions— it is these that shaped the distinct cultures that people the earth. But the world today resembles a vast melting-pot, no one can maintain a splendid isolation from the problems and issues that may arise in another part of the globe. Reason and Science, because they act by standardizing, by fixing into an artificially arranged and mechanized unity, stand arrested and unable to advance new thoughts before this vast intermingling of ideas and forces and peoples—it is apparent that a greater consciousness is called for.

"A greater whole-being, whole-knowledge, whole-power is needed to weld all into a greater unity of whole-life. A life of unity, mutuality and harmony born of a deeper and wider truth of our being is the only truth of life that can successfully replace the imperfect mental constructions of the past which were a combination of association and regulated conflict, an accommodation of egos and interests grouped or dovetailed into each other to form a society, a consolidation by common general life-motives, a unification by need and the pressure of struggle with outside forces. It is such a change and such a reshaping of life for which humanity is blindly beginning to seek, now more and more with a sense that its very existence depends upon finding the way." 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

In this redefining evolutionary moment what are the idea-forces that will help us to create the educational structures that will serve us for the new century? Writing in the Karmayogin in 1910, Sri Aurobindo spoke of the necessity of evolving a system of National Education for India. Many of his suggestions remain extremely relevant today. An education based upon the Indian spirit is indeed something we should have already developed for it would have served us well in meeting the many challenges India confronted. That we did not is a continuing factor in the impoverishment of the Indian mind which, functioning under an imitative foreign impress, has not been allowed to flower into its innate genius.

The Leadership of the Self-developing Soul

      In this context Sri Aurobindo's idea of an integral, a universal education acquires crucial significance. It is the only method by which the youth of today can truly be empowered, taken out of their cynicism which is a cloak for their despondency, and given the tools to take charge of their own destinies. For, indeed, the solution to the present predicament lies not in outer changes but within, in the subjective being of each individual. There is in each human being, a subliminal part which ought to be first discovered and then made the true centre of consciousness. All energies, all processes of education should be directed towards seeking this part of the being which exists veiled and concealed behind one's familial, social, moral, ethical, religious and cultural background. Once located and brought forward to the front, it is this being alone that has the power to take the whole educational process out of its present mechanical round and stereotypical approaches.

As Sri Aurobindo remarks, it is now more or less acknowledged that

"each human being is a self-developing soul and that the business of both parent and teacher is to enable and to help the child to educate himself to develop his own intellectual, moral, aesthetic and practical capacities and to grow freely as an organic being, not to be kneaded and pressured into form like an inert plastic material."

But what is not yet conceived of is the true power and sovereignty of this soul. For if this soul were once allowed to come forward and assume the role of leadership in the psychological nature of the child it:

      "will itself take up most of the business of education out of our hands and develop the capacity of the psychological being towards a realisation of its

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 potentialities of which our present mechanical view of life and man and external routine methods of dealing with them prevent us from having any experience or forming any conception. 3

It is this truth, brought in not merely as an idea, but as the fundamental axis and guiding principle—a standard and a norm that reorganizes—which could give birth to a new arid vibrant method of education, revolutionary in its results for the individual, the society, the nation and also humanity.

      Looked at from this angle the problem of education both individual arid on a mass scale, assumes manageable dimensions. For in each case, the solution lies within the psychological being of the individual—whether teacher or student We must accept that the only way to build truly and permanently is from within outwards. It is this inner self-knowledge that is the pathway to mastery in all domains from the most material to the highest spirit. To attempt or to propose marvellous and progressive ideas on education without this change of consciousness will be shown to be a vain chimera, for we are merely somersaulting upon our habitual centre of gravity. In every case it is the spirit that can create the forms, and if the spirit is sourced in this sovereign part of the being, almost all forms, unless they are totally strait-jacketed, can be rightly fashioned or adapted.

A Reversal of Perspective

      It is thus a radical change in the habitual centre of consciousness that can take the being out of its petty littleness and small life-instincts. Such an inner change, which creates in the human individual a new centre of gravity in his soul, is the only means by which humanity can evolve structures of living based upon unity, perfect mutuality and harmony. It can be said that until this fundamental transformation in human personality is wrought, the destiny of the race will remain dangerously poised. It is demonstrably clear that no real growth or change can be brought about by the present infra-spiritual and infra4ational life-self of humanity. This self in man works under the drive of the vital ego that is easily seized by colossal forces on a scale too large for man's reason and will to handle. A deeper knowledge system is needed. The legitimate question that follows is: does such a systematized knowledge system exist?

      The one country in the world which has had the knowledge of this greater whole-being, whole-knowledge and whole-power is India. Through her various

      3 Sri Aurobindo, The Human Cycle, p.26-27 

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

systems of Yoga she blueprinted and mapped the pathways of the inner worlds, creating a highroad that anyone can tread. In this great age of change, it is she alone if she wills, who can be the physician for the malady that afflicts not only herself but all humanity. But to offer meaningful solutions she has herself to rediscover, and redefine in the light of the modem world, this inner knowledge for it lies locked in her soul-spaces, and secret retreats. And most importantly she must master the material domains that she neglected for so many centuries— and do so if possible in the rhythms of her own particular genius.

      We may equally return to the Upanishadic question: Is there something knowing which, everything can be known? The question gains enormous importance given the present-day complexities of the information-age world where one can spend one's whole life merely 'keeping up' with the knowledge explosion. For India to follow, in her educational philosophy, the already well-beaten outer paths developed by the civilization of the West, will not bring the commensurate progress and growth that we urgently seek for our emergent country for they will keep her always a step behind—no more than a poor and more backward copy of the West.

'The scientific, rationalistic, industrial, pseudo-democratic civilization of the West is now in process of dissolution and it would be a lunatic absurdity for us at this moment to build blindly on that sinking foundation. When the most advanced minds of the Occident are beginning to turn in this red evening of the West for the hope of a new and more spiritual civilization to the genius of Asia, it would be strange if we could think of nothing better than to cast away our own self and potentialities and put our trust in the dissolving and moribund past of Europe." 4

A Value-orientation based upon the Indian Spirit

      The solution can be found in the Indian Spirit, in her subtle and psychical sciences of Yoga which alone can bring about an accelerated development not only in the powers of the mind, but in the psychological personality and character of our people. There is no good reason why the many complex systems of the science of Yoga, that India perfected through centuries, should not be incorporated into the educational systems of India. This will be of great benefit not only for Indians themselves but a confident assertion of this culture's unique contribution towards the concert of human progress.

     4 Sri Aurobindo, Preface to National Education. 

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

"Spirituality [does not mean] the moulding of the whole type of the national being to suit the limited dogmas, forms, tenets of a particular religion, as was often enough attempted by the old societies... Spirituality is much wider than any particular religion...

"India can best develop herself and serve humanity by being herself and following the law of her own nature. This does not mean, as some narrowly and blindly suppose, the rejection of everything new that comes to us in the stream of Time or happens to have been first developed or powerfully expressed by the West. Such an attitude would be intellectually absurd, physically impossible and above all unspiritual; true spirituality rejects no new light, no added means or materials of our human self-development. It means simply to keep our center, our essential way of being, our inborn nature and assimilate to it all we receive, and evolve out of it all we do and create...

"[India] can if she will, give a new and decisive turn to the problems over which all mankind is labouring and stumbling, for the clue to their solution is there in her ancient knowledge, whether she will rise or not to the height of her opportunity in the renaissance which is coming upon her, is the question other destiny." 5

The Individual, the Nation and Humanity

      In his Preface to National Education (1920) Sri Aurobindo spoke of the three things that had to be taken into account in any true or living education. The first was the individual in his commonness and in his uniqueness, the second was the nation or people and the third universal humanity. And of all these education had to take proper account if it wanted to be a living evocation of the powers of the mind and the spirit of the human being. It is without dispute that each element must be brought out to its fullest advantage, but there can be so many varying conceptions that may radically alter approaches to the problem. The unique feature of the thought of India is that it has not looked at man merely from his outward aspect either as a physical being alone or as pre-eminendy a reasoning animal, a thinking, feeling and willing natural existence, a mental son of physical Nature. Nor has Indian thought conceived of man solely as a political, social and economic being. These things have been accepted as part of the instrumentation of man's mind and life and action but not his whole being. For

5 Sri Aurobindo, The Renaissance in India.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

"India has seen always in man the individual a soul, a portion of the Divinity enwrapped in mind and body, a conscious manifestation in Nature of the universal self and spirit. Always she has distinguished and cultivated in him a mental, an intellectual, an ethical, dynamic and practical, an aesthetic and hedonistic, a vital and physical being but all these have been seen as powers of a soul that manifests through them and grows with their growth, and yet they are not all the soul, because at the summit of its ascent it arises to something greater than them all, into a spiritual being and it is in this that she has found the supreme manifestation of the soul of man and his ultimate divine manhood. And similarly India has not understood by the nation or people an organized State or an armed and efficient community well prepared for the struggle of life and putting all at the service of the national ego but a great communal soul and life that has appeared in the whole and has manifested a nature of its own and a law of that nature, a Swabhava and Swadharma and embodied it in its intellectual, aesthetic, ethical, dynamic, social and political forms and culture. And equally then our cultural conception of humanity must be in accordance with her ancient vision of the universal manifesting in the human race, evolving through life and mind but with a high ultimate spiritual aim—it must be the idea of the spirit, the soul of humanity advancing through struggle and concert towards oneness, increasing its experience and maintaining a needed diversity through the varied culture and the motives of its many peoples, searching for perfection through the development of the powers of the individual and his progress towards a diviner being and life, but out too though more slowly afier a similar perfectibility in the life of the race... It must be an education that for the individual will make its one central object the growth of the soul and its powers and possibilities, for the, nation will keep first in view the preservation, strengthening and enrichment of the nation-soul and its Dharma and raise both into powers of the life and ascending mind and soul of humanity. And at no time will it lose sight of man's highest object, the awakening and development of his spiritual being." 6

The Three Principles of Education

      In his earlier preliminary writings on education, Sri Aurobindo speaks of three principles of education. It is easy to see that these are fundamental

6 Sri Aurobindo, Preface to National Education (1920).

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

verities which, sincerely and comprehensively applied, could in themselves bring about a complete change in the way teaching and learning takes place.

1. 'The first principle of true teaching is that nothing can be taught. The teacher is not an instructor or task-master, he is a helper and a guide. His business is to suggest and not to impose. He does not actually train the pupil's mind, he only shows him how to perfect his instruments of knowledge and helps and encourages him in the process. He does not impart knowledge to him he shows him how to acquire knowledge for himself. He does not call forth the knowledge that is within; he only shows him where it lies and how it can be habituated to rise to the surface.

2. "The second principle is that the mind has to be consulted in its own growth. The idea of hammering the child into the shape desired by the parent or teacher is a barbarous and ignorant superstition. It is he himself who must be induced to expand in accordance with his own nature. There can be no greater error than for the parent to arrange before hand that his son shall develop particular qualities, capacities, ideas, virtues, or be prepared for a prearranged career. To force the nature to abandon its own dharma is to do it permanent harm, mutilate its growth and deface its perfection. It is a selfish tyranny over a human soul and a wound to the nation, which loses the benefit of the best that a man could have given it and is forced to accept instead something imperfect and artificial, second-rate, perfunctory and common. Every one has in him something divine, something his own, a chance of perfection and strength in however small a sphere, which God offers him to take or refuse. The task is to find it, develop it and use it. The chief aim of education should be to help the growing soul to draw out that in itself, which is best and make it perfect for a noble use.

3. "The third principle of education is to work from the near to the far, from that which is to that which shall be. The basis of a man's nature is almost always, in addition to his soul's past, his heredity, his surroundings, his nationality, his country, the soil from which he draws sustenance, the air which he breathes, the sights, sounds, habits to which he is accustomed. They mould him not the less powerfully because insensibly, and from that then we must begin. We must not take up the nature by the roots from the earth in which it must grow or surround the mind with images and ideas of a life, which is alien to that in which it must physically move. If anything has to be brought in from outside it must be offered, not forced on the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

mind. A free and natural growth is the condition of genuine development. The past is our foundation, the present our material the future our aim and summit. Each must have its due and natural place in a national system of education. 7

Integral Education

      It is most important to recognize that what Sri Aurobindo and Mother propose is not only a mental principle, it is a new idea of life and a realization of consciousness. It has been said: All life is education. Yes, without a doubt, if one recognizes that one never stops learning, that progress can be made in every least thing, and that growth is the sign of youthfulness and indeed, one can be young at 90 years! Earth is a field of progress, and education is something that must be continued all one's life. It is this that gives interest and meaning to life—the ability and the aspiration to continue to hone one's faculties and develop one's capacities. A high vast and all embracing aim changes the quality of life and if one makes one's aim the growth of consciousness, then one has chosen an immeasurable path for there can be no end, no limit to the growth of consciousness. Schools are merely a preparation to make youth capable of thinking, studying, progressing and becoming intelligent, but the process of acquiring knowledge, and synthesizing it in one's being; increasing one's capacity for heroism and illumination and harmony; working upon one's power to express skill, strength, plasticity, and beauty, must be continued all one's life. For no aspect of knowledge is outside the scope of an education aiming at integrality. Rather than a linear development, one adopts a spherical method that enfolds all the world and nature too and studies its many processes from the physical to the psychical. All subjects: ethics, aesthetics, the humanities and the sciences are means by which one can touch the overarching aim which is to arrive at a unity and synthesis of knowledge based upon a deeper poise of the being.

      It is such an Integral education built upon a deeper center of gravity, a psychic and spiritual education that Sri Aurobindo envisioned for the youth of India. Commenting on this 'knowledge of the Spirit' that India nurtured through millennia, Mother remarked:

      "India has or rather had the knowledge of the Spirit, but she neglected

      matter and suffered for it.

      "The West has the knowledge of matter but rejected the Spirit and suffer badly for it.

7 Sri Aurobindo, The Human Mind—A National System of Education (1910)

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 "An integral education which could, with some variations, be adapted to all the nations of the world, but bring back the legitimate authority of the Spirit over a matter fully developed and utilized." 8

What then is the 'legitimate authority of the Spirit' that India knew and understood? What are the elements necessary to create a true Integral education? How does one create a matter 'fully developed and utilized' but placed at the service of the deeper truth of the spirit? It is in seeking answers to these questions that a comprehensive picture of the education that Sri Aurobindo and Mother envisioned will emerge.

The Parts of the Nature

The Mental Being

      An analysis of the planes and parts of the being creates a perspective of the elements necessary in any 'organized' growth of consciousness? The outer instrumental nature of the human being is composed of the mind, the life and the body and there is the 'inner nature' composed of the psychic and the spiritual being. In any system of education, each of these parts requires a separate and finely honed action of development. But most systems stop at the first three: the mind, the life-force and the body, for the other deeper parts are seldom even conceived, leave alone addressed. Indian Education can and should base itself on the deeper layers and allow them to orient the work and the action upon the outer instrumental nature.

      In one of his early essays, Sri Aurobindo discussed the structure of the external mind. This is composed first of the active and passive memory—the citta. Then there is the mind-layer, manas, the sixth sense of Indian terminology and finally the intellect or buddhi, which is the aspect of the rational being. There are upper layers of the, which include sovereign discernment, intuition and illumination among them, but these are the domains of the higher mind which can be systematically acquired only through the pursuit of Yoga. Each of these levels has their proper place in any system aimed at self-development, but, in recent times, education in India has given undue importance to the memory while neglecting to address or to awaken the mental powers of observation, comprehension, expansion, discrimination, discernment and synthesis. The capacity for reflective thought—vichar, and discriminative intelligence—vivek which were once so valued, capacities that should be and could be, native to the Indian mind are no more encouraged in the present

     8 The Mother, CWM, Vol. 12 p.251 

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

system. All educational thinkers have lamented the lack of real and profound thinking skills in modern India. In a letter, written around 1920 Sri Aurobindo made this telling comment:

"I believe that the main cause of India's weakness is not subjection, nor poverty, nor kick of spirituality or Dharma, but a diminution of thought-power, the spread of ignorance in the motherland of Knowledge. Everywhere I see an inability or unwillingness to think—incapacity of thought or 'thought-phobia'."9

Thus he saw that if India had to arise and fulfill her potential, the youth of India had to learn to think and to think deeply, independently and fruitfully:

"Our first necessity, if India is to survive and do her appointed work in the world, is that the young of India should learn to think—to think on all subjects, to think independently fruitfully going to the heart of things, not stopped by their surface, free of prejudgments, shearing sophism and prejudice asunder as with a sharp sword, smiting down obscurantism of all kinds as with the mace of Bhima... In India alone there is self-contained, dormant, the energy and invincible spiritual individuality which can yet arise and break her own and the world's fetters."10

For it is only when the young of India—indeed all of India, but our concern is especially for the future nation-builders—think originally, concentratedly, and clear-sightedly, that an Indian renaissance will come about The young minds should become wide, complex, supple and capable of a comprehensive synthesis.

      It is when one has created a widespread habit of original thought which pervades all aspects of life that one can consider an education that teaches one to think in ideas -ideas that will be creative forces to improve and change society. Finally, if the capacity of concentration is cultivated to bring about thought-control leading to mental silence and a growing receptivity to higher inspirations, the youth of India could even acquire the power to 'think' in experiences, of old, India had this gift—usually latent in human beings— developed to its full effulgence in the lives and actions of her robust soul-spirits, the Rishis, who were the true creators of our ancient long-lasting culture. It is the experiences, of these seer-poets that one finds recorded, through the medium of a finest poetic expression, in her ancient books of knowledge. The

 9 Sri Aurobindo, 1920 Letter to Barin, Original Bengali, Archives and Research.

 10 Sri Aurobindo, Archives and Research, April 1981, p.1-6.

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 youth of India must acquire a living contact with this sublime universal heritage, the solid bedrock and foundation of India, as the ideal to which they too can aspire.

 The Aesthetic and Ethical side of the Being

      The mental being of man has a sort of triangular disposition—there is in our mentality a side of will, conduct, character which creates the ethical man; there is another side of sensibility to the beautiful—understanding beauty in no narrow or hyper-artistic sense—which creates the artistic and aesthetic man. Above these is the intellect or rational being. Often it is found that the aesthetic and the ethical represent two conflicting ideals, which must naturally stand opposed and look askance at each other with a mutual distrust or even reprobation. An ethical self-culture aimed at developing will and character, leading to self-discipline and finally self-mastery is the essential back-bone upon which educational structures should be built for without character, without some kind of high or strong discipline there is no enduring power of life.

      The ethical being in us is the seeker for the Good, just as the aesthetic being is the seeker for the Beautiful. A balanced development of these two sides of the being is indispensable. Ancient India gives us a luminous example of a civilization that, neglecting neither aspect, found just such a harmonious balance between these two essential impulses in the human personality. This culture's great idea-force: Dharma, stands testimony to the high-charactered people and enduring civilization this master idea helped to shape. The other idea-force rooted in Indian thought, is that it is Delight, Ananda that has created the universe. This is demonstrated in the common conceptions of the Divine as Sachchidananda or as Satyam Shivam Sundaram. This Delight of existence pervaded and influenced all of India's art, painting, music, literature, sculpture and architecture. A sense of a deep joy of existence is the master-impulse of Indian Artistic expression, which as its primarily impulse, sought for the Divine as the All-beautiful.

      If the education provided to the youth of today can encourage them to nurture in themselves a similar love of beauty through a tapasya of art and all forms of creativity, of music and poetry and literature, this 'worship' can in itself transmute the nature and uplift it to its spiritual heights. But even from an ordinary level, the power of a highly developed aesthetic sense to influence every part of the being is invaluable—for when one habitually surrounds oneself with all that is beautiful, noble, fine and harmonious one can grow into

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

the image of that which one contemplates. The sense of beauty can equally awaken within oneself the idea of giving expression to a conduct that is always beautiful, refined and noble. For one instinctively abjures anything vulgar, low or ugly. And then, there is too an intellectual utility in educating the aesthetic faculty, for a mind that is accustomed to a training in art develops mobility, subtlety, fineness and delicacy.

 "Poetry raises the emotions and gives each its separate delight. Art stills the emotions and teaches them the delight of restrained and limited satisfaction.......Music deepens the emotions and harmonises them with

 each other.

 Between them, music, art and poetry are a perfect education for the soul; they make and keep its movements purified, self-controlled deep and harmonious.

 These therefore are agents which cannot profitably be neglected by humanity in its onward march or degraded to the mere satisfaction of sensuous pleasure which will disintegrate rather than build the character. They are when properly used, great educating, edifying and civilizing forces." 11

The Vital Being

      So long as we pursue knowledge for its own sake, there is nothing to be said: the reason is performing its natural function; it is exercising securely its highest right. It is when reason tries to apply its ideas to life that the human intellect stumbles and finds itself at a loss. It is perhaps for this reason that the development of the life domains has often been neglected. It is at great cost to herself, that in her last millennia India chose to neglect life. For of what use are the acquisitions of the gifts of the spirit if there is a sheer impoverishment of life?

      The Vital being is the seat of power in the human personality. It is in the vital that thought is transformed into will and becomes a dynamism for action. The vital is also the seat of desires and passions, of violent impulses and reactions and revolts and depression. It is for this reason that many disciplines seek to starve the vital into submission. But this is hardly an intelligent doctrine. It is by enlightening, strengthening and purifying the vital that one can progress. The youth of India ought to develop the habit of heroism, of self-sacrifice, of a vast and selfless energy of service. It is these habits that give real

11 Sri Aurobindo, Essay—National Value of Art.

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

meaning to life that can awaken one to the delight and harmony and beauty of existence. It is not a coincidence that when the action of heroic self-sacrifice became generalized amongst the Indian people as it did in the Freedom Struggle, a new energy, marvelous and mystical in action and unity and force of movement was born in the country. What wants to be awakened in India is the eagle-soar of the leonine warrior spirit, not the cold comfort and weak security of the bourgeois.

      The tapasya of beauty, starting with the training, cultivation and refining of the senses leading to the fostering of the aesthetic capacity is the most marvelous way to educate and refine the vital. The tapasya of character, leading to the birth of nobility, heroism and disinterested action are the mark of a cultivated and illumined vital and every youth of India should be given conditions that help him acquire these qualities. Our aim should be a spiritualized society, but to achieve it we need a highly developed, richly empowered, illumined life-force.

"It is a great error to suppose that spirituality flourishes best In an impoverished soil with the lift half-killed and the intellect discouraged and intimidated. The spirituality that so flourishes is something morbid, hectic and exposed to perilous reactions. It is when the race has lived most richly and thought most profoundly that spirituality finds its heights and its depths and its constant and many-sided fruition.''12

The Body

      The body is the base and pedestal on which all the qualities and capacities of the being rest. Thus a proper and comprehensive physical culture is an essential foundation upon which all education must be built. Sri Aurobindo gave great importance to the need for a discipline aimed at the perfection of the body. It is this part of the being that lends itself most to organization, order and regulation.

"The perfection of the body, as great a perfection as we can bring about by the means at our disposal, must be the ultimate aim of physical culture. Perfection is true of all culture, the spiritual and psychic, the mental, the vital and it must be the aim of our physical culture also. If our seeking is for a total perfection of the being, the physical part of it cannot be left aside; for the body is the material basis, the body is the instrument, which we have to use. Sariram khalu dharmasadhanam, says the old Sanskrit adage, the

     12.Sri Aurobindo, The Renaissance in India, 

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 body is the means of fulfillment of dharma, and dharma means every ideal which we can propose to ourselves and the law of its working out and its action.13

      Sri Aurobindo spoke in detail on the development and perfection of all the powers and capacities of the body. His first recommendation is to build the conditions for a generalization of the habit of taking part in physical exercise from childhood and youth through early manhood as this would help greatly towards the creation of physically fit and energetic people. An essential foundation must be built of health and strength and fitness in the body. But much more important is the value of sports and physical training in developing discipline and morale and sound and strong character. There are sports that necessitate the qualities of courage, hardihood, energetic action and initiative, or call for skill, steadiness of will or rapid decision and action, the perception of what is to be done in an emergency and dexterity in doing it. All of these can awaken in the body the consciousness which can see and do what is necessary without any indication from mental thought "and which is equivalent in the body to swift insight in the mind and spontaneous and rapid decision in the will."

      Sports can also awaken that invaluable quality: the sporting spirit. The capacity to be good-humoured and show consideration, friendliness, self-control and a scrupulous observance of the laws of the game, the sense of fair play, and team-spirit and a calm acceptance of decisions in adverse circumstances—are all qualities that are useful for life in general. Sports can also train one in the discipline of leadership, the capacity to command or to obey, which is of utmost importance in any combined action.

"This strictness of training, this habit of discipline and obedience is not inconsistent with individual freedom; it is often the necessary condition for its right use, just as order is not inconsistent with liberty but rather the condition for the right use of liberty and even for its preservation and survival...

"The nation which possesses them in the highest degree is likely to be the strongest for victory, success and greatness, but also for the contribution it can make towards the bringing about of unity and a more harmonious world order towards which we look as our hope for humanity's future".14

13 Sri Aurobindo, "Perfection of the Body" in Bulletin of Physical Education, 1949.

14 Sri Aurobindo, "Perfection of the Body" in Bulletin of Physical Education, 1948.

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

The fourfold Personality

      The human personality has in it a fourfold nature. There is a side of us that is a power for knowledge, another that is a power for strength and dynamic will, a third for mutuality and active and productive relation and interchange, and finally a fourth, which is a power for works and labour and service. Often it is, that depending upon our temperament, character and personality type, one or other side predominates. But each of these powers and capacities is there, latent in every being. Depending upon which of these four powers is most strongly active in us we discover our main tendencies, dominant qualities and capacities and our effective turn in action and life.

      An integral education must aim at not only a conscious sounding of these four powers of the being but at their fullest development. Wisdom; strength that leads to a sovereign will-force; harmony and perfection are the attributes that each youth must develop in his being. And when through a great process of individual askesis, soul-force is manifested in fullness in the completely developed fourfold personality, these are the powers that one can anticipate in the individual being—powers that every youth can set before himself as the great and high ideal to attain in his own psychological nature:

'The godhead, the soul-power of knowledge rises to the highest degree of which the individual nature can be the supporting basis. A free mind of light develops which is open to every kind of revelation, inspiration, intuition, idea, discrimination, thinking synthesis; an enlightened life of the mind grasps at all knowledge with a delight of finding and reception and holding, a spiritual enthusiasm, passion, or ecstasy; a power of light full of spiritual force, illumination and purity of working manifests its empire, brahma-tejas, brahma-varcas; a bottomless steadiness and illimitable calm upholds all the illumination, movement, action as on some rock of ages, equal, unperturbed, unmoved, acyuta.

The godhead, the soul-power of will and strength rises to a like largeness and altitude. An absolute calm fearlessness of the free spirit, an infinite dynamic courage which no peril, limitation of possibility, wall of opposing force can deter from pursuing the work or aspiration imposed by the spirit, a high nobility of soul and will untouched by any littleness or baseness and moving with a certain greatness of step to spiritual victory or the success of the God-given work through whatever temporary defeat or obstacle, a spirit never depressed or cast down from faith and confidence in the power that works in the being, are the signs of this perfection.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

'There comes too to fulfillment a large godhead, a soul-power of mutuality, a free self spending and spending of gift and possession in the work to be done, lavished for the production, the creation, the achievement, the possession, gain, utilisable return, a skill that observes the law and adapts the relation and keeps the measure, a great taking into oneself from all beings and a free giving out of oneself to all, a divine commerce, a large enjoyment of the mutual delight of life.

And finally there comes to perfection the godhead, the soul-power of service, the universal love that lavishes itself without demand of return, the embrace that takes to itself the body of God in man and works for help and service, the abnegation that is ready to bear the yoke of the Master and make the life a free servitude to Him and under his direction to the claim and need of his creatures, the self-surrender of the whole being to the Master of our being and his work in the world. These things unite, assist and enter into each other, become one." 15

This is a description of the fullness of personality when the soul-force, secret in our inmost being is brought to the front and allowed to achieve its untrammeled action of fulfillment. These words and images are as yet merely delineating the potentialities secret within us, that await their day. For it is only the entering and illumining action of this soul-force into the smallest detail of our outer instrumental nature and life of action, that can energize and liberate the action of the Shakti that slumbers there within us awaiting her hour. It is with such a robust spiritual faith that every Indian especially the young should approach their life, their growth and their action in the world. This should be the aim of education in India, which of old, has been the land of spiritual living.

Psychic Education and Spiritual Education

      Andre Malraux, the great French thinker and writer, speaking of the future, is said to have remarked that the Twenty First Century would either have to be spiritual or else it would NOT be. India with her ancient capacity, her long and thorough exploration of the subde and psychical sciences, can take the lead here for all humanity. She must give her youth the opportunity of attempting an integral education aimed at bringing the fruits of the psychic and spiritual discovery into outer life and action in the world. This is Sri Aurobindo's dream for his beloved motherland. Mother's description below gives us some hint of what the fullness of the psychic realization can bring with it and what the spiritual discovery represents:

 15 Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis ofYoga, p.722.

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"One can say that the psychic life is immortal life, endless time, limidess space, ever-progressive change, unbroken continuity in the universe of forms. The spiritual consciousness, on the other hand, means to live the infinite and the eternal, to be projected beyond all creation, beyond time and space. To become conscious of your psychic being and to live a psychic lift you must abolish all egoism; but to live a spiritual lift you must no longer have an ego."16

      PART II


The Sri Aurobindo Ashram School

      From the early '40's, families began to be accepted at the Sri Aurobindo Ashram. There grew to be a small collectivity of school-age children who required some sort of structured education. And that is how the school at the Ashram was born—quite organically, as a necessity of life. The teachers were requisitioned by Mother from the diverse body of sadhaks. Those selected suddenly found themselves with a wholly new element introduced into their sadhana. From the beginning, the school was rooted in the spiritual ethos of the Ashram. The children bloomed in that rarefied atmosphere, created by the seeking for a highest perfection in all the planes of the being from the most physical to the highest spiritual. And brooding over all these developments was the luminosity of Sri Aurobindo and Mother's effulgent presence. The children were given the best—the finest in music, the arts and poetry, the humanities and the sciences, the education of the body—no domain of human knowledge was excluded from the scope of their study and all was infused with the deepest spiritual culture.

      It is from this golden seed-time, that in 1951, the idea of creating an International University Centre based upon Sri Aurobindo's teaching was born. The Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education, has today completed more than fifty years of existence. The student body ranges from nursery to advanced levels and the subjects include the humanities, languages— including Sanskrit, various other Indian and other important languages of the world, fine arts, sciences, engineering, technology and vocational training. A great stress is laid upon the perfection of the body and the physical education programme of the school is deservingly famous. The Centre of Education seeks to develop every aspect of the individual, rather than to concentrate exclusively

16 The Mother, On Education, Vol. 12 p. 36.

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

on mental training. It employs what is called the "Free Progress System" which Mother spoke of as a progress guided by the soul and not subject to habits, conventions or preconceived ideas. The student is encouraged to learn by him/herself, choose subjects of study, progress at his own pace and ultimately to take charge of his own development. The teacher is much more an advisor and source of information than an instructor. In practice, the system is adapted to the temperament of teacher and student The Centre of Education does not award degrees or diplomas, since it seeks to awaken in its students the joy of learning and an aspiration for progress that is independent of outer motives. From the beginning the aim of the center has been to create living souls, brilliance in studentship is a secondary characteristic. This short note does not in any way claim to dojustice to the enormous, robust even radical, experimentation that has been undertaken here, specially in all the years when Mother's direct guidance was always available. That story has been told elsewhere. But this great and innovative experiment has demonstrated its results in the lives of the many generations of students who can be found today, bringing to bear, wherever they are, the unique perspective they imbibed here.


      Then in the year 1968, an experiment much vaster in its scope was born. Auroville, the city that wants to serve the Truth came into being on the 28th of February 1968, in a marvellous ceremony where a boy and a girl from all the countries of the world, 121 at that time, and all the 23 states of India, brought a handful of their country's soil and placed it in a lotus-shaped marble urn symbolizing and invoking the human unity that Auroville wants to embody. The endeavor of Auroville is to create a society that aims at the ever increasing perfectibility of the human being, until conditions are created that will give birth to a next species—a spiritual being who will have conquered all trace of egoism within. Auroville wants to be a place of accelerated evolution harnessing the capacity for self-consciousness and growth that is unique to the human species. A reversal of perspective must take place where man begins to change himself and his world by the power of the inner spirit.

      Today Auroville is a bustling society of over 1800 persons gathered together from all corners of the world (35 nationalities at last count). These members are subjecting themselves to a voluntary apprenticeship where the workshop lies within—in each of their own psychological natures, and the tools employed are introspection, self-analysis and growth of consciousness brought about through a tapasya of work and action in a collective human environment.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Auroville is a Held of experiments, for research and study into all the means both outer and inward by which the individual and the society can grow in an accelerated manner. In the measure that Aurovilians can successfully grow in consciousness and change their mental, vital and physical nature by bringing in the light of the inner psychic consciousness, the spiritualized collectivity may take birth. There can be no artificial changes, no half-measures—either one has demonstrably grown inwardly or one is still the selfish, self-centered, egoistic human being that contributes to the unconsciousness of the world.

      What sort of educational patterns should such a society have? With regard to Auroville, Mother has given few detailed directions. But the few things she has said are worth a host, so pregnant are they with significance. There is first and foremost, The Charter of Auroville—which is the core document that invokes and delineates Auroville's future programme of action. It constitutes a simple, comprehensive and all-embracing description of how Auroville should grow individually and collectively.

      It is Auroville's Mantra:

The Charter of Auroville

      1. Auroville belongs to nobody in particular; Auroville belongs to humanity as a whole. But to live in Auroville one must be a willing servitor of the Divine Consciousness.

      2. Auroville will be the place of an unending education, of constant progress and a youth that never ages.

      3. Auroville wants to be the bridge between the past and the future. Taking advantage of all discoveries from without and from within, Auroville will boldly spring towards future realizations.

      4. Auroville will be a site of material and spiritual researches for a living embodiment of an actual Human Unity.

      In addition, there are the six points that Mother gave which outline the content and method of the psychological programme of action which each of the Aurovilians would subject themselves to, if they wished to attempt to grow into true Aurovilians. A complete Yoga is included in these simple points, one that would take a lifetime of concentrated focus to achieve.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

To be a True Aurovilian

1. The first necessity is the inner discovery, in order to know what one truly is behind social, moral, cultural, racial and hereditary appearances. At the center there is a being free, vast and knowing who awaits our discovery and who ought to become the effective center of our being and our life in Auroville.

2. One lives in Auroville in order to be free from moral and social conventions; but this freedom must not be a new slavery to the ego, its desires and ambitions. The fulfillment of one's desires bars the way to the inner discovery which can only be achieved in the peace and transparency of perfect disinterestedness.

3. The Aurovilian should lose the sense of personal possession. For our passage in the material world, what is indispensable to our life and to our action is put at our disposal according to the place we must occupy. The more we are consciously in contact with our inner being, the more are the exact means given to us.

4. Work, even manual work is something indispensable for the inner discovery. If one does not work, if one does not put one' s consciousness into matter, the latter will never develop. To let the consciousness organize a bit of matter by means of one's body is very good. To establish order around oneself helps to bring order within oneself One should organize one's life not according to outer and artificial rules, but according to an organized inner consciousness, for if one lets lift go on without subjecting it to the control of the higher consciousness, it becomes fickle and inexpressive. It is to waste one's time in the sense that matter remains without any conscious utilization.

5. The whole earth must prepare itself for the advent of the new species, and Auroville wants to work consciously to hasten this advent.

6. Little by little it will be revealed to us what this new species must be, and meanwhile the best course is to consecrate one self entirely to the Divine.

Education in Auroville

      One finds few specific directions with regard to Auroville Education in Mother's remarks and messages for Auroville. Yet it remains one of the core areas of the Auroville Experience. The very Charter of Auroville states clearly:

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

"Auroville will be the place of an unending education, constant progress and a youth that never ages."

          The educational experiment that was attempted in the Sri Aurobindo Ashram under her inspiration and guidance ought to be continued, even  taken further in Auroville. Certainly her remarks in the text entided A Dream are deeply applicable to Auroville:

"...In this place, children would be able to grow and develop integrally without losing contact with their souls; education would be given not for passing examinations or obtaining certificates and posts but to enrich existing faculties and bring forth new ones".17

Schools in Auroville

      It is in this context that the somewhat mysterious list of names given by her for the Auroville schools assume significance:







For many years, this list was understood largely in its physical dimension—as a list of names of buildings in the school campus at Aspiration, the construction of which was started in 1971. ([ri fact it is still the name of one of the buildings and the whole campus is still known as the Last School Campus).

      It is only recently, with its physical base more or less secured, that Auroville, as a collectivity, has begun to consciously explore some of the deeper psychological dimensions of these names. As the paramount question of an education, not imitative but rather built upon the spirit of Auroville, is more and more emerging to the forefront of the collective consciousness, these names given by Mother begin to acquire a great significance. And as we dwell upon them we discover the complete and unique educational programme that can be built around them. It is immediately clear that each name is linked in a necessary progression to the next and from the first school which is significantly called Last School to the final No School one discerns a pattern of psychological development, the clues to which are contained in the names


17 The Mother, On Education, Vol. 12 p. 93.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

themselves. We thus find, that what we have here is a Sutra—not a mere list—and the moment is ripe in Auroville's collective growth to explore its meaning.

      The education that Mother envisioned was called by her "Free Progress"—in itself a term pregnant with meaning—the accent being on the word 'progress', with 'free' as the modifier that defines the method by which one progresses. Much can be written on the term but here is one answer Mother gave to define what she meant by Free Progress: "A progress guided by the soul and not subjected to habits, conventions or preconceived ideas. "

An exploration of 'Mother's Sutra

      The first School in Mother's list is called 'Last School"—clearly this suggests that it is the last school. But as it begins the list, it must correspond to the point where schooling actually commences which is necessarily post-Kindergarten. Thus it is the first years, when the child is learning, is being trained to read and write languages and make calculations, which are the years of last school. The teacher is there to train, to develop further and to awaken innate faculties so that as quickly as possible the child may learn how to learn independently.

      Subsequently, we enter into the years of After School, which has three phases according to Mother's list. These can be understood literally to refer initially to the period when the youth consolidates and develops the knowledge and skills gained in the Last School phase. It is when this has been achieved that he automatically tries to experiment and apply through a process of repeated experimentation and demonstration, the knowledge learned. Finally, ready to move further, the youth enters a period of further exploration in which he widens his horizons and discovers newer vistas and worlds to learn and know about. In these three phases of After School, which can be defined broadly as stages of: Development; Demonstration; Exploration, the teacher's role, informed by keen observation and deep understanding, is more and more that of friend, guide and helper and less of instructor. And he/she uses the triple method of suggestion; influence and example—never of imposition—to work with the developing personality of the youth.

      It must also be understood that each of these stages of development can exist simultaneously, based as they are on the varying level of advancement that a youth may have in any given domain. And one can conceive of a person being at the Last School stage, that is, the level of Basic training, in one subject; and of self-development or skills training and in another, i.e., After School which is the stage of further Exploration. It is only that each stage emphasizes one

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

approach over and above the others. Free progress necessarily implies a great plasticity. All methods are valid—one has to find the right method for a given person or situation, which may be valid only for that particular person/ situation.

      We come then, in Mother's list, to the term Super School. This name seems to suggest a certain amount of intensive, i.e., accelerated schooling again. But, as the youth should have learned to progress on their own by this time, it must imply a wholly other sort of schooling. Thus it must be schooling at a higher level or dimension. This can be conceived of as the stage when the youth comes into contact with great movements of world thought and action; where they can summarize in their awakened thought all the vast ideas as also the fields of human endeavour. Yet the orientation of their beings must remain turned towards the future. A teacher or a guide becomes essential at this stage to help pick up the pace of the process of learning. The aim is integral personality development, and someone is needed who can help to point out the essence of each domain. Schooling is intensive but of another order. This is also the phase of apprenticeships and the acquisitions of skills and/or professional training. Super school can be defined as a school where the subjects are of the higher levels of human thought and action and are treated in a holistic manner. The aim is to "summarise" the human past so quickly that one can have all the energies to pursue the development of the future. This requires a great deal of "schooling". Super School prepares the being to enter into "No School" which is the condition when the instrumental nature is fit to pursue on its own integral growth, i.e.: Wisdom; Heroism; Harmony; Skill in Works.

      Once Super School has finished its work of preparation, the being is ready to enter into the stage of No School which can be conceived of as the moment when the awakened consciousness needs no other guide than the one within. Mother saw Auroville as a learning society and each unit necessarily should be a learning environment In the future we can envision that possibilities for apprenticeships and professional/skills training will be available in all units. Everyone will be then a teacher and learner simultaneously and Auroville will indeed be the place, materially, psychologically and spiritually, of an unending education, a constant progress and a youth that never ages.

      But till then the 'schools' and the society have a work to do in growing into the dimensions indicated in Mother's Sutra for Auroville education. Such are the ideas arrived at as of now but obviously more will be discovered and developed as the underlying truth of Auroville grows and manifests. Much of what has organically developed in Auroville's schools so far can be viewed through the perspective of Mother's list of names. A certain conscious analysis

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

and rationalization still needs to be undertaken, but already each of these stages exists in practice. Auroville's most recent initiative has been the establishing a few years ago of Super School, attempting to base itself upon the lines already indicated.

      Auroville is a young society, many of its aims are so vast and so high that it is hard for the apprentice Aurovilians to even hold them constantly in the consciousness. But the aspiration to grow and to change is the flame that stokes the elan of growth, and if the collectivity can keep faith, realization is certain, now rather than in the hereafter.

      PART III


As an illustration of the effort to put in practice some of the above ideas, there is presented here, as a work in progress, an analysis of the Art and Creativity classes at Super School.

An exploration of the Art and Creativity Classes in Super School

as a Document of Research in Progress

      What is presented here is a report of one particular area of rigorous experimentation over the last few years. This is in the domain of the training of the aesthetic faculty of the youth. In a Free Progress system, the divisions and differences between one subject and another necessarily blurs, yet in its own domain each area can produce definite results that may influence all the other areas. The training of the aesthetic faculty has brought with it interesting consequences for all the other classes. It has been observed that those youth who have discovered a love of beauty and are attempting to express this beauty through complex artistic creations, bring a certain settled calmness into their other classes too. Art and artistic expression, pursued rightly as a tapasya, seems to bring a maturity, a refinement and an ability to take responsibility for the inner and outer environment that is quite astonishing to behold.

      Recently, a group of six students in the 16-18 age group, ran a two day workshop for everyone in the school, the teachers and all the other students included. Thus, for two full school days all the other students and the teachers, with their varying artistic abilities, rubbed shoulders as equal participants being led through a range of exercises and assignments that were created, presented and run-through by this group of six. The youth, took many hours to collectively plan agree on and prepare the workshop. For days they were at

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

the Art Centre from early morning to late evening arranging the place and the exercises. Through the duration of the Workshop (six hours each day) they watched over every individual as guides and as helpers and demonstrated a maturity and ability that was exceptional.

      It is extremely important that occasions are created where the teachers present themselves as learners too. While blurring the separation between the 'teacher' and the 'taught', this truth, creates an immeasurable bond between the adults and the youth. But more importantly, it is greatly empowering when a youth finds himself/herself more competent in one domain as compared to a teacher who may have hitherto presented a picture of knowledge and of capability.

      Art and creativity are a very important part of the Free Progress programme in the Auroville. They aim to awaken in the youth a sense, perception, conception and intuition of Beauty. In the following pages the basic principles by which the art classes are approached and the reasons for this as well as the broad methods by which the emotional, vital, aesthetic being is awakened and refined are also traced.

      Indeed the whole school's programme is covered by these aims, for Beauty is attempted to be awakened in every class offered at Super School. What differs in different subjects is the part of the instrumental nature that is touched upon. Each subject represents a door of entry that, rightly approached, can lead the youth to absolutes such as Truth, Beauty, The Good and The Vast.

"In the physical world, of all things it is beauty that expresses best the Divine. The physical world is the world of form and the perfection of form is beauty. Beauty interprets, expresses, manifests the Eternal. It's role is to put all manifested nature in contact with the Eternal through the perfection of form, through the harmony and a sense of the ideal which uplifts and leads towards something higher."1

"True art means the expression of beauty in the material world. In a world wholly converted, that is to say, expressing integrally the divine reality, art must serve as the revealer and teacher of this divine beauty in life."2

"... if you want to have the sense of beauty in itself... you must have a universal consciousness... to know true beauty independent of all form,

The Mother, Vol. 12 p. 234.

The Mother, Vol. 12 p. 235.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 one must rise above all form. And once you have known it beyond every form, you can recognise it in any form whatsoever. 3

The aim is to make beauty the constant ideal of the youth. Not just beauty in the work they do but also beauty in action, beauty in thought, beauty of sentiments so that finally the students may discover the beauty of the soul. Therefore, it is important to note that the discipline of awakening Beauty is not just confined to the art classes but is something that the school aims at through all the subjects and domains of human knowledge. The overarching aspiration for Beauty, which is Truth, which is The Good, which is The Vast, serves as the thread that can guide, orient and unify every activity and subject and person in the school.

 Stages of Development; Methods; Course Contents

      In Super School's art centre, students from many of the other schools are received. Working with Auroville youth of all ages (approx 8 years to adulthood) has helped in formulating the following stages in development and the methods that are appropriate to each.

Stage 1

      At this stage the child/youth has little contact with his aesthetic being as also with the materials of Art. The first effort must be aimed at building self-confidence. A great deal of care as well as constant support and guidance is needed to help the youth reach the thresholds of Art. The youth are encouraged to do free painting and drawing, as also to develop a contact with the materials. They often learn to copy pictures such as photographs of animals. They learn to do simple creative and imaginative work, first in drawing then in other fields. This is the stage of first development (which could correspond in Mother's list to After School 1).

Stage 2

      At this stage a certain level of interest has been awakened which often results in the spontaneous evocation of the primary quality necessitated: Concentration. All the development that is encouraged, is based upon a freedom which aims at awakening the innate powers of the youth's own will. The students are repeatedly told that it is not what you do but how you do it. They are told to practise, and to practise and to practise again—if necessary to repeat the same work in new colours, new forms, new approaches. The teacher,

The Mother, Vol. 5 p. 331.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

at this second stage, puts more pressure, becomes more exigent, in an attempt to call forth the latent capacities of the being. But the basis of freedom is not lost for it is through freedom that the youth must discover their own will. The youth are introduced to Graphics, to still-life in pencil—an activity which awakens the power of observation, they learn to copy from great masters, they are initiated into the domains of colour. This is the stage of demonstration and exploration (corresponding to After School 2 and 3)

Stage 3

      At this stage the teacher reverses the approach and begins to require more, to limit and to create a stricter frame of reference, always and only with the conscious collaboration of the student. The student discovers the tapasya of creativity. The aim is to enlarge, to deepen and to widen the being. The students are trained to become objective. Here the critical faculties of the mind are awakened as the students learn to reflect, analyse and discriminate through the kind of exercises they are given.

      This stage can come about when both concentration and will are already manifest elements in the developing being. The major focus is on the harmonies of colour and the students research through practice, these various harmonies. They learn the seven contrasts of colour as well as their laws, their powers and their interactions. Finally they learn to apply, through personal creative expressions, these discoveries.

      The students enter into the world of series. Everything that is done is meant to be a research into the practice of infinite variations. The students discover 10 or 15 or 20 different ways of doing a single work. The attempt is to go always deeper. The research also covers the field of graphics where the students have to develop compositions that cover the harmony of contrast. They learn, at the opposite pole, to work only with black and white and yet create both originality and beauty. They learn to work with material textures, when for example on a single sheet of paper they create endless variations of textures by either making holes, by poking or cutting or tapping or scratching, using any instrument such as a hammer a cutter or a pair of scissors, to create an endless variety of beautiful, artistic, graphic patterns. They discover that these patterns are mirrored in the world of material nature too. And they learn to work with natural materials to create things of beauty. This stage corresponds to the period when the students have explored and discovered their concentration, their will and their many capacities and are now ready for an intensive and rigorous training to widen, deepen and heighten the expressive abilities of

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

their being. Some attempts have been made to create work that leads towards these directions. At this stage the teacher demands that the students enter mto the 'meaning' of what they do and to find this meaning through reflection and translate it into an objective piece of creative self-expression. Exercises have been given that are so formulated as to call forth the critical reason to observe the subjective imaginative process. This is done by creating a whole series of technical constraints within which a particular exercise must be fulfilled and the only way the students can liberate their imaginative and creative genius is to first analyze and reflect then to go within and awaken an inner enlargement that leads to a wider solution while at the same time attempting to rediscover and apply all that has been learned previously in the earlier three stages (corresponding to Super School).

Stage 4

      This stage has notyet been fully explored or manifested by the experiment, which the Super School Arts Centre has embodied working with the students who have grown with the experiment over the last many years. It is only in recent times that some of the older youth and young adults who have undergone many years of tapasya have crossed this threshold. These moments represent the future lights which have, flashed forth their periodic illuminations in the work and expressive capacities of the students and which give the promise of future possibilities. At this stage the aim would be to enter into domains of intuition, to know through experience the capacity to fly high and see far, so that finally one can identify with the object of work. This is the stage, which can be described only in anticipation not from systematic experience of working with and observing and analyzing the youth. But the earlier stages represent a clear distillation of the observations made through long years of work and contact and discover with the youth. (This stage can be said to correspond to the No School phase of self-development)

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1




India has always spearheaded in providing holistic education to its learners from time immemorial. The Indian education system provided a value-based and value-conscious approach to learning. In the context of growing violence, terrorism, pollution and ecological imbalance, the value education acquires importance. The stress should be on all-round development of mind, body and soul. There should be perfect synchronization between academic excellence, physical excellence and human excellence. The first step to begin with is naturally through schools. It is necessary that every child be allowed to grow in self-reliance and self-purification.

      The last two decades have witnessed explosion of knowledge and its free intercourse across the world, thanks to the development in the field of Information Technology and the process of globalization. The global access to information and entertainment has also resulted in cross currency of cultural processes. The value systems of several types stand challenged and have given rise to various conflicts. But the modernization and westernization should not mean a society bereft of values. We must remember that value-based living alone will quip us to face the increasingly complex challenges of the 21st century.

      Let us examine the future directions of value systems. Some of the critical issues which we must address to are:

      1. There is likely to be a paradigm shift towards global values than local values.

      2. The emphasis will be more on human values than values based on religion, society and the nations.

      3. The values will be closely shaped by economic considerations.

      4. The society turning consumerist, the shift in value systems and value areas will be over a shorter period of time.

      5. The value systems will suffer from lack of sound social base, and therefore they will tend to be more user-friendly and supportive of the needs of gratification of the individuals.

      6. There will be more questions about the relative values causing more

      value conflicts.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 7. The social psychologists will have to find new answers for the emerging social dynamics and their impact on ethical foundations.

      8. The educational infrastructure world over would find more serious challenges in human resource development.

The Indian Government has been concerned with the challenges to values in the Indian Society and have at various points of time address to cope with the relevant issues. The National Policy on Education, 1986 and the Programme of Action, 1992 have listed the relevance of Value Education in no uncertain terms. The Government with the need for re-emphasizing the values in school education set up a Standing Committee on Value Orientation of Education in 1993 with the following terms of reference:

      1. To focus attention on the need for promoting the Core Programme of Value Orientation of Education;

      2. To provide an overall and integrated view of several issues, programmes and projects according to specific areas of different operational agencies—both at the Centre and the states;

      3. To draw up comprehensive plans and projects, at the macro and micro levels, in collaboration with various implementation agencies;

      4. To coordinate the activities of various implementation agencies of the Government;

      5. To promote the development of specific projects in this area through dissemination and discussions;

      6. To advise on planning and monitoring of the programmes being implemented by various agencies at all levels; and

      7. To mobilize necessary resources to promote the programmes at different levels.


The Central Board of Secondary Education has always addressed to value education as a priority area which should be fine tuned with various aspects of learning both directly and indirectly. The Board has always facilitated the schools to implement value education in all the activities—scholastic as well as co-scholastic. To focus the activities on Value Education, Board conducted a National Seminar-cum-Workshop on Value Education some years back. The programme was basically aimed at:

      1. Highlighting the component of Value Education in School Curriculum;

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

  2. Working out the content and approaches for developing these programmes;

      3. Bringing out the minimum programme of action for promoting Value Education in schools.

CBSE then brought out a handbook for teachers on Value Education to help the teachers in effective implementation of the scheme, suggesting various models and modules, which could be adopted depending upon the requirements of local situation. A reference to the various approaches adopted by different institutionsl organizations and systems with a proven record of experience have been illustrated. The common core of all these approaches were also identified which could be adopted and incorporated at various age groups and level of learning.

      A minimum programme of action was suggested to the schools, which could be adopted at the primary, middle, secondary and senior school levels. The values were further classified to facilitate their adoption contextually, logistically and on a need-based approach in the following manner:

     a) Personal Values

      b) Social Values

      c) Cultural Values

      d) Global Values

      e) Spiritual Values

The curricular approach provided needed inputs for bringing out the values both directly and as a part of hidden curriculum. Emphasis was laid on various activities, which could facilitate the learner to access these values with ease and facility. These activities include:

      1. Dramatics and Mono Acting

      2. Music and Dance

      3. Fine Arts and Liberal Arts

      4. Group Work and Discussions

      5. Assembly Activities

      6. Co-scholastic Activities

      7. Physical Education and Sports

      8. Yoga and Meditation

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 The above guidelines of the Board are in complete consonance with the four pillars of learning identified in the Delor's Report:

      1. Learning to know

      2. Learning to do

      3. Learning to Live Together

      4. Learning to Be

It is relevant to point out that Indian Education system has always emphasized spiritual dimension of education which goes concurrent with the objectives of "Learning to Be". It is very important that every child is made to realize that he is very important and all his actions affect the society and vice-versa. This will help to focus on the inner strength of child and it will also help him to be self-reliant.

      An empowered teacher is a singular factor in successful implementation of the scheme. It is felt that the important teaching competencies of the teacher should include:

      1. Ability to discern and create learning environment

      2. Ability to use instructional strategies

      3. Sensitivity to the conflict of values that may occur

      4. Exhibit intellectual integrity

      5. Show sympathy and consideration

      6. Ability to draw out shy or quiet students

      7. Ability to monitor and evaluate

The Central Board of Secondary Education wants to ensure Value Education through inter-disciplinary approach across all curricular areas. It is also committed to development of resource materials for teachers in the present context, which would identify and facilitate anchoring of pedagogic process through values covered in specific learning process. These resource materials should be motivational to the teachers and help them to practice the identified values through standardized academic practices. Such practices should focus and bring out the treasure of heritage which we have inherited over the centuries. The improvised pedagogic methods should also bring out an intimate rapport between the teacher and the learner.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 In order to implement it, updating of teachers' competencies is also very essential. So teachers' empowerment programme in this respect will also be taken up earnestly across the country. In the training programme, the evaluation of the values will also be taken up so that it becomes more objective. The evaluation of the values will be over a range of activities conducted by the school so that each learner would have as many opportunities available as he' would like to choose. It is in this respect that the Board has introduced the system of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation from March 2000 in which all the students at the secondary level would carry this Certificate issued by the school on a format designed by the Board along with the documents issued by it for the public examinations. The focus is not to evaluate the child only on cognitive domain but it must also include the affective domain. This will build up greater confidence and accountability on the school and the teachers and itwill also strengthen the relationship between the school and the learner. This School-Based Evaluation Certificate needs to be issued from Class I onwards and it must run across the entire spectrum of school education. Adequate care would be taken not to refer to the weaknesses and the deficiencies of the learner and as such the School-Based Evaluation Certificate would function as a positive and developmental input of his learning process to his futuristic activities. So it can be evaluated on four point grading scale—Outstanding, Excellent, Very Good and Good.

      It is also felt that besides the Core Curriculum Approach up to secondary level in which every child has to take five compulsory subjects, it is also felt that a sixth subject may also be introduced like Music, Dance, Art, Painting, etc. which will focus on the creative skill of child's personality. Each child may be asked to take one of these subjects and they may be awarded Internal Grades without reflecting on the Pass-Fail criteria. It is also seen that the procedures of evaluating a learner and classifying him as a passed or failed candidate have led to avoidable dropouts from school system and also building up a negative psyche amongst those classified as failed candidates. It is generally felt that such students get demoralized wholly in the life process and develop inferior tendencies, which would otherwise have motivated them to contribute their latent talents to the society in other possible ways. The Board, having thoroughly examined the issue, has decided that all students will be placed in a range of grades rather than in specific raw scores. This would bring better quality amongst the learners and the schools would shift their focus from examination to education. Adequate scope will be available to focus on further strengthening of the value base of the learners in classrooms in a stress free situation.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


      N.K. AMBASHT

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Education is a social institution of a particular society, in the same way as family and marriage is. No human society can exist without education. Here education does not mean the skill of reading and writing. It means "the process through which the society trains its young in the art of living in that particular society." It is conditioned by the socially approved norms of behaviour. Values are such behaviours that a society nurtures, cherishes or practises. Therefore, I define 'Values" as a " Set of socially approved behaviours, whether practised or cherished."

      Since it is social, it is essentially related to the society. The gamut of the society is stretchable; it may be most immediate society in the form of the family, the neighbourhood, the community, the nation, or the universe. Therefore, the values can be of different dimensions and are referential to the context it is being talked about. These, therefore, can be viewed with reference to the approved patterns of the behaviours in the family. Examples can be found. In some families the parent do not call the eldest son by name. This, however, is not the common practice at the next level of societal structure that is the community. Thus it is the family value not to call the eldest son by name. At the next higher order of the societal structure is the neighbourhood. Take an example of a value at this level. It is sometimes a practice at this level to call the elders by a kinship terminology like dada, chacha, bhaiya, tau, kaki, etc. depending on the age bracket with reference to self, father or mother, etc. Thus it is neighbourly value not to call elders by their names but to extrapolate a descriptive kinship terminology and use it in the form of classificatory kinship terminology. Let's move to community as the next step. Take the case of the community. The community has different reference groups. It can be an extension of a neighbourhood or a group of people belonging to a particular religion as Hindu community, Muslim community, etc. The set of approved behaviours is also conditioned by religious beliefs, practices, etc. Among the Hindus cross cousin marriage is incest whereas it is preferred marriage among the Muslims, and yet they may be living next door. Sometimes language could be a reference group, such as Tamil, Bengali community. The sets of approved behaviours are again conditioned by the language factor.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Let's move further to the geographical factors. Keeping upper body naked may be a permissible behaviour in hot humid areas but it is not an approved behaviour pattern in some other areas. Therefore, the sets of values as 'set of socially approved behaviour' vary according to the context. They may even cascade and collapse into each other. At the national level some socially approved behaviours may be aggregate of some of the preceding levels of societal structure and some may emanate from the aspirations and national vision of our future society. Some of these cherished values may emanate from the Constitution of the country. For example, democracy or secularism is a national value emanating from the Indian Constitution. Therefore, practice of these is nationally approved norm of behaviour But these cannot he classified as universal values because there are countries which do not practise or even profess these as a goal of behaviour. Much of the universal values emanate from two major sources—common features of all religions, such as love, universal brotherhood, etc. and various charters of world bodies like the United Nations, such as Charter of Human Rights to which almost all nations become signatories.

      From the preceding discussions it would be clear that values are multi-faceted, and multi-dimensional and operate at different levels. Classifications are not clearly demarcated and very often overlap. Yet it is necessary to understand that values are very much related to the society to which it belongs.

      In the multi-cultural and multi-ethnic society the complexity increases as the inter-action situations are many and varied and behaviours have ramifications in such situations. In countries like India, where various religious groups, communities, linguistic groups, tribes, geographical variations abound, values are varied and at times conflicting. The resolution of such conflicts is a matter of concern to the country at large. The conflicts arising out of contradictory values often lead to tensions. One example could be that cow is an object of veneration among the Hindus and, therefore, certain behavioural norms are prescribed towards it. Any deviant behaviour by another set of people who do not share the same values towards it has often led to serious conflicts. Imposition or otherwise of extra juridical values would always lead to social disequilibrium.


Education being a societal function has to be closely related to the norms of behaviour in the society concerned. It also has to prepare the younger

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

generation to take on the emerging future challenges. The needs and aspirations of the society also get reflected in the content and processes of education. Thus values get intrinsically intertwined with education and the two cannot be separated. If we accept that it is education that shapes a man then it becomes an attendant corollary that education inculcates values. The dilemma that present day education faces that social situation has become a kaleidoscopic interplay of different cultures in the present day society. Cultural homogeneity is more mythical than real. In such circumstances, 'Education' is challenged with the task of finding the greatest common factor of all the cultural aggregates that constitute the society concerned. The task itself is extremely complex and full of difference of opinions on matters of details. The content of education has to resolve the kinds of problems that arise out of conflicting value systems that a particular society has. The genesis of values, since it involves the codes of behaviour patterns, is often religious oriented as the religions necessarily concern themselves with codes of behaviour and conduct.

      Education in single religion society has lesser challenges than in multi-religious societies. The task is complicated by lack of understanding of these sociological factors that should go into the curriculum designing, planning and transaction processes. When I underscore these factors I want to reiterate that simple inclusion of certain information in the textual materials is not sufficient to inculcate values. Transactional processes assume greater importance as values need to be practised again and again so as to become a part spontaneous response system to a given stimulus or set of stimuli. That is why it is often said that values cannot be taught but is caught. In the curriculum objectives, values are the ultimate end of all educational endevours. As such the role of education can be considered at two levels: 'conscientisation' level and 'assimilation into practice' level. The text or the instructional material is of the first level. Usually, the text incorporates materials front the culture and environment. Any material that is not related to the culture of learners is not suitable as it does not take the socio-cultural experiences of the child into account. Thus the 'known' of the child is discounted in the learning process. Now in a multi-cultural society, the usual controversies arise over weightage to components of set of behavioural patterns specific to a particular religion or group of the larger society. The easiest way, a curriculum developer finds, is to ignore these components and, in the process, neglects the values, which is the ultimate objective of any educational endeavour. Information, however, can be gathered or acquired by many other modes.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


Religion should not be an anathema to an educationist. In our concern to look equitable to all religions we tend to discard them all. This, to my mind, is a myopic view. What we need to stress is that religion being a source of socially approved norms of behaviour should be acknowledged as a storehouse of resource for educational materials, both textual as well as behavioural. Now the prime concern of a need for peaceful coexistence and universal brotherhood, capacity to adjust to live with people different from one's own has become primordial in the present day world. Could we, therefore, highlight those components of religion, which promote this particular mindset? No human society can ever exist without a religion. Not even the atheist. To them, atheism is their religion. In Hindu society, Dharm is defined as duty. And duty is nothing but the code of conduct. It is often defined as righteous conduct. As one would see that duly, by its very definition, has selflessness as an essential ingredient. Ancient Indian Literature is full of such duties and the most oft-quoted is

      karmanyevadhikaraste ma phalesu kadacana

      'to do thy duty is thy right, care not for the results!'

Let me not digress into an area where a lot more has been written by many a great scholars and I don't stand a shade of comparison with them. I would, however, like to quote Joshi (1983):

"the secret of teaching values is to inspire and kindle quest among students by means of one's own examples and mastery of knowledge. It is by embodying within us ourselves that we can radiate values to our students. Value orientation should not be conceived as an encounter of series of do's and don'ts."

          Let me give you an experiment, which I did. You may also try if you want to. Give a child of KG class a notebook, a pencil and a red pen. Observe her. There is likelihood that she role-plays a teacher. She would most probably scribble something then with a red pen put tick marks and awards herself ten out of ten. Then she would put the signature. Compare the signature with that of the class teacher. There is every chance that the effort to copy the signature of the class teacher is obviously discernable. This reflects that the 'ideal type' of the child is the teacher. The teacher is the role model of the child. The personality of the teacher leaves a great imprint on the behaviour pattern of

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

the children. Thus the values that get reflected from the teacher's behaviour-pattern get transferred to that of the child, even though unwittingly. One could safely make an assertion with great degree of confidence that the teacher makes the maximum imprint on the personality of the child after the parents. It follows that any effort to inculcate values among the children must follow the path via (a) parents, and (b) teachers.

      Therefore the task of value inculcation must begin with the behaviour modification of the teacher. The teacher must be the embodiment of all the values that we want to inculcate and perpetuate among the young learners. The question of the ideal or the cherished values vs. practised values would always arise. It is also argued that the corrupting forces are so great and so many that it is just impossible to resist or that the teacher is the product of the society which itself is devoid of such values so it is naive to expect that (s)he would remain unpolluted by such forces. I concede that this task is extremely difficult if not impossible. But shall we rest at that or should we a make a beginning?

      I have a plan. It may sound incredible. But at times when things seem beyond repair, even incredible things can produce results! I will give reasons, which may kindle hope.

      i. Make teacher education, particularly primary teacher training programme a five-year programme.

      ii. Make it a kind of indoctrination programme that develops a loath for all socially undesirable behaviours.

      iii. Make such programmmes that lead to delearning of the values acquired earlier—cleaning of the slate process.

      iv. Develop rigourous behaviour modification programme, full of practice, observation, and correctional activities in stimulus-response situations.

      v. Empower them to withstand the undesirable temptations or behaviours.

      vi. Make teaching a very paying profession so that usual temptations can be withstood and that (s) he is able to maintain reasonably good and descent standard of living.

      vii. Such programmes need to be recurrent in nature.

      The analogy of military training would not be far fetched in this case. The soldier knows that in all probability he is going to die when he goes to the battle-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

front and yet his motivation is so strong that he hardly thinks about it. Similar strong motivation needs to be built among the teachers. I am conscious of the fact that there could be lot of counter arguments and we can go on discussing till the cows come home. My only entreaty is let us start doing it and do the damage control exercise for the survival of our society


Joshi, Kireet, "An Outline of Value-Oriented Education and Relevant Pedagogical Suggestions", in Report of the Working Group to Review Teachers' Training Programme in the Light for Value Orientation. New Delhi: Govt, of India, Ministry of Education and Culture, 1983.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1





      Values hold a unique inherited strength for which our country, India stands at the most prominent place amidst developing and developed countries of the world. This is the time when reawakening is taking place with a realization that values, which formed an integral part of India's rich heritage, have been receding into the dark. Every need is felt to revive the most significant value patterns that are indispensable parts of our lives. The attractions of the Western world have been changing the ideologies of our children. They are not aware of the richness of inherited traditions of our country, which stand on the strong foundations of values our ancestors possessed. The global influences, misinterpreted most of the time, have been affecting our society vis-a-vis education system. While looking into this emerging scenario, one can stipulate that the time has arrived when one needs to insist on right education that imparts right values to our young generation. The wave can take a stride from primary to secondary and senior secondary stages of education reaching the greater heights at the institutes for higher learning when wisdom becomes more enduring and is carried throughout life. This revival in the thoughts mainly came from Delors Commission (1996), which recognizes the need for universities to take up responsibility for development of the society as a whole. Universities and other institutes of higher learning have been accepted as one of the thriving forces for passing on the accumulated experience and culture where primarily all the traditional functions are extended to advancement and transmission of knowledge, i.e. research, innovation, teaching and training and continuing education. The transition does however communicate the importance of orientation of value education to our future generation to drive them towards acceptable standards naturally through the process of education.

Value Education : A Variety in Concept

      Sri Aurobindo while emphasizing the true basis of education as the study of the human mind stresses upon the need to inculcate right values, right from infancy to adulthood. He emphasizes three principles of education:

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

"Nothing can be taught—the teacher is a helper and a guide. His business is to suggest and not impose and mind has to be consulted in its own growth and education has to work from the near to the far from that which is to that which shall be," Sri Aurobindo has been emphasizing two prime functions of higher education: knowledge of thing and knowledge of men (human thought, action, nature, creations—history, philosophy, art, Mathematics and now liberal to include modicum of science). He advocated that to make liberal and original knowledge, it is necessary to make available sound culture where a general desire as a motive for education exists. It is also largely accompanied with the earlier feeling that knowledge is necessary to keep up one's position in society and to succeed in certain lucrative or respectable profession. It is here that higher education can play a facilitating role in helping students to cultivate the best, and make the best use of it in the years to come.

      In the Meet for Vice-Chancellors on Value-Oriented Education (1984), the then Governor of Rajasthan, Shri O.P. Mehra observed, "We seem to completely ignore the eternal and universal values. The world value as understood in the context of educational philosophy refers to those desirable ideals and goals that are intrinsic in themselves and which when achieved or attempted evoke a deep sense of fulfilment." In the present times, with the progress of materialistic society, our stress is too much on standards of living and not on standards of life. In this changing scenario, the very concept and interpretation to the term ' Value' is undergoing a change. The eternal values of truth, love, happiness, compassion and character are itself losing the meanings for which it stood during ancient prosperous times. This gives the impression that now is the time when we need to recognize the importance of meaning of such values and create situations, which bring back the richness of our heritage that has receded into the dark'. As Swami Vivekananda comments "The idea of all education, all training should be man-making. Education is not the amount of information that is put into your brain and runs right there, undigested, all your life. We must have life-building, man-making, character-making assimilation of ideas." In the words of Sri Satya Sai Baba, "Education is for man-making, nation-building and promotion of peaceful world order." The man-making includes a fivefold aspects of personality growth which are at the mental, physical, emotional, psychic and spiritual level; and include the human values of truth, righteous conduct, peace, love and non-violence. Mr. Amadou Mahtar M'Bow, the then Director General of UNESCO (1984) while addressing the World Congress of the UNESCO Associations and Clubs, expressed the need for renewal of values and understanding among people

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

regarding peace and human rights. At the school level, ideals and emotional standards, prejudices and tastes have already been properly conditioned but these need to be stimulated.

      While expressing the importance of value orientation in education, Dr. Radha Kamal Mukherjee observed:

"The universities are the nurseries of the values and ideals of life in every country. Without values and ideals the university with its hundred classrooms, laboratories and museums remain but impressive scaffolding, not an edifice of civilization. Values are in the melting pots in India today. We are in the midst of an all pervasive process of social westernization, that is accelerated by the rapid pace of industrialization and mechanization, resulting in the wholesale liquidation of the humane and universal values of our ancient civilization."

      Thus the first objective of higher education should be to turn out integrated personalities with noble ideals. The university campus should stress on the importance of individual self-fulfilment but not self-indulgence; group cohesiveness but not group jingoism; and, work and achievement but not power and acquisitiveness for their own sake. The second function of education is to enrich the character. What we need today more than anything else is moral leadership that rests on the strong foundation of courage, intellectual integrity and a sense of values inculcated.

      One may admit that one common message flows from the world over: "Generation and sustenance of an environment conducive to learning is a pre requisite for imparting value education to our children."

      The concern has been shown in the colloquy of Professor T.K N. Unnithan, the then Vice Chancellor of the University of Rajasthan (1984), "The question is no more whether the value education in higher education is desirable. The question is how to make higher education value oriented?"


Orientation of Value Education in the Higher Education Setup :

      Some Signals

      Since our Independence, there has been an enormous quantitative expansion in the number of schools, colleges and universities, but with well-known erosion in the quality of education. It might have developed the intellectual abilities and technical skills but the humane and the emotional aspects based upon the good practices for better onward journey has been a missing link. This certainly calls for an effective designing, programming and implementation

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

of value education characteristics entwined into the learning processes taking place in the college and university campus. The execution of value orientation in higher education requires actions and strategies according to a well chalked out plan, a few of which could be discussed as follows:

Organizational Arrangements for Planning and Monitoring

      In the light of a number of recommendations flowing from different direction, the most accepted one is to appoint a National Commission, that is expected to convene national debates, seminars and symposiums, constituing working groups, to prepare a plan of action in the university or school, mobilize funds from government and manage monitoring groups to carry out following up activities. NIEPA has brought out a publication on ''Integral Education: A Mission to Integrate Values in to Education'' an expriment by 551 institutes of Higher Learning. Broad guidelines from such universities seem to policies along with the courses offered in these universities.

Intertwining of Value Education in Co-Curricular Activities:

    Formal or Informal, Direct or Indirect Courses

      While the direct courses can be designed in detail by the concerned university, the indirect courses can also find place in normal activities of the university campus and the colleges. Tagore and Gandhi have laid great stress on the creation of conducive atmosphere in the campus. There is every need to link teaching of every subject with underlying objective of value education in an integrated manner with sensitization and awareness created throughout the process of learning. These could be adapted from the best practices from other countries as well. Some of the popular practices may be followed like direct instructions, special programme of study discussions, talks and speeches by eminent scholars, daily assembly, collective workshops, extra-curricular activities including yoga, sports and games, formation and discussion of classroom rules, circle time, seminars and recognition of students of outstanding moral values. Prof. N. Venkataiah, Dean, University of Mysore, proposed indirect orientation to value education through (a) daily assembly with scriptures and holly books, (b) talks by eminent religious and spiritual leaders (at least one every month), (c) regular participation in sports, games, yoga-asana, and meditation, (d) Seminars on ethical topics with students participation, (e) recognition of students without outstanding moral values. He suggests that the formal course may contain foundational and optional papers in which

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

spiritual and cultural heritage of India and the modern challenges and health education, yoga asanas, transcendental meditation and moral values in the society in re-structured pattern may be included. It also proposes how the integration of topics can be done in languages by inclusion of great personalities of India, their message, their literature in politics by including the topics of ethics by Mahatma Gandhi, Abrahim Lincon, citizens rights and duties and principles of democracy, code of conduct, etc. In economics, home science and other subjects specific topics need to be included like professional ethics, swadhesi concept and social evils, highlighting the great men and women who have stood for values in political administration and the noble services, including Mother Teresa, excerpts from Gita, Bible, Kuran and the verses of Tagore and Gandhi, Sri Aurobindo, Swami Vivekananda, Nehru and Rajaji; and ancient scientific researches in India in different fields as well as the history of great scientists.

      Awareness in value assimilation through distance education although seem to be a challenging proposition but experiences of other countries do however give indications of its possibilities. A large amount of research studies have flashed strong messages that distance education mode combined with the contact programmes on specific themes (seminars, camps, NSS, scouts and guides, etc.) may develop a healthier way of value inculcation.

Encouraging Developmental Empirical Research

      It is being widely accepted that meaningful and relevant research has not found its place in the domain of curricular activities taking place at the higher levels of education. The core functions of training, research and teaching are complimentary to each other and thus research, which is a missing link, needs to be made instrumental in the 'reform and revival of education'. Until certain vital components of value education are not researched upon to provide consequential guidelines and proposition, no development can take place. In this resurrection, research has to play a pivotal role in providing the basis for development programmes, policy formulations and training of middle and higher-level human resources. It is with the strong support of empirical evidences on different social, psychological and economical issues that one can rely upon a well thought out plan for implementation of a programme that can go further.

Concluding Remarks

      The richness in the culture, value, and philosophical ideologies of the trendy country like India is engraved on the sound foundation of value-based

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

education inherited from enriched ancestral possessions. Education at all levels (school, college and university), through all means (direct, indirect or formal and informal), has always been regarded here as a prime means for developing an individual as an integrated whole. At the pre-school and school level, inculcation of values take place but the necessity of value education at the higher education stage percolates from the need to accommodate individual within the desirable accepted societal norms. Taking the model from the ancient scripture of India, the Upanishad and the Gita, wherein emphasis has been laid on the understanding of human beings as an entity of quality, it will definitely be worthwhile to develop an individual with best of abilities. This process can only be initiated at the school level followed by proper grooming at the higher education stage since by that time all competencies are developed and one only needs to be spruced up. Drawing out the best and the capability of applying what is learnt can be more sharpened at this stage. Developing ambience and creating environment becomes imperative at this stage. This nourishment is envisaged to have a multiplier effect in the onward journey as one moves from student life to future challenges.

      Recognizing the importance of values indoctrination in the institutes of higher learning as also suggested by eminent scholars and thinkers, NIEPA at the instance of MHRD and UGC organized a Seminar-cum-Workshop on Education in Human Values and Life Skills in Higher Education. The prime purpose of this Workshop was to develop a design of the course to be introduced at university level. The main participants of the Seminar were vice-chancellors drawn from different universities and other institutes of higher learning. In this forum an urgent need for inclusion of a programme on Education in Human Values and Life Skills for-students of Higher Education was felt. The major suggested titles were: (a) Education of Human Values and Life Skills, (b) Art of Living and (c) Life Enrichment and Self-Development. The proposed course contents will comprise even modules. The essence of each is as follows: (1) Understanding and managing self to make students understand their potentialities and interests and managing self-methods of behaviour modification; (2) Family Life to inculcate human values and rights of all the members; (3) Learning to live together ox Learning to Live Effectively Amidst Diversity (LEAD); (4) Citizens and Indian Constitution on basic values for citizenship, socialism, secular citizenry.justice as a value-social, liberty, equality and dignity of citizens and judges and others; (5) Transition to work as preparation of our youth for future avenues in fast changing employment scenario; (6) Leadership on traits, qualities and attributes, which help in managing the dynamics

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

of organizations; (7) Indian Art and Culture to cover Indian schools of painting, music, dance and Indian literature.

      Orientation to teachers to take up new roles and responsibilities and Counselling to students will form a continuous process in the most organized and professional manner help them to cope with expectations and pressures of emerging demands. One can admit that value orientation at institutes of higher learning is not an impossible proposition. It has to begin with generation of climate conducive to learning and teaching to make value education form an fundamental constituent of a person's life which involves a carefully designed plan of action and activities.


Adam Curie (1973). Education for Liberation.

Delors, Jacques (1996). Learning: The Treasure Within, UNESCO.

Education Commission (1964-66). Education and National Development.

National Policy of Educadon (1986) MHRD

Halstead, Mark and Taylor Monica J. (2000). "Learning and Teaching about Values: A Review of Recent Research" in Cambridge Journal of Education.

MEPA(2001). Seminar-cum-Workshop on Education in Human Values and Life Skills in Higher Education, 24th May.

University of Rajasthan(1984). Vice Chancellors Meet on Value-Orientation.

Yahn, Huby, Peterson, Patricia and Thomas Murrad (1998). "Teachers' View of Moral Education in Taiwan and the USA" in International Review of Education.

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1



Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


The Present Context

      The subject value education has come to acquire increasing prominence in educational discussions at all levels during recent times in our country. The issue has been projected as one of national priority in the National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986. The Policy declares: "the growing concern over the erosion of essential values and an increasing cynicism in society has brought to focus the need for readjustments in the curriculum in order to make education a forceful tool for the cultivation of social and moral values." According to National Curriculum for Primary and Secondary Education (1985), the crisis of values our society is passing through "demands more explicit and deliberate educational efforts towards value development." The first term of reference for the National Commission on Teachers (1983) was "to lay down clear objectives for the teaching profession with reference to the search for excellence, breadth of vision and cultivation of values." The Working Group to review teachers training programmes in the light of the need for value orientation (W G) set up by the Government of India in 1983 recommended for the inclusion of a value education component in the teacher education programme besides spelling out details of curriculum, methodology and teachers role.

Concept of Value Education

      Value Education, as it is generally used, refers to a wide gamut of learning and activities ranging from training in physical health, mental hygiene, etiquette and manners, appropriate social behaviour, civic rights and duties to aesthetic and even religious training.

      To some, value education is simply a matter of developing appropriate behaviour and habits involving inculcation of certain virtues and habits. In opposition to such a conception, it is pointed out that value education has an essentially cognitive component in it and that this should not be ignored. Actually the ability to make moral judgement based on sound reasoning is a very important aim of value education and has to be deliberately cultivated.

      Moral development of a child, according to some, results automatically from the social life of the school. The child as a member of the group imbibes

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

in his private or public capacity. He has to function as a citizen of his state, or his country and of the world, all at the same time playing appropriate roles in each of these contexts. There are also many other demands made on him that need not be enumerated. Value Education should, therefore, it is pointed out, prepare an individual to meet these demands. That these cannot be accomplished in the form of a few do's and don'ts of the traditional form is quite evident.

      The Working Group on Value-Oriented Education has identified five dimensions on value education, these being physical education, emotional education, mental development, aesthetic development and the moral and spiritual domain. The values to be pursued in the moral and spiritual realm, according to them are: Sincerity, faithfulness, obedience to what one conceives to be the highest, gratitude, honesty, benevolence, generosity, cheerfulness, selflessness, freedom from egoism, equanimity in joy and suffering, in honour and dishonour, success and failure, pursuit of the deepest and the highest of the absolute and ultimate and the progressive expression of this pursuit in thought, feeling and action.

      In many countries today the emphasis is on socio-economic reconstruction with the declared intention of a more equitable distribution of the benefits brought about by modernization. Traditional cultural values have had little time to adjust to certain attributes of modernization. Planners of value education curriculum then are faced with the problems of identifying values and character traits that will best equip the individual to take to his place in modern society. The objectives of value education should be such that the curriculum should recognize the tensions that are brought about by the conflicts between tradition and change. The planned programme should aim at developing a critical value perspective in our pupils that will enable them to employ modern skills for the betterment of mankind while helping them renew their commitment to fundamental traditional values.

The Religious Dimension in Objectives

      In countries where strong religious education programmes are supported either by religious bodies or by the government, it is clearly desirable even where schools follow different religious programmes, to have a common value education programme agreeable to all bodies engaged in education.

      Value Education programmes for separate religious groups may lead to religious, cultural, social and political prejudice that in pluralist societies may disrupt national unity. In countries with a secular education system, the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

government should consider the contribution, which religions can make in developing an effective value education programme. It is believed that a good value education programme can be developed without relying on religion. This may be necessary in multi-religious societies and in those where the population is a mixed one of believers and non-believers. At the same time, common teachings of all religions can be used to reinforce values and also teach religious tolerance and understanding to children. For this purpose it is necessary to make a study of the common teachings of different religions and the religious phenomenon as a whole that might be conducive to the value development of children.

The Spatial Dimension

      An important aspect of value education programmes in all countries relates to the development of the spirit of national identity and patriotism in children. This is necessary for the purpose of integrating and strengthening a nation, especially if it has won its freedom only recently or if its security is threatened in some form. But this concern for national identity may occasionally take the form of national chauvinism and the citizens of a country may develop a feeling that their country is always right.

      It has been argued, therefore, that it should be an important objective of value education to make children aware of the fact that the whole world is now a community of interdependent nations that the survival and well-being of the people of the world depends on mutual cooperation. Children should be enabled to appreciate the contributions made to the world's progress by different cultures and made to realize that in the case of various countries coming in conflict with one another, the world would be a very unsafe place to live in.

The Cognitive, Conative and Affective Dimensions of Value Education Objectives

      To be educated in the real sense of the term is to be able to think right, to feel the right kind of emotions and to act in the desirable manner. Objectives of value education should therefore be concerned with all the three phases of personality development as they relate to the right kind of behaviour. As these phases are themselves interrelated, it would be erroneous to think that value education is exclusively concerned with knowledge, emotion or action alone. To say that 'morality is caught' is to do injustice to the cognitive abilities and training involved in it. Similarly to equate value education with making

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

students observe certain do's and don'ts would amount to ignoring education of feelings and moral reasoning. The point of mentioning this here is only to draw attention to the multi-dimensional nature of the value education enterprise.

Moral Components advocated by John Wilson

1. A consideration for others: Principle of equality—dignity of the individual—virtues involved; kindness, sympathy, altruism, courtesy, cooperation, etc.

2. An awareness of feelings in one's own and in others : capacity to anticipate the feelings that would arise in himself and in others as a result of his action—moral thinking about the pros and cons of his action—'Do unto others as you would like them do unto you'—virtues involved: magnanimity, nobility, altruism, etc.

3. Ability to collect data (in a situation involving morality)—right decision making—moral issues and moral conflicts—ability to collect all relevant facts—analyse—think of the possible course of action— scientific method of solving problems—virtues involved: reasoning, endurance, patience, etc.

4. Ability to take a decision: moral education must train the person to be able to take the right decision—virtues involved: justice, wisdom, temperance, etc.

5. Will to act on the decision: may not act for want of sufficient courage— fear anticipated—virtues involved: courage, duty, responsibility, etc.

Recommendations of Kay William

Recommends for the development in children five Primary Moral Traits (PMT) and four Primary Moral Attitudes (PMA). He seems to have evolved these traits and attitudes considering moral education as a process of socialization of the individual. Primary Moral Traits:

      1. To make right moral judgements

      2. To postpone gratification of desires

      3. To treat other human beings with dignity

      4. To be flexible in making moral judgements

      5. To be creative and dynamic in moral decisions

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Primary Moral Attitudes:

      The individual must be educated to possess the following attitudes:

      1. Autonomy: freedom of the will—feel free to take a decision.

      2. Rationality: moral decisions based on reason.

      3. Altruism: extending help and cooperation to others—self-sacrifice

      4. Responsibility: prepared to own responsibility for all his actions— accept guilt in all humility.

Kuvempu'sPanchamantra (Five Doctrines):

      1. Manujamatha (Universal man)—The religion of man should make him a universal man.

      2. Vishwapatha (Universal Path)—The path should be the universal path—cross the barriers from colour, religion, caste, etc.—feeling the infinite and becoming infinite.

      3. Sarvodaya (Welfare of all)—bond of love—broad outlook—concern for others—Principle of Spirituality.

      4. Samanvaya (Harmony)—no dividing lines between any individuals or levels of society—no difference on the basis of the material or the spiritual aspects of life—function on the basis of cooperation,

          unity and spirit of harmony.

      5. Poorna Drishti (Integral vision)—entire humanity as one human values, which are universal and absolute.

Kuvempu's Sapta Sutras (The seven articles of the charter):

      The charter of fundamental principles to be practised in order to become the "Universal Man' says:

      1. accept all mankind as one (community)

      2. wipe out caste system (not to reform)

      3. caste systems in all countries and all religions should be totally denounced and completely destroyed

      4. 'Spirituality' and not religion should be the scientific principle

      5. Religion should become 'Religion of Humanity'

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

  6. As many religions as there are individuals

      7. No single book becomes the 'only one' and the 'most sacred' scripture—study and assimilate all books—'build one's own philosophy'.

Value Education—Its Content and Learning Resources

      Value education cannot be circumscribed by textbook material but should be left to the initiative and inspriation of the teachers. However, there are a few ways in which value education can be imparted:

a. Social and ethical values, examples from day-to-day situations, extracts from sayings of great men, incidents and problems which develop value judgement among pupils, dramas, dialogues, simple poems (Kavya Vachana) and scriptures from world religions could form the major-part of the content along with the biographies of great men.

b. Personal, neighbourly and community values should be taught in the classroom and thoroughly discussed with the students.

c. A variety of learning resources can be used for value education ranging from biographies, scriptures, proverbs, hymns and sayings of great men to current social and political events, stories from religion and mythology, moral dilemmas and schools events.

d. Yoga and other activities that develop self-discipline among students could be included.

e. Group activities like cleaning the school campus, visiting slums, service camps, visits to hospitals, visits to places of worship of different faiths should form part of content in value education. Discourses on the lives of spiritual leaders can bring out values like self-sacrifice, collective happiness, love for truth and ultimate values of life for which the great leaders lived.

f. 'Personality Development Retreats' could be held to enable the students to develop self-control, punctuality, sharing and caring respect for other faiths, cooperation and the value of silence (inner peace).

g. Prayer, meditation and 'shramadan' could form part of the content of value education. They can help the students cultivate inner poise and an attitudinal shift, and develop the quality of 'dignity of labour'.

h. Observing 'Jayantis' i.e., birthdays of great national and spiritual leaders and organizing youth organizations for character development

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 like Balaka Sangha and Taruna Sangha can go a long way in the inculcation of values in students.

A Conceptual Frame for Value Education

      Value Education is a highly complex notion. Its meaning and scope ultimately rest on our conceptions of 'value' and 'education'.

      Value Education essentially is a process of education. It is an education in beliefs, attitudes and values leading to commitment towards right action. It is not the same as moral instruction or moral training although it includes the training and instruction aspects. As Value Education operates at the level of ideas, beliefs and ideals, it is incompatible with authoritarian, indoctrination and transmission of do's and don.'ts.

      Value Education is education for 'becoming' and is concerned with the transformation of an individual's personality. As such it involves all the three phases of personality—knowing, feeling and doing. The child should be made aware of the right and good, to feel the appropriate emotions and internalize the values in thought and deed. Value Education is not synonymous with character training, which is only an aspect of it. Value Education is also not social adjustment as it is concerned not so much with what is

      Value Education programmes should have clear-cut objectives. These objectives span the congnitive, affective and psychomotor domains. To be morally educated is to be able to think morally, to feel the right kind of emotions and to act morally. These domains are interrelated and are not watertight compartments.

      A good programme of value education should seek to develop in the learner appropriate value sensibilities, enable him to understand and appreciate the values of democracy, secularism, equality, scientific temper, enable him to develop a concern and commitment for them and provide suitable (opportunities for students to practice and live by these values.

      Value Education should both be substantive and procedural. It should develop in children the right values and also enable them to think rationality. The values to be inculcated should represent the best from our tradition and also be in keeping with the demands of a modernizing society. The core values identified in the National Policy on Education, 1986, answer to these twin requirements. These are: democracy, secularism, scientific temper, equality,

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

respect for cultural heritage, removal of social barriers, protection of the environment, history of the freedom movement and observance of the small family norm.

      Value Education strategies should be related to an individual's stage of moral development, the role of reason, feeling and will in value behaviour and the pedagogical approaches of the direct, indirect and incidental methods. In other words, the strategies should match the (moral) developmental stage of the learner and the objective being sought—knowledge, feeling, will. Since education for becoming involves the whole person, a variety of activities are to be employed—teaching, instruction, explanation, discussion, solving value dilemmas, story telling, training of proper habits, sensitization to moral phenomena and providing opportunities to practice the values and live by them. Deliberate, direct value education should be used cautiously as didactic approaches have their own limitations. As far as possible value education should be proved through concrete situations.

      Apart from direct value education in specially provided periods there are several other sources of value education and all these are to bejudiciously used. The regular subjects of the school curriculum have hidden in the discipline structure and methodology of a set of values, attitudes and dispositions, which are characteristic of them. The proper teaching of a subject involves not only passing on of the information content but also inducing in the learner the qualities of mind and heart involved in the pursuit of that discipline. Co-curricular activities are another source of value education. Apart from developing the students' creativity and distinctive intellectual, social and cultural interests they also enable them to acquire the values of democratic living, responsibility, cooperation, tolerance and secularism. The very atmosphere of the school constitutes a major source of moral education many times. The school atmosphere is the sum total of the influences generated by the school, its setting, its traditions and ideals, teachers, pupils and parents, in one word, the ethos of the school.

      All education, in a sense, is value education, for education is nothing but a process of transmission of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that we think as desirable for the younger generation to have. The entire curriculum designed to realize the goals of education acts, therefore, as value education curriculum as well. However, when we think of curriculum for value education with specific reference to direct value education, we should take note of two factors: what we wish to achieve in the limited provision of time and how. Value education involves learning of different kinds and its curriculum should

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

reflect these learning in its objectives and organization. The transaction of the curriculum should also take due note of the multi-dimensional nature of Value Education.

      A variety of instructional materials and aids are to be employed to make value education purposeful and interesting. Textbooks, general books, news papers and magazine articles, anecdotes, charts, models, films, plays—all have to be used judiciously by always keeping in mind the specific objective of Value Education that is being sought. The textbook in Value Education need not take the form of a collection of'lessons' like textbooks in other subjects but can be organized as a handbook of various kinds of activities with objectives and teaching-learning strategies for the use of students and/or teachers.

      Schools have an important role in Value Education. But their importance should neither be exaggerated nor denied altogether. Value development will be taking place constantly both within and outside the school, influenced by a complex network of environmental factors—home, peer group, media and the community at large. The extent to which schools function effectively as training grounds for values depends on their physical condition and the professional idealism of teachers among other things. To the extent the school factors—teacher-teacher, teacher-pupil, teacher-parent and the various other group interactions, the school traditions and values, the curricular and co-curricular activities, the school tone and climate—influence the value development of children, schools have a responsibility in exercising control over these and creating conducive conditions for the value development of children.

      Every teacher is also a value teacher. There is no getting away from this fact. The teacher's task as a moral educator is not indoctrination but one of making the students critically aware of values and understand and appreciate them after rational thought and deliberation. To do his job well the teacher should himself have personal commitment towards value education and influence his charges more with his personal example than precept. This does not mean that the teachers should be a paragon of virtue or the paradigm of the ideal person. It only means that the teacher has to be honest in his dealings with his students and order his behaviour in accordance with the highest standards of ethics of his profession.

      Any organized educational effort should naturally have its evaluation component. Direct value education should also, therefore, be evaluated in terms of its objectives. These objectives are not restricted to cognitive learning alone but cover the affective and psychomotor domains as well. In keeping with the nature or the objective a variety or tools or evaluation may be employed:

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

observation, interview, paper and pencil and so on. Comprehensive, objective evaluation in a field like value education is extremely difficult but every effort must be made to evaluate, informally and wherever possible, formally, the influence on the value growth of children of the various school inputs— teaching of subjects, direct value education, co-curricular activities and teacher-student and student-student interactions. Moral education should not be made an examination subject in the usual sense of the term.

(A schematic representation of the process of Value Education is overleaf)

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


      M. L. KHANNA

I am obliged to the organizers of this Conference for providing me the privilege and an opportunity to speak to such a distinguished gathering of scholars cum administrators. The gathering of such an august and distinguished educationists gives me a feeling of awe. The subject today is—Value Education. We have come a long way from the good old times when education was confined and understood to comprise knowledge of the religious scriptures. However, it was thePanchtantra, which for the first time gave in concrete term what we call the concept of true education and that it is not the books alone which can educate a man.

      With the gradual growth of economic activity and shifting from the pastoral life and rural areas initially to small urban settlements and then finally to the city life following industrial revolution the need arose to equip the people to meet the obligations arising out of the economic change owing to developments and growth in Trade and Industry as well as administrative set up. The basic concept of what constitutes education as a result got mixed up and muffled up into a confusion due to its haphazard and unplanned growth

      In India what has come to be known and styled over the years as educadon started with Lord Macauley's Minute to produce the subordinate cadre to man the administrative setup of the British for governance over India. The aim of education came to be centered round equipping a person to be fit enough to find a suitable job to earn a living. It is this pattern what had come to be known as education all these years.

      However, notwithstanding these factors people remained alive to the necessities of people fulfilling their obligations towards society and the need for complying with the acknowledged and accepted norms of behaviour pattern. It was the religious background, which provided education, the emphasis and base for high standards of honesty, integrity, reasonableness and justice. It was bedrock on which the society flourished, a society guided by high sense of morality and commitment.

      Our country remained under the surveillance of foreign rule for a long time and as a result the entire life pattern and behaviour was determined, by and large, by the decisions of the rulers, however our moral standards and sense of justice did not suffer any sizeable damage. The country became

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

independent and this brought a tremendous change in the life style. This has been attributed to politics and politicians who resorted to all types of tactics first to get in to power and then to remain in power. This had the effect of tainting the entire atmosphere in the country.

      Some of our poets have very appropriately expressed the public resentment and painted the present scenario in the following words:



      The apprehensions have been also expressed as under:



An urgent need has arisen today to re-appraise the present scenario and re-equip ourselves so that the coming generation may live better life which may conform to the highest and best traditions known to man, which had been the bed-rock of our ancient cultural heritage.

      The advancement of the scientific inventions and discoveries resulted in cloudburst of knowledge and its dissemination at an unimaginable pace. The general awareness of what is happening all around us has improved tremendously. This has put us to high alert in view of the indiscriminate spread of information, thereby putting us to the urgent needs to protect the society based on certain high ethical and moral value priorities against harmful and injurious aspects and trends. One such priority is the system, method and context of our education, which will enable us to give shape to the coming generations which are growing and yet unripe but are at the most impressionable period of their life. It is these factors, which in the ultimate analysis are going to determine the quality of life of people of this country in times to come.

      These trends and factors have brought to the fore the need to completely overhaul and bring about a sea-change in our pattern of thinking about what is to constitute the true, correct and value based education We will have to be highly discriminative and selective in determining what are the most appropriate constituents of the learning and what are the fortifications necessary to protect the Society from those aspects and trends which are injurious and are likely go contrary to the well-being of human race. The book knowledge alone will have to cease to be acknowledged concept of education.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

  Today we must understand that education is much more than merely capacity to read and write as has been aptly put by a poet:



It is now acknowledged in all hands that education in fact implies appreciating those values of life which determine the over all well being and welfare of humanity. Such attributes had been evolved through centuries of experience and have been preserved and have remained enshrined in our cultural heritage. Each country, each nation has its own reservoir of those values as a part of their heritage, which has fashioned and determined the pattern of life of people in different areas.

      In India, however, with the system introduced under Macaulay's Minute by the British continued. No effort was made to effect a change in it.

      Unfortunately nobody paid any heed to the need for change or look into the present day requirements of a free country. Our leaders did not realize that we are no longer held by a leash, which restricted our life pattern with the removal of the British rule from India. Thus like a lost child, ever since their exit, we have been roaming in wilderness in the field of education. All the values, which we have cherished over the centuries, which gave us a sense of pride over our cultural heritage and background crumbled. We have as a result by and large become machines to spin money regardless of the ways and means adopted. This situation has resulted in great deterioration in our social life and structure so much so that we are no longer able to discriminate between the right and wrong so long as it serves the individual's purpose, regardless of its consequential effect on the Society.

      The cherished values handed down to us as a part of our cultural and ethical heritage on which we prided has been demolished and the mirror has been clouded to such an extent that those values seems to have become nonexistent and have vanished or in any case are not reflected in our present day life. The thick cloud, fog and dust have enveloped us in such a manner that like a blind person we are stretching our hands in all directions seeking an anchor, all around to find a way, to trace back the road and the path so that we are able to return to our basics and have a feel of the beautiful edifice which gave our ancestors confidence and sense of pride which gave us those huge volumes of values which elevated the prestige of man to the level of God and determine in general the quality and life of the people. These made the man feel the pride of being a human as has been beautifully put by a poet:

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1




Everybody seems to be saying: Is this the taste of Independence for which many lives had been sacrificed? Is this the freedom for which people struggled, suffered and shed their blood? Is this the dream and vision which was sought for by our forefathers? What has gone wrong? Where have we faltered? Are we going to be carried away by the whirlpool and the rush of this flood gale of present trends of insanity that are stalking our live? Do we have any way out? What are we to do'? Those who laid their lives that we may enjoy the free air of free India must be turning in their graves and craving for our awakening to redeem them from the dark dungeons of regret and frustration.

      In this state of dilemma, uncertainty and anxiety, feeling of discontent, the suffering of the down-trodden, harassed and fear-sticken citizens, the only answer is a reappraisal of our own actions and thinking. We will have to think and plan out and take urgent, immediate and necessary steps to ethically and morally rehabilitate our people, at least the coming generations, to a state of confidence, peace and well-being with foundations in value based life. We have to stem the ongoing all round failure and the collapse of society's structure. Our failure to withstand the sweeping onrush of what we call modern Western trends in the absence of any equivalent inputs from our own past tradition and fanning of aspiration and desires for the new-found ways of excitement brought in by cloudburst of scientific developments and facilities without the matching inputs have put a very heavy strain on the existing society's structure and virtually led to its collapse. How are we to resurrect the society?

      This failure and collapse, I will attribute, to the crises of character on the one hand and our failure to put the road blocks to stop the downward avalanche on the other. The only panacea for this lies in our being able to reframe our educational system, which may help us in building up those characteristics, which would go to build up a strong and sterling character. It is never too late to make a beginning. It is, however, not an easy task to make amends late in life. But we can definitely make a beginning with the coming generations so that at least these may be able to withstand the whirlwind and the flash flood of instability, which is sweeping the society today.

      Unfortunately we have not tried to appreciate what is value based education and role of character and how are we to lay the foundation for it? It is character, which sustains and maintains what we call value-based education.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

We must understand how it contributes and what constitutes character. Character is made up of those principles and values that give life a direction, a meaning and depth. These elements are constituted of your inner sense of what is right and what is wrong based not on laws or rules of conduct but on who you are. They include such traits as integrity, honesty, courage, fairness and generosity—which arise from the hard choices we have to make in life and last but not least our capacity and courage to accept our own mistakes even at the expense of a disadvantage. So, that wrong is simply doing wrong, not in getting caught. It is our inner values that matter.

      In order that we may be able to rehabilitate ourselves and bring about a resurgence in our life by bringing about those factors which we call and which determine the quality of life through education. This exercise has to make a start at the lowest rung, i.e. when the child starts learning the three "Rs." The child at that level is in the most impressionable period of life and we can give him the mould and the shape that we want as has been put by a poet:



The most important need today is development of discipline for without discipline in life you can never lay sound foundations for a strong character. It may look to be a formidable task and may be we are not able to make amends among the grown up population of the country, but definitely we can take measures and steps to bring about that revolution in the lives of the coming generations those who are going to be the citizens of the tomorrow and this is where the role of education has assumed importance.

      Many have come to believe that the only things we need for success are talent, energy and personality. But histroy has taught us that over the years, who we are, is more important than who we appear to be.

      Since the late 19th century and after the First World War, the basic view of success shifted to what we could call the personality ethic. Success became more a function of charm, skills and techniques that at least, on the surface, lubricate the process of human interaction. Rather than struggle with thorny issues of right and wrong, we turned to easier ways, which could make things run smoothly. This led to evolving and propagating those factors and features which could charm their way to success or which could make them more acceptable such as "smiling wins more friends than frowning", deceptively, taking interest in other's hobbies so that they will like you.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

With a value system got based on skill and personality though it did give us heroes in athletes, musicians and in powerful business executives. Nevertheless these achievers should not be looked upon as role models. While skill is certainly needed for success, it can never guarantee happiness and fulfilment unless they have their base in accepted norms and values. These come from developing character.

      You can begin to build character at any age. The key is learning how to look within, to work inside out. With the inside-out approach, private victories precede public victories. These private victories are simply promises you make to yourself and others and then keep them, They don't have to be profound or life altering, like a career change. They can be as mundane as a commitment to exercise everyday. The first step towards building character is to tackle a hard choice commit to change and stay with it.



Day by Day, as you make and keep cumulatively challenging promises and overcoming your own weaknesses and temptations you will be making deposits in your character account. What begins as great effort will eventually become a habit. And as you get into the habit of building character in the smaller areas of your life, your ability to develop character strength in more important spheres will grow gradually.

      Private victories therefore lead to our larger public victories. For instance to gain more latitude in your job, you must first be a more responsible employee. In order to lead a happy married life, first be the kind of person who generates love, generosity, dependability and trust'.

      There is no more essential ingredient for character growth than trust. Whether it is trust we earn from colleagues or a spouse, it is built slowly over a period of time in an infinite variety of circumstance. One of the most commonly overlooked ways to build trust is to be loyal to those who are not present.

      This aspect of the country's need was felt long back by Swami Dayanand Saraswati in whose memory the' temple of learning' known as DAV institutions were set up way back in 1886. The basic consideration before the founding fathers in setting up of these institutions was to build an India with men and women of high moral character who are not swayed by dogma or superstition but stand on the bedrock of strong character based on our age-old traditions as enshrined in our cultural heritage. As a result there has been a consistent

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

and continuous efforts since its inception more than 115 years back in the DAV institutions, to inculcate in the children a sense of discipline which is the bedrock for building character.

      One of the great forces, which has shaped the man and determined his course in life is faith coupled with sticking to and realizing the impact of moral values in human life. This has been the foremost objective and method in our DAV institutions. We have all along tried to make alive the importance of these factors in individual's life as well as the effect on society and the country as a whole.

      The day of the DAV institutions starts with a prayer. The teachers are dedicated and given to simple and truthful living. Each one of the teachers turns himself into a role model so that the young children who are entrusted to them by the parents take a cue from them. It is an accepted fact of life that teachers are gods to the children and they try to emulate them, follow them as their guides in life. The teachers in turn devotedly try to guide the children by giving them proper advice so as to bring about awareness between right and wrong. The compassion, the devotion and dedication under a sense of sacrifice has impressed many a generation and produced a dedicated list of patriots who laid their life in their fight for freedom down form Sardar Bhagat Singh.

      Character-building is not a one day's job nor does it come by just wishing. Character is the ornament of man and therefore to be an ornament radiating beauty, charm and perfection one has to go through the same process of the fire, the furnace, the hammer and the chisel. In order to build characteristics and quality one has to work on these consistently and persistently over a period of time.

      The first stage to this will be our learning to discipline ourselves and willingness to take responsibility. By attempting to avoid responsibility for our own behaviour, we are giving away our power to some other individual or organization. No problem can be solved until an individual assumes responsibility for solving it. The moment we shy from it we lose freedom and become slaves to others.

      In order that the achievement may be an abiding achievement, another important attribute of value added character is humility and abrogation of arrogance and ego. While humility brings into the character of a person that abiding quality which makes a person learn to improve upon on the other hand arrogance acts as a negative factor destroys the best of qualities of a person.

      Another way to build character is to admit your mistakes. Character is revealed in how we handle things that go wrong. A particular person wronged

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

me at a particular stage in life. I did not retaliate but gave him another chance; you have no idea how far he went to make the next one succeed. He displayed such courage in admitting his failure that I would willingly give him another chance; and never regret it.

      It is the ultimate touch that determines the nicety and fineness of a product. As a poet has said:



And yet another poet has said:



Thus it is that the change gets reflected in the character of a man.

      I pray to God almighty that through His benevolence he may give you enough strength to carry through the great responsibility of giving right direction in the field of education to the coming generations. I am confident that through His benevolence you will achieve the task even though it may be full of hurdles and obstacles.








      * * *

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1




      P.L. DHAR

Technology is generally viewed as the tool for application of scientific knowledge to promote human welfare. Since the age-old problems of inequity, poverty, strife, crime and violence still stare in our face, there must be a grave inadequacy in our science and technology set up. Analysis reveals that the roots of this inadequacy lie in the fact that the youth are being given an education that completely sidesteps the whole question of real human welfare, human values and goals. Clearly there is an urgent need to rectify the situation. Though most educationists appreciate the need for education in human values, but there seem to be three serious misgivings about it. First, value education is often equated with sectarian indoctrination—an anathema to a secular state like India. Secondly, there is this notion that values cannot be taught at all, these are picked up by the youth from the environment in which they live, from the inspiration provided by the leaders, the role models. Thirdly, many believe that values are relative and therefore any attempt at 'teaching' values is akin to authoritarianism since it would curtail the freedom of choice. This paper provides a framework for value education that overcomes all these objections and shows how students can be motivated to imbibe universal human values through discussions conducted in a rational manner in a classroom. It is based on five cardinal principles:

i. The foundation of value education should not be made dependent on myth or authority of any kind.

ii. The students should be provoked to analyze their own life, its goals, aspirations, etc. so that they can discover for themselves the "Laws of Nature" as applicable to the subjective world of Man, just as they are taught "the Laws of Science", by analyzing the phenomena of the external objective world.

iii. The value dimension should permeate all the subjects taught to the students. Good engineering design, a core competence of all engineers, needs value judgement.

iv. The students should be given practical training to inculcate self-restraint, self-observation and to develop compassion.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

     v.   The teacher has to be trained to act as a senior student and not adopt the role of a moral master.

Experiments in Value Education at ITT Delhi

      At IIT Delhi, the first attempt at incorporating education in human values was done in early eighties under the guidance of Prof. D.S. Kothari, Chairman of the celebrated Education Commission that had strongly recommended the inclusion of moral and spiritual education in formal educational system. A new course entitled "Science and Humanism—towards a unified world-view" was developed and introduced in January 1983 as an elective course in the Humanities and Social Science Department. The success of this course motivated the introduction of many other courses in the Humanities and other departments wherein a strong value orientation of the students was attempted. A brief account of some of these courses and their effectiveness in value orientation of students would be presented in the panel discussion.

      Besides these inputs in curricula, many attempts have been made to organize workshops, seminars and informal discussions on specific themes to create an awareness amongst teachers and students on issues related to technology, human values and development. In 1990, when enormous tension was generated in the student community due to implementation of Mandal Commission recommendations, a national seminar on "Strategies for Social Justice" was organized which drew participation from all parts of the country. In 1993 a national workshop was organized to develop new inputs in engineering curricula for integrating science, technology and human values. Over thirty faculty members from various engineering colleges and institutes of technology attended this workshop. During this Workshop the contents of eight different courses were developed to give multifaceted approach at value orientation, and some of these were later introduced in IITD curriculum. Another workshop on "Social responsibility of engineers" was organised in 1994 with enthusiastic participation from IIT Delhi faculty. A series of seminars was organised under the auspices of Development Forum for over three years (1991-93) in which eminent personalities from all across the country were invited to share their perception on technology, human values and development. Over last two years this process of discussions has been revitalized and three workshops for IITD faculty were organised on the generic theme of Value Education for Engineers. This has resulted in setting up of a National Resource Centre for Value Education in Engineering at IIT Delhi with the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

mandate to work towards catalyzing such activities all over the country. A comprehensive package on value education for engineering students has also been prepared. Some details of all these attempts would also be shared at the panel discussion.

*        *      *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1




Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


      "esa devo visvaharma mahatma sada jananam hrdaye sannivistah,

       hrda mariisa mansnbhiklpto ya etad viduramrtds te bhavanti. "

More and more young people are becoming disenchanted with an education system that glorifies knowledge built on the shifting sands of relativism. "Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?"—a poet asked. The most important feature of Baha'i approach to education is its universality. Intellectual and cultural traditions and superstitions are transcended. Herein lie the foundations for the global society. Through education young people can and must be brought to realize their sacred obligation to uphold at all points the cause of universal peace, of world unity, and of cooperative fellowship within one's country and rest of the planet. The learning, then, should transform us into channels of that Divinity endowed with the sense of decency and shame, of duty, of solidarity, of reciprocity and the very feeling of peacefulness, of joy and of hope.

      Unfortunately, the individual today has become engulfed in struggles of competitive groups employing different weapons to attain irreconcilable ends. The beginning and end of his actions lie concealed in the fiery smoke of furious, interminable debate and perhaps self-annihilation. His personal world has been transformed into an invaded arena he knows not how to defend. A fresh beginning must be made in our schools and educational institutions and to this end this paper addresses wide ranging issues that urgently concern our country, and the world at large. "The turmoil and crises of our time underlie a momentous transition in human affairs. Simultaneous processes of disintegration and integration have clearly been accelerating throughout the planet for the past century and half, the root causes of, which the majority of the world population are only now beginning to fathom. That our earth has contracted into a neighbourhood, no one can seriously deny. The world is being made new. Death pangs are yielding to birth pangs. The pain shall pass when members of the human race act upon the common recognition of their oneness. There is a light at the end of this tunnel of change beckoning humanity to die goal destined for it according to the testimonies

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

recorded in all the "Holy Books." From the human being's inner world of hope and fear the cry for help has never been raised so desperately nor so universally across the planet. Civilization is in conflict with the man of nature. Civilization is betraying the man of understanding and feeling. Why?

      Sickness of the soul, like physical ailment, manifests itself in many forms. It need not be a localized pain or an acute sense of shock and disability. An ailment can produce numbness as well as torment, or it can spare the victim's general health but deprive him of sight, hearing or the use of a limb. Soul sickness that goes deep into the core of our being, our psychic organism, seldom finds relief in hysteria or other visible adjustments to ill being. It expresses itself in successive relation-orientations to self and to society, each of which results in a conviction representing a definite choice or selection between several possibilities. When the conviction hardens, all possibilities but one are denied and dismissed. If individuals come to realize that effort to express certain qualities through their daily lives are continuously unsuccessful, they will, in the majority of cases, abandon the exercise of that quality and concentrate on others. If individuals find that their civilization makes demands on them for the exercise of qualities they personally condemn, in most cases the necessary adjustment is made.

Where are we headed ?

      The individual in present-day society is in the same position as the mountain climber bound to other climbers by a rope. At all times he is compelled to choose between freedom and protection—to balance his rights and his loyalties, and compromise between his duty to protect others and his duty to develop something unique and important in himself. As long as the route and the goal are equally vital to all the climbers, the necessary adjustments can be made without undue strain. But modern life binds together in economic, political, spiritual and other arrangements groups of people who never entered into a pact of mutual agreement, who inwardly desire and need diverse things. The rope that binds them is a tradition, a convention, an inherited obligation, no longer having power to fulfil.

      Here, in essence, is the tragic sickness of today's human being. What he sows he cannot reap. What the reaps he cannot store until a new harvest ripens. He feeds on another's desire, he will have to accomplish an alien task, he works to destroy the substance of his dearest hope. Moral standards stop at the frontier of the organized group. Partisan pressures darken the heavens of understanding. Humanity is undergoing a complete transformation of values.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

The individual is being transplanted from his customary, sheltered traditional way of life to the vast and disruptive confusions of a world in torment. The institutions that have afforded him social or psychic well-being are themselves subject to the same universal dislocation. The label no longer identifies the quality or purpose of the organization. One cannot retreat into the isolation of primitive simplicity; one cannot advance without becoming part of a movement of destiny that no one can control nor define.

      Where can a new and creative way of life be found? How can people attain knowledge of the means to justify their legitimate hope, fulfil their normal emotions, satisfy their intelligence, unify their aims and civilize their activities? The astronomer has his polished lens of the Hubble Space Telescope and speeding satellites to probe the mysteries of the physical universe. Where can humankind turn to behold the will and purpose of God, the vision of the Cosmic Reality?

      Of cases, abandon the exercise of that quality and concentrate on others. If individuals find that their civilization makes demands on them for the exercise of qualities they personally condemn, in most cases the necessary adjustment is made.

Spiritual Education and Peaceful Living

      In the Baha'i writings, peace is revered because in essence it is a spiritual mystery in which humanity has been invited in our day, for the first time, to partake. Peace is a divine creation, a reconciliation of human and divine purpose. Thus, the issues of human existence turn upon the axis of education. Education alone can overcome the inertia of our separateness, transmute our creative energies for the realization of world unity, free the mind from its servitude to the past and reshape civilization to be the guardian of our spiritual and physical resources.

      The teachings of Baha'u'llah, upon which the Baha'i philosophy of education is based, describe each human being as "a mine rich in gems of inestimable value". He is neither a fallen creature nor merely the product of socio-economic forces, the individual is a phenomenon of limitless potentialities: intellectual, emotive, moral, and spiritual.

      The true purposes of education are not fulfilled by the knowledge conferred through civil education, since this knowledge ends with the purposes of the individual or the needs of the state. They are not fulfilled by sectarian education, since sectarian knowledge excludes the basic principle of the continuity and progressiveness of revelation. The true purposes of education are not achieved by independent pursuit of knowledge undertaken

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

through study of the classics, and the great philosophies or even the religious systems of the past. Such education enhances the individual capacity and deepens the insight of a group. It opens the door to a world of superior minds and heroic accomplishment. But that world is the reflection of the light of truth upon past conditions and events. It is not the rising of the sun to illumine our own time, inspire a unified world movement, and regenerate withered souls.

      Nor may we hope that psychology can develop the necessary transforming power for a dislocated society, a scientific substitute for the primitive offices of religion. The explorer in the world of the psyche sees the projection of his own shadow, finds the answer determined by his own question. He can prove mechanistic determinism or demonstrate the freedom and responsibility of the soul. The area within which he works is suitable for the development of personal healing. He can learn the habitual reactions of persons in a group or groups in a society, but this knowledge is statistical until applied by a comprehensive organ of intelligence on a world scale.

      '"The human spirit which distinguishes man from the animal," the Baha'i teachings state, "is the rational soul; and these two names—the human spirit and the rational soul—designate one thing. This spirit, which in the terminology of the philosophers is the rational soul, embraces all beings, and as far as human ability permits discovers the realities of things and becomes cognizant of their peculiarities and effects, and of the qualities and properties of beings. But the human spirit, unless assisted by the spirit of faith, does not become acquainted with the divine secrets and the heavenly realities. It is like a mirror, which although clear, polished and brilliant, is still in need of light. Until a ray of the sun reflects upon it, it cannot discover the heavenly secrets." Elsewhere, Baha'i writings affirm: "With the love of God all sciences are accepted and beloved, but without it, are fruitless; nay, rather, the cause of insanity. Every science is like unto a tree, if the fruit of it is the Love of God, that is a blessed . tree. Otherwise it is dried wood and finally a food for fire." A new and universal concept of education is found in the writings of the Baha'i Faith and for the sake of brevity we are able to share only a few extracts:

      "When we consider existence, we see that the mineral, vegetable, animal

      and human worlds are all in need of an educator.

      "If the earth is not cultivated it becomes ajungle where useless weeds grow; but if a cultivator comes and tills the ground, it produces crops which nourish living creatures. It is evident, therefore, that the soil needs the cultivation of the farmer...

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

'The same is true with respect to animals: notice that when the animal is trained it becomes domestic, and also, that man, if he is left without training, becomes bestial, and, moreover, if left under the rule of nature, becomes lower than an animal, whereas if he is educated he becomes an angel...

"Now reflect that it is education that brings the East and the West under the authority of man; it is education that produces wonderful industries; it is education that spreads glorious sciences and arts; it is education that makes manifest new discoveries and laws. If there were no educator there would be no such things as comforts civilization, facilities, or humanity... "But education is of three kinds: material, human and spiritual. Material education is concerned with the progress and development of the body, through gaining its sustenance, its material comfort and ease. This education is common to animals and man.

"Human education signifies civilization and progress: that is to say, government, administration, charitable works, trades, arts and handicrafts, sciences, great inventions and discoveries of physical laws, which are the activities essential to man as distinguished from the animal. "Divine education is that of the Kingdom of God: it consists in acquiring divine perfections, and this is true education; for in this estate man becomes the centre of divine appearance, the manifestation of the words, 'Let us make man in our image and after our likeness.' This is the supreme goal of the world of humanity.

"Now we need an educator who will be at the same time a material, human and spiritual educator, and whose authority will be effective in all conditions...

"It is clear that human power is not able to fill such a great office, and that the reason alone could not undertake the responsibility of so great a mission. How can one solitary person without help and without support lay the foundations of such a noble construction? He must depend on the help of the spiritual and divine power to be able to undertake this mission. One Holy Soul gives life to the world of humanity, changes the aspect of the terrestrial globe, causes intelligence to progress, vivifies souls, lays the foundation of a new existence, establishes the basis of a marvelous creation, organizes the world, beings, nations and religions under the shadow of one standard, delivers man from the world of imperfections and vices, and inspires him with the desire and need of natural and acquired perfections. Certainly nothing short of a divine power could accomplish so great a work."

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

For these reasons, the re-education—the transformation—of the human beings of today is contingent upon the emergence of a culture in which universal spiritual values are dominant. In essence, this is the basic rationale underlying the Baha'i perspective on education. In a statement issued during the International Year of Literacy in 1988, the Baha'i International Community proposed the following as compelling goals in providing an education for the wholesome development of young people at all levels of the society:

      * The realization that it is chiefly service to humanity and dedication to the unification of mankind that unlock individual capacity and release creative powers latent in human nature.

      * The understanding that the mere knowledge of principles is insufficient to ensure personal growth and social change, that both require the exercise of volition and application of will.

      * A firm conviction that human honour and happiness lie in self-respect and noble purposes, in integrity and moral equality and not in the mere pursuit of wealth and power for their own sake.

      * A reasonable degree of excellence in at least one productive skill through which individuals can experience the truth that work is worship when performed in a spirit of service, and can secure the means

         of existence with dignity and honour.

      * An adequate understanding of some of the concerns of programmes of social progress, such as health and sanitation, agriculture, crafts and industry, environment and ecology, at least in the local or

         regional context.

      * Some development of the individual's capacity for intellectual investigation as a distinguishing power of the human mind and as an indispensable instrument for successful community action.

      * Some capacity to analyze social conditions and discover the forces that have caused them, and corresponding ability to express ideas, so as to be able to contribute to consultation on community problems.

      * The capacity to take part in community planning and action as a determined yet humble participant who helps overcome conflict and division and contributes to the establishment of a spirit of unity

         and collaboration.

      * A disposition to analyze and desire to understand the features of different forms of government, law and public administration.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

These precepts are not advanced in abstract, but are based on real experience. Although the Baha'i community cannot claim to have created its desired system of universal education, it feels encouraged by the progress of its several decades of organized educational efforts. Moreover, it is convinced that principles underlying its approach are applicable universally and can contribute to a global campaign to extend the benefits of education to the generality of humankind. The application of these principles does not necessarily imply a prolonged educational programme, where circumstances do not immediately make this practicable. For children, the process is set in motion in early childhood as a concerned effort to develop character and encourage the emergence of spiritual qualities latent in human nature.

The Role of Value-Based Education

      The focal point of the Baha'i education is a clarification of man's relationship with the divine Creator. As long as peoples differ, or are unaware, or accept a substitute for this relationship, we cannot distinguish between truth and error, or discriminate between principle and superstition. Until we apprehend human beings in the light of the creative purpose, it is impossible to know others or ourselves. Social truth is merely experiment and hypothesis unless it forms part of a spiritual reality. The founders of revealed religions or dharma, who have been termed prophets, messengers, avataras, messiahs, tirthankaras and the tathagathas, in the Baha'i teachings are designated Manifestations of God. These beings, walking on earth as men stand in a higher order of creation and are endowed with powers and attributes that transcend human limitations. In the world of truth they shine like the sun, and the rays emanating from that sun are the light and the life of the souls of men.

      The Manifestation is not God. The Infinite cannot be incarnated. God reveals His will through the Manifestation, and apart from what is thus manifested His will and reality remain forever unknown. The physical universe does not reveal the divine purpose for human civilization.

'The holy Manifestations of God, the divine prophets, are the first teachers of the human race. They are universal educators and the fundamental principles they have laid down are the causes and factors of the advancement of nations. Forms and limitations, which creep in afterward are not conducive to that progress. On the contrary these are destroyers of the human foundations laid by the heavenly educators."

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 "Every one of them," the Baha'i teachings state, "is the Way of God that connects this world with the realms above, and the standard of His truth unto every one in the kingdoms of earth and heaven. They are the Manifestations of God amidst men, the evidences of His truth, and the signs of His glory." They are the channels of the Cosmic Force and

"in whom the spiritual and moral urges and loyalties of the age were focused. They are the embodiment of its spiritual dynamics. Such a Saviour, or theAvatara, unlike ordinary saints and seers, is not a static lighthouse. He, in the words of Shri Ramakrishna, is a large-sized ship capable of carrying thousands of people across the waters of life. He appears on the world scene to establish Dharma (justice and righteousness) in the words of Shri Krishna; and He sets in motion the wheel of Dhamma, says the Lord Buddha in the first sermon... The Avatara as understood in India is an epoch-maker, a spiritual dynamo from which man-making and nation-making forces emanate—to accelerate the process of the spiritual evolution of humanity. He is a world transformer and in Him an idea becomes yoked to will, purpose and endeavour. He is the dominating spiritual hero of an epoch which functions as a dynamic source of a creative social process, and the sustenance and guide of an egalitarian social order."

      The whole pattern and process of history rests upon the succession of dispensations by which man's innate capacities are developed and by which the course of social evolution is sustained. The rise and fall of civilizations proceed as the effect of prior spiritual causation. An ancient civilization undergoes moral decadence; by division of its own people and attack from without; its power and authority are destroyed; and with that destruction collapses the culture and the religious system, which had become parasites upon its material wealth. Concurrently, a new creative spirit reveals itself in the rise of a greater and better type of society from the ruins of the old.

      The critical point in this process is the heroic sacrifice offered the prophet or the avatara by those who see in Him the way to God, and His official condemnation by the heads of the prevailing systems of dharma or religion. That condemnation, because men cannot judge God, recoils back upon the religion and civilization itself. They have condemned themselves. Whilst the small number of those who have recognized the new Manifestation of God grow from strength to strength. The future is with them. In their spiritual fellowship the seeds of die new civilization are watered and its first, tender growth safeguarded by their heart's blood.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 Through the Manifestation of God the power of the Holy Spirit accomplishes the will of God. Nothing can withstand that power. Because its work is not instantaneous, a darkened age cannot perceive the awful process of cause and effect—the divine will as cause, and human history as effect—guiding human destiny from age to age. However, the Baha'i writings penetrate farther into the mystery of divine manifestations when they affirm that in spirit and in aim the successive messengers are one being, one authority, one will. This teaching of the oneness of the Manifestations of God is the essential characteristic of a revelation that represents religion or dharma for the cycle of humankind's maturity and the establishment of peace.

      'There can be no doubt whatever," Baha'u'llah says, "that the people of the world, of whatever race or religion, derive their inspiration from one heavenly Source and are the subjects of one God. The difference between the ordinances under which they abide should be attributed to the varying requirements of the age in which they were revealed." Those who deny and condemn the Avatara or the Prophet, therefore, are not defending the divine purpose from sinister betrayal by one who introduces new laws and principles; on the contrary, since the Manifestation in Himself is one, they condemn their own Saviour when He returns to regenerate the world and advance the true Faith of God. Thus is the moral nature of human life, and man's responsibility to God, sustained throughout the devious course of history. Faith is no mere belief, but a connection with the only power that confers immorality on the soul and saves humanity as a whole from complete self-destruction.

      "A man who has not had a spiritual education," Baha'i writings attest, "is a brute."

"We have decreed, O people, that the highest and last end of all learning be the recognition of Him who is the Object of all knowledge; and yet behold how ye have allowed your learning to shut you out, as by a veil, from Him who is the Day-spring of this Light, through whom every hidden thing has been revealed." The oneness of the divine intermediaries has been thus established in the Baha'i writings: "In the Word of God there is...unity, the oneness of the Manifestations of God. This is a unity divine, heavenly, radiant, merciful; and the one reality appearing in successive manifestations. For instance, the sun is one and the same but its points of dawning are various. During the summer season it rises from the northern point of the ecliptic; in winter it appears from the southern point of rising. Although these dawning-points arc different, the sun is the same sun, which has appeared from them all. The significance is the reality of

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

prophethood which is symbolized by the sun, and the holy Manifestations are the dawning-places or zodiacal points".

      This knowledge offers our society the substance of the education needed for the establishment of a society worthy of the blessings of justice and peace. At the very least, the pressure of historical circumstances and the crisis in every aspect of present day life besetting our nation in particular and humanity in general should persuade the inhabitants of this land to have a closer and impartial look at the Baha'i philosophy and practice of education, to estimate its indispensability in the light of contemporary problems, even if they have, through ignorance, apathy or complacency, ignored it at first. For to the degree that the peoples and nations of the world accept the Teachings of Baha'u'llah and work through the principles, channels and institutions provided by Him for the unification of humankind, to that degree will they be able to transform their own inner lives, reconstruct their societies, and contribute substantially to the advent of that universal and divine family of man— Vasudhaiva kutumbakam, which is the ideal and fulfilment of both the dharma and religion, whatever may be our beliefs and methods of interpretation.

      At the heart of the Baha'i philosophy of education is a spiritual conception of the nature of the individual and society. What has been described in the foregoing are some of the central principles guiding the Baha'i community in its initial attempt to follow the path of development traced for it in the writings of its Founders. The creation of a coherent system of universal education that adequately embodies this vision is a task that lies in the future. Experimental beginnings can be seen in the wide diversity of Baha'i schools to be found around the world. These range from simple tutorial centres at the village level to schools that offer classes from the pre-school level to tertiary levels. The schools are open to all: the majority of the students are not themselves from Baha'i families. Budding programmes in adult literacy carried out by Baha'i Councils and Assemblies throughout the world augments the work of the schools. At the international level, the Baha'i community has undertaken a major coordinated plan that supports the decades long effort to eliminate illiteracy and promote "education for all" that was launched by the United Nations.

      The optimism that Baha'is feel about humanity's capacity to meet the global educational challenge arises not only from their own experience also from a firm belief that "whatever suffering and turmoil the years immediately ahead may hold, however dark the immediate circumstances, human can confront this supreme trial with confidence in its ultimate outcome. Far from

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

signalizing the end of civilization, the convulsive changes towards which humanity, is being ever more rapidly impelled will serve to release the 'potentialities inherent in the station of man' and reveal 'the full measure of his destiny on earth, the innate excellence of his reality." Most of the necessary expertise already exists in a wide range of governmental, academic and other agencies. Around the world, "examples abound of the capacity of people to create grass roots networks to tackle such urgent local problems as deficient educational systems. What is needed to ensure success in this global endeavour is unity. "So powerful is the light of unit" Baha'u'llah affirmed over a hundred years ago, "that it can illuminate the whole earth."

  * * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1




Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


Swami Vivekananda said: "The ideal of all education, all training should be man-making. Education is not the amount of information that is put into your brain and runs riot there, undigested, all your life. We must have life-building, man-making and character-making assimilation of ideas."

      Any system of education, in order to be effective in promoting peace and happiness, must be based on the structure, growth, and working of the human mind. At the same time, its foundations must be firmly rooted in ethnic culture, heritage, and socio-economic environment. Reflecting the basic concepts of Indian philosophy in his views on education, Swami Vivekananda observed, "Education is the manifestation of perfection already in man." Education policies must be framed taking a into account that infinite and perfect knowledge is in everyone waiting to be discovered and unveiled through personal effort and with the help and guidance of those who have had some experience of revelation of the knowledge within.

      Sri Aurobindo's first principle of education was that nothing can be taught and the teacher must act as a helper and a guide and not as an instructor. His emphasis must be to show students how to acquire knowledge. This simple but crucial part of the philosophy of education was also stated by Swami Vivekananda who said, "No one was really taught by another.... The external teacher offers only the suggestion, which rouses the internal teacher to work to understand things. Education does not mean masses of information that is thrust into heads of unwilling, perhaps disinterested children but must result in assimilation of socially acceptable ideas, which build character, and are "man making." The real aim of education must be to enable the student to be and not to do so that he can contribute effectively to humanity, the nation, and the world.

      True education is the process of helping each child to understand and master himself. In order to become conscious of his motives and actions and reactions arising out of them, he has to have the opportunity of making choices. He has to experience that his being is made up of different parts, and that these parts sometimes produce conflicting movements. He has to experience how he can bring harmony between them and feel the resultant joy. To

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

develop this inner discipline, the child has to be given the opportunity to look into himself in a congenial atmosphere.



The world is today facing unprecedented socio-political challenges. Problems of life are becoming increasingly intense and complex. Traditional values have all but broken down and terrorism in different shapes and forms is raising its ugly head in all parts of the globe. An environment of strife pervades all countries, and broken homes have become common. An insatiable hunger for money and power, leads most people to tension and absence of peace of mind and all kinds of physical and mental ailments have become commonplace. In the present day context of frequent and often violent social upheavals, we have to look at the problem of restlessness of the youth, their frustration born out of futility of their search for meaning of life and the purpose for which they are living, often leading to evil and wickedness. This calls for a new approach to, and a new vision of education. A number of questions need to be addressed.

      What are the aims and objectives of education? Should it be oriented only towards developing skills? Or should development of a sound personality and a mindset of a responsible, good citizen be an essential part of the system of education? Should achievement of higher aims of life on earth also be part and parcel of education at all stages to make this world a happy place to live in? What do we expect from our students after they pass out of schools, colleges, and universities?

      The influence of religion on value system of any society is normally fairly pronounced. However, the spate of industrialization and economic growth in developed nations brought about a perceptible change in this scenario. And developing countries including India are feeling the ripple effects of this development. Values earlier considered essential by all societies have been eroded and have given way to unethical practices around the globe. Where honesty and integrity were loved and appreciated, greed, corruption and red-tapism have come in, bringing in their wake, unethical responses which have pervaded all walks of life and are thwarting efforts of a few enlightened individuals to promote a value-based society.

      In this scientific age, students tend to believe that the concept of divine grace belongs to the domain of religion and is a capricious and indeterminate phenomenon. It is for the educational system to impress on their sensitive

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

minds that divine grace is the function of the supreme reality, a conscious energy of the highest order and is governed by laws of super-science, something that the modern scientist is not able to comprehend. He cannot conceive that the universe is energy, ranging in terms of subtlety from the lowest physical to the highest spiritual or divine.

      Transmission of any energy involves a transmitter and a receiver. Conscious energy is unlimited and beyond the ranges of mind and thought. With practice and perseverance, everyone can raise his level of consciousness to a stage when he can receive this conscious energy, the divine grace. The current global socio-economic situation calls for a dimensional change in scientific to develop laws of super-science, which govern divine grace and apply it to improve education.

      Students have to be made to realise that favours shown by one person to another, depend mosdy, if not entirely, on limited, gross and calculating premises and outside circumstances while the premise of divine grace lies in the innermost recesses of their being with its limitiess potentiality. They have to know and feel that divine grace is available to all human beings equally but they have first to make themselves worthy of receiving it. Only the divine chooses the moment of the descent of his grace. It is like the cool breeze on a hot summer day in order to enjoy which, one has to come out of the home in the open or at least, to open its closed doors and windows to let the breeze come in.

      This trend is ominous and dangerous and value orientation in educational institutions is essential to arrest and correct it. It is there that children can be helped to develop and sustain values with faith, conviction and fearlessness, through discrimination, discrimination between right and wrong, between good and evil, between duty and default, between the desired and desirable. What uplifts character is right, what degrades it is wrong. To be unselfish is a duty and to practice it in day-to-day life and to cherish it must be seen as the goal of imparting education to children. Only then can they feel for others as they do for themselves and be in a position to transcend the limitations of the narrow self.

      With growing divisive forces, narrow parochialism, separatist tendencies on the one hand and considerable fall in moral, social, ethical and national values both in personal and public life on the other, the need for launching effective programnes of value orientation in education has assumed great urgency. Development of human values through education is now routinely seen as a task of national importance. Universally acceptable human values,

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

essentially secular and multi-cultural, free from controversy must form an integral component of the entire educational system.

      Confusion about definition of values and their linkages with various facets of human personality and objectives of education has undoubtedly been one factor for failure of attempts at value orientation of education. Other reasons are:

      * Lack of clarity of the conceptual framework,

      * Non-availability of suitable learning/teaching materials and training modules,

      * A tendency to treat value education as yet another subject,

      * Lack of administrative inputs, and

      * Absence of any orientation programme for teacher/educators, key-level personnel, and school teachers.


Value-oriented education implies inculcation of values through every activity of educational institutions, curricular as well as extra-curricular. The latter will include mass activities and programmes (morning assembly, prayers, meditation, national and international days and festivals and documentaries and films), group activities (story-telling, music and group singing, retreats, sports, social work, dramatics, role plays and school clubs), and individual activities (study of literature, elocution, exhibitions, self-reliance programmes, summer courses and school magazines). Its aim is to encourage students to explore, and discover their immense potential, and apply values and ethics to every aspect of their lives. It must, on the one hand, make students into good citizens and on the other, help them to develop strong and healthy bodies, and build sound character. All efforts in this direction must flow from its perception as the highest cultural activity of students' life, directed towards achieving optimum and harmonious growth and fulfilment of their physical, vital, mental, moral, aesthetic spiritual and social potential.

      In the present educational set-up, there is total lack of attention to the concepts of man-making and nation-building. The emphasis instead is on money-making and materialism. This has resulted in a gradual, serious erosion of values in body politic. The only way to reverse this trend is value orientation in the educational system. This requires research, design and development of tools and infrastructure to build up and sustain a suitable environment in our educational institutions. In particular, this will involve reorientation of mind-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

sets of teachers, their extra curricular activities, and a healthy interface between them and the parents. The balance has to shift towards promotion of intellect and intuition, harmonization of science and spirituality and holistic living and learning.

      It is for teachers and educationists to ensure that desirable values do not appear to students as subjects of dry studies devoid of interest or worth, superficial symbols, and hollow cliches. They have to find ways to ensure that they penetrate the minds of children who find it useful to be honest and transparent in their speech, behaviour, and actions. In the environment of materialism, which surrounds them, they need to be made to understand that acquisition of wealth or high performance in schools by hook or by crook as a result no doubt, of cutthroat competition, deserves to be condemned. Their urge to excel must be tampered by pursuit of intellectual honesty, spiritual growth, and deep commitment to values enshrined in the Constitution of India.

      Children are inclined to strain every nerve to satisfy their ambitions. But as soon as they achieve one, another crops up and they continue in their restless endeavours. They make every effort to realise their ambitions through palpable or clandestine means. They have to be helped to see that material fulfilment in oblivion of the soul never imparts real or lasting joy and that real joy lies in contentment of the soul wherein lies the quintessence of man. Reckless pursuit of material substances can only make them resdess and avaricious.

      Another quality which must be cultivated in the child is the feeling of unease or lack of moral poise which he has when he does something wrong. He should have a normal and natural feeling of discomfort and sorrow because it is contrary to his inner truth. From his young age, he must be helped to feel that there is only one true guide, the inner guide who does not pass judgment by way of mental consciousness. This does not require philosophical and involuted explanations but the simple process of giving him a feeling of comfort and satisfaction and even joy when he obeys the voice of his inner conscience.

      The central character of child consciousness is confidence in life, a strong feeling that nothing can come in the way of fulfilment of his desires, a trust that overrides all stumbling blocks and which helps him to overcome dangers and difficulties. This confidence impels the child to movements of daring and adventure. And this self-confidence and assurance is what needs to be preserved, promoted and encouraged all the time but also simultaneously propelled in the right direction. This can be a rich source not only of his physical

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

fitness and growth but also his mental alacrity and soundness which is the inestimable possession of child consciousness.

      Shastras say that the most precious property that we have is intellectual property, a property represented by the human brain and that its power must be used to develop values and ethics, love and compassion. The emphasis in our Vedas on wisdom leads one to conclude that we need to deliberately and consciously shift emphasis in our educational system from information to knowledge and ultimately to wisdom. Quality of life ultimately depends on the extent to which content and quality of education is suited to the genius and socio-economic structure of a society. It requires an educational model, which is responsive and comprehensive, a model that covers all aspects and all stages of education and which has an unequivocal orientation towards values and ethics, relevant to our tradition and culture.

      How should such a model be developed? What should be its parameters? What should be its relationship to the fact that while there is a growing emphasis on knowledge, there is an equal need for recognition of wisdom as an objective of school education? Are technology and science being made use of for just transmitting information and knowledge? How can they be used for imparting wisdom, which can ultimately lead to joy and happiness? Answers to these basic questions need continuous research, its application to relevant and willing educational instructions and scientific monitoring of results achieved.


The term value may mean different things to different people but the concept of values and ethics is crucial to greatness or otherwise of all human action and behaviour. Value is what an individual desires, likes or prefers. The range of values of man is indeed wide from mundane and petty desires to lofty ideals. It could be any of the material things like jobs, promotions, money and power or intangible things like happiness, bliss, peace, social justice and secularism. One thing considered good by some is bad for others because of the value they attach to it. Their perception of the value depends on their paradigms and prejudices.

      Values can be classified in different ways under different categories. For example, they can be either intrinsic or instrumental, depending on whether they are desires for their own sake or are meant to be means to achieve something. Values like truthfulness, happiness, spirituality, and knowledge are intrinsic while desire for money and power is an instrumental value. Values can also be classified as moral and aesthetic. Moral values deal with perceptions of

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

right and wrong while aesthetic values reflect beauty and ugliness. Values can again be classified as positive or negative depending on which ones a person wants and which he would like to avoid. They could also be considered as higher or lower. Higher values are intellectual, aesthetic, moral, and spiritual in character while lower values are for material or physical gains. Values can also be classified under many other categories such as economic, social, and religious.

      Values refer to the form that we give to our choice in weaving the fabric of life. We chose to perform an act on our perception as to what is right and what we ought to do in a given situation. According to Bringham, "Value means whatever is actually liked, prized, esteemed, desired, approached or enjoyed by anyone at any time and it is the actual experience of enjoying a desired object or activity." Value is an existing realisation of desire and value experiences are not under the control of reason.

      Human behaviour is governed by values, which are an integral part of any culture, and achievements of any society are influenced by the values that it holds. Different values within a society are closely linked with its socio-cultural set-up, which changes from time to time with influx of new technologies, new opportunities, levels of industrialization, etc. Consequently, in every society, there is a continual change in its concepts of values.

      For students to become integrated human beings, it is necessary for them to develop physical, intellectual, emotional, psychic and spiritual facets of their personality on right lines. According to one school of thought, this is possible only through a combination of cognitive, affective, and conative approaches. In it, cognitive orientation implies the knowledge that realization of the true 'Self (Atman), is the real truth (Satya), affective orientation conveys that all men have Atman(true Self) and leads to the concept of universal love (Prema) and inner serenity, i.e. peace (Santi) and equanimity under all situations. Conative orientation is doing one's duty calmly and sincerely without any thought of reward and personal gain which can be termed as righteous conduct (Dharma) in a non-violent manner(Ahimsa). The three thus lead to the five basic core human values, namely Truth, Righteous Conduct, Peace, Love, and Non-violence—the five sources of moral strength. These values transcend all distinctions of country, religion, caste, and creed. They embrace all beings, as their origin lies right within each individual. They are the source of compassion, renunciation, rectitude, fortitude, and patience and lead to the five ideals of knowledge, skill, balance, vision, and oneness. They represent different facets of foundational humanness, grow together, are inter-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

dependent, and are inseparable. They are the common link of spiritual visions running through holy books of all religions. Mental happiness comes from peace, peace comes from love, love is linked with non-violence, and nonviolence is the outcome of righteous conduct, which is inconceivable without truth. One human value without the other has no meaning.



While Indian philosophy deals with various aspects of human experience and the external world, it is dominated by an emphasis on inner life and Self of man rather than his external world. At the same time, however, the Indian mind has also applied itself to a deep study of the physical world; its achievements in the realm of science have been truly outstanding especially in mathematical sciences such as algebra, astronomy, and geometry and in their application to many phases of human activity. Its contributions to fields of zoology, botany, medicine have been equally impressive. Contrary to the views of some Western thinkers, Indian philosophy is not oblivious to materialism. In fact, it has analysed it, known it and overcome it.

      The chief mark of Indian philosophy is its concentration on the spiritual and its belief in the intimate relationship of philosophy and life. This attitude of practical application of philosophy to life is found in every school of Indian philosophy. Indian philosophy is for life; it is to be lived and that it is not enough to know the truth; the truth must be lived. A close examination of the wide diversity of views by many philosophers and commentators makes one keenly aware of this distinct spirit of Indian philosophy.

      Indian philosophy believes that reality is ultimately only ONE and ultimately spiritual even though some systems have espoused dualism or pluralism. This displays the extraordinary flexibility of the Indian mind which considers them as different expressions of an underlying conviction and which provides a remarkable basic unity to Indian philosophy as a whole.

      .Even though Indian philosophy makes extensive use of reason and logic, it accepts intuition as the only method through which the ultimate can be known. To know it, one must have an actual experience of it. Personal effort as practice of yoga and meditation have always been considered as tools to achieve the goal of realization.

      Indian philosophy is conscious of tradition. There have been commentaries and interpretations but the general spirit and basic concepts have been

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

retained from age to age showing an amazing continuity of thought outlining its characteristics of spirituality, inwardness, intuition, and the strong belief that truth is to be lived, not merely known.

      According to Indian philosophy, true religion comprehends all religions and " God is one but men call Him by different names." Conceptually, it does not consider metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, religion, psychology, facts, and values cut off from each other but treats them as different aspects of a single comprehensive reality. This synthetic vision has given Indian thought intellectual and religious tolerance.

      The essential spirit of Indian philosophy of life is that of nonattachment. Some perceive it as negativism or even escapism. On the contrary, Indian philosophy provides for every one taking part in everyday activities but without attachment to worldly things and without selfishness. It accepts the underlying doctrines ofkarma and rebirth as instrumentalities by which the order of the universe is worked out in man's life.

      There was a fairly well-organised system of moral training in ancient India in the Vedic age. It subsequently gradually evolved into mass education of values during the Buddhist period. A sense of morality became part of the Indian psyche with the result that in spite of political upheavals during different ages, saints, musicians and scholars with their extraordinary moral, spiritual and intellectual powers, brightened the Indian horizon and with their thoughts and observations, contributed to the creation of Indian ethos.

      Indian philosophy accords a pride of place to values. In fact, it is a philosophy of values. Its aim and objective is to show the right path. Dharma, for example is not considered in Indian thought as just a means for spiritual liberation. It spells out values like devotion to duty and discipline, essential for development of any society. The same thread of philosophical thought runs through Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Sikhism, and other religions practiced in India. It covered the Vedic period dating nearly 5000 years ago, the period of advent and growth of Jainism and Buddhism and ages of epics and puranas. Later, Indian culture, which represents these values, assimilated the influence of Islam and devotional movement of the Bhakti cult. Belief in unity in diversity, oneness of human beings and the spirit of tolerance practiced for millennium in India, provide the basis of current global concepts of secularism and democracy.

      This unity in diversity must form the basis of education in universal human values and assist our citizens of tomorrow to realize in full, their physical, vital (emotional), mental (intellectual) and psychic (spiritual) potential.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

2.4.1 Spirituality

      According to Indian philosophy, spirituality is based on recognition of a deeper reality behind outward appearances and experiencing this reality its practice is based on the premise that there is an elevated purpose in our life and this revolves round the basic urge in a man's mind to know what he is. The spirituality that India speaks for, embraces all aspects of life. It recognizes life as the field for realisation and manifestation of inner and higher truth of ourselves.

      Most 'ultra-modern' people feel that spirituality and modernism are contradictory, that spirituality is a thing of the past when people were generally pious or at least were believed to be pious or it has to do something with prayers, and rituals for which they do not have any time. For them, spirituality is neither for them nor for their children.

      There is no dichotomy between the spiritual and the modern. Modernity to many implies a life-style where people want to go for material acquisitions, wealth, and social status. But Indian spiritually does not reject this. It covers every part of life including what one does and how one behaves. Every detail of life, according to it is intimately connected with what one is within. Conversely, spirituality is intimately connected with all aspects of life including acquisition of material wealth, in one form or another.

      The spiritual attitude toward work is the ideal set by the Bhagvad Gita:


(Your right is only in the effort and not its result.)

The result of one's actions depends on a complex play of diverse forces over which we have no control. It is this concept that helps one to shift one's focus to the effort alone. Disappointment disappears and so does tension.

The overpowering preoccupation of materialistic people is with themselves and themselves alone, be it their health, their happiness, their wealth, their status in society, their popularity or their consuming desire to be accepted by others as successful persons. To get a feeling of security, they hanker after power and are prepared to go to great lengths to compete and defeat others in the race towards societal approbation. They are generally lonesome. Plagued with suspicion of one another, they become incapable of meaningful communication and deep personal relationships. Alienation and mistrust

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

result. Obsessed with power and competitiveness, they tend to be destructive and violent.

      Spiritual persons on the other hand, act on the premise that man is made for mutually helpful and satisfying relationships. They are deeply conscious of interdependence and unity of the human race. They have a natural, inherent closeness to each other as they realise that they share a common source of love and inspiration. They intrinsically feel that love provides them with a feeling of self-respect, which helps them to establish meaningful, trustful relationships with others. They are preoccupied with truth and enlightenment and humility is the hallmark of their behaviour. Arrogance and pride are an anathema to them. They are faithful to themselves, others, and their Creator. All their relationships are marked by honesty, integrity, and openness. Power of love functions in them as a magnet, which draws people together and creates an atmosphere of mutuality, trust and service. Inculcating in the children a sense of spirituality in their formative years in schools and colleges is an essential element of any system of value-oriented education.

2.4.2. Consciousness

      Consciousness is becoming aware of anything whatsoever through identification with it. Divine consciousness is, therefore, identification with divinity but sheer awareness is not knowledge. Awareness of a sound for example, does not mean that you know all the properties and qualities of sound. Children have to be told in simple language that their consciousness is a part and parcel of divine consciousness so that they can identify themselves with divinity.


In a world where survival is tough, competition keen, relationships fragile and time-tested education systems crumbling, life patterns have resulted in financial upheavals, emotional upsets and mental and physical sicknesses in different forms. Partly because of this, religion is becoming more and more popular among the young. More and more young people are growing up with the realization that there is an invisible force in nature that guides their destiny. They are further helped by the disillusionment that they experience from their teaching institutions, which are incapable of addressing their needs and aspirations. Reasons of course, vary from individual to individual and community to community. In urban life for example, it could be identity of belonging to a particular religion or a group is only one of the parameters of acceptance of a person as a responsible citizen. There are certain psychological demands

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

that secularism makes. It represents a way of collective life and it is necessary to impress this upon the minds of young students.

      There is absolutely no need to dissociate religion from society in the name of secularism. Doing so will be a disservice to it since the health of a society depends on its religion. Issues of politics, economics, education, and even spirituality must be treated as components of an integrated approach instead of being pursued in isolation as watertight compartments. Application of spiritual concepts is inevitable in all socio-economic and political fields to build a healthy andjust society. It will counteract the evil side of market culture, which dominates the society of today, can be devoid of human considerations and often gives rise to conflicts and tensions. Without spirituality, India is in the danger of losing its identity.

      Indian heritage claims that the entire universe is like a family. We must develop in students 'the science of living' which leads to Indianization of education while taking advantage of technological and scientific developments in other parts of the world.

      There is an unfortunate tendency to impress on the minds of children that they need to practise only one religion and that great religions of the world are mutually exclusive. This is as odd as telling the child that he needs to study only one subject. Great religions of the world constitute a tremendous reservoir of knowledge, wisdom on how to live in the world as useful citizens and at the same time, remain happy, joyful, and even blissful. Many have testified to the religions of the world. It has given them an environment where they can grow and live in peace and harmony with others. This is perhaps an achievement, which no other country in the world can boast of. Yet unfortunately even in India, there is almost a daily occurrence of clashes, between communities.

      No religion can claim exclusive right to truth. There are however certain principles which are at the core of all religions. All religions are emphatic that all creation has one divine origin. It may be called by different people by different names but is the One from which we have all descended. All religions preach that we are originally and essentially divine and there are certain basic spiritual truths that their followers must believe in and live. It is these principles, which were given different forms at different times in history to suit the then prevailing social and'cultural circumstances. Students have to be guided to recognise that the common spiritual core of all religions is eternal while various expressions of religions may with time, be prone to decay and loss of relevance. They have to learn to distinguish between ritualism, whether at home or places of worship and the spiritual core of religions.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1




School children often question the relevance of spirituality in their modern or ultra-modern life. They want to know why they should know what they are within and why should they bother to change themselves. With rapid changes in the socio-economic aspects of life all over the world, students are under intense pressure and are seeking something, which will help them to successfully deal with union with the universal and transcendent existence. As Swami Vivekananda said, "Yoga may be regarded as a means of compressing one's evolution into a single life or a few years or even a few months of bodily existence." To be effective as a tool for value orientation of education, we need to have a rational and sound synthesis of yogic methods, developed and confirmed by scientific experimentation, practical analysis, and verifications of results, and adapted for children.

      The purpose of yoga in education must be to bring about a radical change of consciousness, a psychological transformation that is beyond the capacity or perhaps even the conception of any modern science or philosophy, ethics or psychology. What is needed therefore is to unlock in students, the secrets of the super-conscious as the realm of the most powerful, the most creative, and the most ennobling force in the entire universe. Once they realise that by unleashing this divine energy, they will become wiser, nobler, and more creative, they will be able to control unwelcome and undesirable egoistic tendencies.

      In ancient times in India, the principal aim of education was to enlighten and prepare human consciousness and its instruments for both the inner and outer realization of the highest potential of students. A major contribution of Indian culture to humanity is the discovery of spiritual aims and values of the science of yoga,which can guide man to a deep and constant sense of well being through a systematic development of the psycho-spiritual science of self-evolution. This is whatYoga is all about. And this must be an essential element of value-oriented education.

      The Indian vision of education must be a symbiosis between yoga and education which is both spiritual in essence and scientific in method—spiritual because it must lead to realisation of the higher self and scientific because it must depend on an experiential realisation of that higher Self by following the path of experimental self-discovery. In fact, as Shri Aurobindo put it, all education must be seen as a process of yoga.

      Right from early childhood, students must be cajole into yogic practices

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

suitable for their age and physical constitution with love and affection so that basic concepts of yoga seep into their subconscious mind.

      The starting point of yoga in school education is what is known as psychic discipline, the discipline of the psychological centre of our being which is the seat of the highest truth of our existence in our heart region, the soul. Many methods have been and are still being used to attain this perception of the psychic presence. Some are psychological, some religious, and some even mechanical. It is for teachers to find out which particular method will suit different students.

      We have to bring home to students that the tradition and ideal of harmony between inner perfection and outer demands are as compatible today as they were in days of yore and are worthy of pursuit. Synthesis of yoga must result in reunification of God and nature in their minds and bring about a harmony of their inner and outer activities. Ways and methods have to'be found to bring home to students of different ages that man is a symbol of that higher existence, descended into the material world in which it is possible for the lower to rise to higher levels.

      They must get to know that through yoga, they can achieve perfection in mind and thereby perfection of the body.

      Meditation is essentially a mental and spiritual activity. It is a continuous flow of thoughts on a particular subject decided before one sits down for meditation. It helps to transform one's nature, to react less and be a witness to what is happening all round and even within oneself. But it requires sincerity, humility, patience, dedication, constant practice, and an attitude of a seeker of knowledge, truth, and our inherent divinity. There must be a burning desire and perseverance to achieve mental peace, and turn away from extraneous thoughts that impede purity and clarity.

      Students must see meditation as not only performing the act of sitting in a particular posture but through practice being in a mood of constant awareness as they go about their daily lives. Meditation (and yoga) must teach them about keeping a balance in their lives—having enough to be happy, enough for what they need in life and being content with what they have. By constant practice, understanding of meditation develops knowledge almost invisibly and inadvertently dawns and the objective of meditation, peace of mind achieved. With practice, meditation becomes a habit.

      3.3 THE GURU

"Gurur Brahma, Gurur Vishnu, Gurur devo maheshvarah;

Gurur eva param brahma, tasmai shree gurave namah."

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 The guru is Brahma, He is Vishnu, He is Shiva.

      The guru is indeed the supreme, absolute; salutation to him.

This stanza from Guru Gita extols the glory of the guru, the teacher. According to the Indian tradition, the guru or the teacher is not regarded as a mere personality. He is seen as the divine power personified, the power of the trinity of the three Hindu gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva who are continuously performing functions of creation, preservation, and destruction. The student is expected to bow to the guru and seek his grace.

      Vedic Rishis set up centres of learning amidst enchanting environs. Footholds of mountains, flowing rivers, murmuring streams, high peaks, azure skies, pure air and vast open spaces provided an idyllic seffing for learning and teaching. In the Indian tradition, the teacher or the Guru has always occupied a pivotal place. He is not seen as just an instructor and a director who tells students what to do and what not to do, who shows students what to read or what to memorise and feels that his responsibilities to students are over when they are out of the class. The teacher in the Indian tradition is regarded as some one even more revered and important than parents. According to Indian tradition, while parents give you a human birth, the teacher introduces you to a realm of knowledge and wisdom. He represents to the disciple, the very Godhead, and divinity. The student ignores his imperfections but concentrates on positive aspects of his character and this is the true link between the two. The teacher does not arrogate to himself a superior position, demanding obedience from the student. He does not order or dictate. He instructs not only through his teaching but by showing to students through his own example that he is the ideal that they should try to realise. By his attitude and behaviour, he remains a continuous influence on the latter that are quite often not even conscious of it.

      In any scheme of value-oriented education, the teacher is the pivot, the axis, and the centre piece. But the maximum influence of the teacher on his students is not by his speech or by his formal teaching but his own personality and behaviour. It is through them that he conveys his concept of values to his students. It is through his own thinking, his discipline of mind, and his refinement of taste that he is able to pass on messages of values to his students.

          Another shloka of the Guru Gita expresses this extremely well:


rukārasteja ucyate

jñāne'gre bhāsakam brahma,

gurur eva na samśayah."

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

  (The first syllable "Gu" means darkness, the second "Ru", light. The Guru is undoubtedly Brahma who dispels all darkness.)

Teacher is the major force to improve intelligence of students and impart knowledge to them. If a room is dark, its darkness cannot be removed by wiping or by sweeping it. To remove darkness, the room must have light. He who removes the darkness of ignorance is the Guru, the teacher. He is like a lamp with a steady flame, which lights hundreds of lamps without diminishing its own brightness. In fact, with each new lamp it lights, its own brightness increases. But also, like an oil lamp, which must have its oil supply sufficient for the wick to continually shine, the teacher must recharge himself with up-to-date knowledge of his subject. He can do so only if he passes on knowledge and wisdom through nishkama karma, a task performed as duty, as worship, as homage and with no interest in material benefits in return. The teacher has to be able to establish a rapport with them and love them as a mother loves her children or a good gardener, his plants. He must not only inform a guide but also inspire. Students must be able to see the teacher as life-giving rays of the sun, which help flowers' and plants to bloom and blossom.

      The teacher is the pivot around which the student's personality develops. Students may use books and class lessons for their examinations and their semesters but lessons of life, they will only learn from the manner in which their teachers behave towards others and towards them. A good teacher is a role model who helps his students to discover themselves, discover their own potential and exploit it by holding up his own value-based life-style as an example to be cherished and followed. He determines what aspects of the constitution of the child he should attempt to fortify, not by imposing, not by forcing, not by scolding, but always by explaining and helping. The student learns how to take right decisions. Self-analysis and correct behaviour become a habit, life becomes easier. They can solve problems of life on the basis of sound principles rather than adhoc off-the-cuff, reactive responses.

      For this, the good teacher uses wisdom, prudence and moderation, encourages the life urge in the child and at the same time, helps him to organize and channelize it as an efficient instrument of high ideals and purposes. He has to be imaginative and innovative to be able to demonstrate to the child that he himself is a playground or perhaps the batdefield of different forces and inner movements, which are sensations, impulses, emotions, and different ideals. It is at this stage that he has to be taught how to distinguish between them, find out their nature and origin and develop

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar (Part-1)

discrimination by using day-to-day experiences as illustrations. He will in time, learn that above likes and dislikes, impulses and ideals, there is within him, a region of peace and tranquility. He will also then get conscious of the presence of a hitherto undiscovered force in him, a force that he can always fall back on to resolve any problems. He will, with every experience of listening to this small inner voice and acting according to its dictates, recognise that this guidance is the only valid and most satisfying one and this alone can give him a feeling of joy and peace that surpasses other pleasures and enjoyments. For this, the teacher has to establish a soul-to-soul contact with his students.

      3.4. ROLE OF PARENTS

It is now increasingly felt that boys and girls get lost because they are systematically led into a moral wilderness by their experiences at home and on the streets. There may, of course, be other causes besides the immediate environment of the child because the process of human development has its own problems and impact. There are cases when no one, neither the parents nor the teachers abused or neglected them but they ended up feeling rejected and humiliated nevertheless because of some unfortunate circumstances surrounding them. Sometimes it may be the absence or withdrawal of some positive handles from their lives, a void that occurs not due to some deliberate plan or action by parents but as a result of their feeble and often tumbling efforts to effectively deal with problems and disappointments in their own personal lives. This phenomenon common in the Western society where broken homes and divorces cause untold misery and unanticipated reactions from the separated children has unfortunately started showing up in Indian society also. Vicarious violence, crude sexuality, shallow materialism, mean-spirited competitiveness and spiritual emptiness are major contributions to the imbalance in a child's mind in the Western society, which many Indians try to ape and copy.

      In the past, education was a mechanical process of forcing the child's nature into arbitrary grooves of gaining knowledge—a process in which the child's own attitude and capabilities were of no consideration and the effort both in schools and at home was to compulsorily shape his habits, his thoughts and his character into a mode fixed for him by either conventional ideas or interests and ideals of teachers and parents. Education however, must be a process of bringing out the child's intellectual and moral capacity to the highest possible level and must be based on the psychology of the child. Both parents and teachers must enable the child to educate himself and to develop

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar (Part-1)

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

his own intellectual, moral, aesthetic and physical capacities. There is an old Sanskrit passage:

      "Matridevo bhava, pitridevo bhava acharyadevo bhava"

      (Mother is God, father is God, and teacher is God)

      Indian tradition gives the highest precedence to the mother, then to the father and then to the teacher. In India, the mother has always been given a position of pre-eminence.

      Throughout the history of mankind, the greatest influence in building of character of a person good or bad has been the mother. Destiny of individuals is made or marred by mothers because very often, they are the ones who determine the path that their children will take in life. It is they who leave an indelible impression on the minds of their children by their behaviour, by what they tell them whether it is in terms of stories, fables or incidents from their own lives. If the home has an environment of hatred and violence, it permeates into the child's psyche. If the mother is an instrument of joy, happiness and bliss in the home, the child will always smile and radiate happiness, often, they are the ones who determine the path that children will take in life. It is they who leave an indelible impression on the minds of their children by their behaviour, by what they tell them whether it is in terms of stories, fables or incidents from their own lives. If the home has an environment of hatred and violence, it permeates into the child's psyche. If the mother is an instrument of joy, happiness and bliss in the home, the child will always smile and radiate happiness.


Impact of the media is now all-pervasive since there is hardly a home either in the city or in the slums or in rural areas that does not have a TV. It is no more a status symbol but it has now become a piece of furniture in almost every home.

      Value education involves aggressive but non-violent propagation of ideals and values of relevance to today's socio-economic and political realities with an emphasis on means rather Shan ends. Information technology is an effective tool to promote character ethics in schools—eternal values of Dharma and Karma Yoga. It should be employed to assess the best traditions of the West, to identify which ones deserve to be absorbed in the Indian ethos and to incorporate them in school curricula and extra-curricular activities.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

  Information Technology could also be used to depict ancient concepts of education like Guru-Shishya parampara practiced in universities like Nalanda. It could be used to portray how total negation of these concepts in current education environment results in lack of dedication to learning and frequent confrontations, sometimes violent between teachers and students, between teachers and teachers and between students and students. We must use information technology to avoid the pitfalls of indiscipline in the name of democracy and use it to ensure the highest quality of teachers in the context of global developments in sciences and arts. Emphasis should be on using it for building traditions rather than transmission of rules and regulations.

      The use of Information Technology in education in its broadest sense must cover all types of media and all ages right from KG onwards. This would include informatics, computer literacy, and use of Internet both for receiving and transmission of knowledge. It must also promote amongst students, a commitment to dignity of labour and selectively expose students to the outside world so that they can appreciate the superiority of Indian ethos and traditions for total happiness and bliss. Only teachers, who act and behave as role models, however, can effectively do this.


There is an urgent need for continual assessment of the role of education in the rapidly changing societal set-up and evolution of pragimatic plans for dedicated orientation towards values and ethics in the educational system. Inter alia, this will include research, design and development of tools and infrastructure to build up and sustain a suitable environment for value education in our educational institutions so that education is a source of joy and happiness and bliss. It will involve evolution and continual upgrading of suitable models, by defining their parameters, particularly the relationship between skills, knowledge, values and wisdom.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1




      I. S. ASTHANA

"I shudder to think of the future of this great nation when the generation we are rearing up, devoid of ethical, spiritual and cultural values, and led solely on material values and aiming at success by any means, comes of age. The real need of the hour is re-communion between us and the sages of our land, so that the future may be built on rock and not on sand."


Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Education is a deliberate and conscious activity of a society to modify the behaviour of young ones in the light of its life philosophy. In ancient Bharat education was never taken devoid of virtues, ideals, values or norms and standards of behaviour, these were inherent in the concept of education itself. Education was for life and not for living alone. It was secular and spiritual in its nature—अ is the correct expression.

      It is true that man has acquired a tremendous advancement in the field of science and technology but this all is superficial since it lacks the internal beauty of the heart. So to say with the idea of Prof. Ambasht, Chairman NOSP, the education today lays a great deal of emphasis on developing cognitive ability with the development of left hemisphere of the brain and development of right side of the brain that is emotive part is completely ignored. The knowledge bereft of noble qualities and virtues becomes bookish and it would be of no use to the individual and society both. All the ills faced by humanity today like terrorism, corruption, hatred, violence, etc. are the resultant of value erosion. The shift on information content from the value content of education is accountable for our concern.

      The National Open School (NOS) created a Cell—'Education in Human Values' in its Academic Department in Feburary, 2000. The main objective of this Cell is to foster desirable human values amongst learners and tutors in the accredited institutions of the NOS. To achieve this objective a number of activities are being undertaken. The following material have already been developed for tutors working in the accredited institutions of the NOS:

      1. Education in Human Values—Manual for Teachers (Part-I)

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar (Part-1)

The Part -II of the manual for teachers is in the process of development. It specifies value cultivation approaches, which a teacher can make use of for fostering values amongst learners. English version of मानवीय मूल्य विकासः व्यवहारिक आचरण    is also being developed.

      The NOS also organized a national seminar on "Promotion of Values Among Learners and Teachers at School Stage through Distance Education Mode—Future Directions" at India International Centre, Lodhi Road, New Delhi on 27th and 28th July, 2001. In this Seminar more than sixty experts working in the realm of value education and distance education participated. Experts deliberated at length different issues relating to fostering values amongst teachers and learners through distance education mode. The approaches for evaluating value education programmes were also discussed in the Seminar. A report of the Seminar was brought out and sent to all the agencies working in the area of value education for their use.

      Besides the print material, it is proposed to develop non-print material in the form of video programmes both for teachers and learners. Some video spots both for learners and general public are proposed to be developed for the purpose of telecast by the Doordarshan.

      Learning material developed by the NOS for different stages will be reviewed as to delete the content which stands in the way of fostering desirable values among learners. Further value education component will be strengthened in the learning material.

      Recurrent training of tutors particularly through teleconferencing mode is being undertaken with a view to sensitising teachers about the content and process of value education.

      Experimental studies are proposed to be undertaken to determine the impact of value education programme on behaviour pattern of tutors and learners.

      The present education system prepares a child to earn his/her livelihood. It has led to lopsided personality of the learners. Hardly any experiences are being provided to learners to withstand different pressures of life. In many a cases learners come to these pressures and suffer from agony. In some cases learners suffer from depression and lead very miserable life. Some efforts are being made by different agencies to cope with this problem. These may be in the name of 'Art of Living' or. 'Science of Living' or in any other name.

      The National Open School has planned to launch a self-enrichment course for learners studying at secondary and senior secondary stages in the name of 'Education for Life'. This is in the light of the concept 'Education is for life not only for living'. An approach paper for the course has already been

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar (Part-1)

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

developed. Self-learning material for learners is also in the process of development.

      Here I would like to mention that the book मानवीय मूल्य विकासः व्यवहारिक आचरण is the presentation with quite an innovative approach to the problem of value inculcation. This book deals with very practical problems in day-to-day life. Problematic situations have been depicted and four to five alternative behaviours have been stated. These problems have been selected from an individual's life, family, neighbourhood, community, work place, school, city and the country. Suggested responses have also been elaborated to give a clear understanding of the response. The choice of response in the said situation has been life to the learner. No imposition for choosing a particular made of behaviour is there upon the learner. 

      To our great satisfaction this approach has been appreciated by many teachers, students, guardians and educationists. Here are some examples from this book:

Example 1

      Problem—After a few months of marriage the husband dies, how will you behave with his widow?

      1. Send her to her parent's home;

      2. Blame her for her husband's death;

      3. Marry her to an eligible bachelor within the family;

      4. Force her to lead a solitary life;

      5. Allow her to go anywhere to live.

Exampk 2

      Problem—While going to your office, you see an accident on the road; one person is seriously injured. What will you do there?

      1. Ignore it and go your way;

      2. Take the injured person to the hospital;

      3. Fight with the person responsible for accident;

      4. Inform the police;

      5. Get the address of the injured person and inform his family.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

It is a fact that the culture of a country is the main source of values. Values of life reflect in every aspect of human expression; in Art, Literature, Dance, Music, Architecture, Science, etc. Our children and youth today are quite ignorant of the rich cultural heritage of the country. Long cherished life virtues remain dormant due to this ignorance and they are sliding down under the western influence. Keeping this fact in view the NOS has taken up a Project on "Bharatiya Culture and Heritage" to create an awareness of our unique culture among the learners through print and electronic media. So far three books on "HKah ^*>fa have been published and have come in circulation. We have covered the following dimensions in these books:

      1. Our Motherland

      2. Children of Bharat

      3. Our Social Life

      4. Our Fine Arts

      5. Philosophy & Science

      6. Yoga

      7. Our Folk Culture

      8. Our Religions

      9. Our Traditions & Conduct

      10. Our Contributions to the World

Under this project of "Bharatiya Culture and Heritage" we have developed a very attractive pictorial book for children. This book has put forth a very innovative pictorial depiction of value education. These pictures show two types of behaviour patterns; one where the children follow the socially approved norms of behaviour and in the other the children do otherwise. But no word of instruction is there, the choice has been completely left to the child ''मैं कैसा बनूं कैसी बनूं|'' These pictures illustrate the values like respect for elders, cooperation, sharing and caring. Some examples from the book may it more clear.

Example 1

      On page 2 morning scene has been given and there are two pictures. In first picture the children have got ready and are paying respect to their parents and in the second picture the parents are persuing the children to brush their teeth and the children are avoiding to do.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Example 2

      On page 4 the scene is school lunch time. There are two pictures in first picture. The children are taking their lunch in a group where as in the second picture the sister and brother are sitting separately and fighting.

* Family and neighbourhood also play a very important role in influencing the behaviour of the children. The values depicted by the behaviour of family members or neighbour consciously and unconsciously reflect into child's behaviour. Pictures and illustrated books have direct impact on the learner's mind. A series of books on the pattern of "मैं कैसा बनूं कैसी बनूं| " depicting two types of families leaving the choice on the members of the family and same about neighbourhood are in the process of development. These are "हमारा परिवार कैसा हो ?''and ''हमारा पड़ोस कैसा हो ?''


* Besides these printed materials we are developing a collection of quotations from different religions on some selected values, as for example, forgiveness, tolerance, truthfulness, honesty, etc.

* Parents directly shape the character of their children. Parents are also expected to behave in the manner, they expect from their children. NOS has started a programme for good parenting for educating the parents.

"The education which does not help the common mass of people to equip themselves for the struggle of life, which does not bring out strength of character, a spirit of philanthropy and the courage of a lion—is it worth the name?"

      —Swami Vivekananda

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1




Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


      "The ink from a writer's pen is more sacred than the martyr's blood."

On earth there are only two creative powers. One is Nature and the other is Man. Nature has no conscience and no will, man has both. It is his will that creates and determines values. But 'One man's sugar is another man's salt.' No one man can decide. All those individuals who form into a social group are to be governed by certain common values, which would of course be changing from time to time. Every man wants to make his life meaningful and this can be achieved only if the community is not leading a meaningless life. Long ago Christ said, "If you are slapped on one cheek, offer another." "No", said another, "you should resist otherwise you would be encouraging the oppressor." The third one said: "An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth." The fourth differed and said: "Take out both eyes for one eye and jaw for one tooth." This kind of thinking and perhaps the event of 11th September, 2001 motivated the U.S. Justice Dept. to use Secret Tribunals to try foreign nationals suspected of terrorism accepting hearsay as an evidence and even execute the suspect. It is amazing that a country whose preamble of the Constitution was drafted to protect LIFE, LIBERTY and the PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS of its citizens should have resorted to such a barbaric law violating all cannons of justice and international values. The Universal Declaration of Human Responsibilities had drawn up in 1997 a linkage between'the rights and duties of the world citizens. If we have a right to life, then we have the obligation to respect the other's life. If we have a right to liberty we should respect the other's liberty. Such rights can be traced in all aspects of our social life: security, right to work, right to a standard of living, right to education, right to freedom of speech and belief and so on and so forth. To sum up, every individual on this earth has a right to benefit from the earth's bounty and respect others' rights to derive the same benefit.

      This philosophical disposition bearing a universal value system opposes our ideological system of beliefs to support the interest of one social class imposed upon others by its indoctrination. Education is the first step to civilize man. Therefore when we plan value orientation in education the system needs

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

to be approved by every segment of the social order within which a community lives. When the value is not universal but determined by an individual or the vested interest we do not seek a definition of such value nor have we to classify values and put them into various compartments identifiable with a particular social group. It is enough to say that such and such value is not acceptable because it has a vested interest. But if the community agrees upon a value 'good for all', then we should go by the historical situation and accept what is good for all at that particular moment of history. When we look at history, the period within which my generation lived, my education was very much value oriented in the pre-independence era. It taught us values of all religions, told us the stories from all religions and trained us to be respectable, kindly, tolerant, for- bearing, loving, courageous, brotherly, of pleasant manners, non-violent, gentle, humane, decent.

      Then came into the picture, in 1946, the Central Advisory Board whose Special Committee gave a report. 'While they recognize the fundamental importance of spiritual and moral instructions in the building of character the responsibility is of the home and the community to which the pupil belongs." Thereafter a number of attempts were made by the Govt, of India to improve educational standards in the country. Of the many attempts made an excerpt from the paper published and circulated in August, 1985 needs to be mentioned.

      "Education is a national responsibility which is to transform a static society into one vibrant with a commitment to development and change."

Almost thirty-eight years after Independence the GIO realised that our society had remained static and it needs development and change. Then in 1986 our National Policy of Education talked of the essential,

universal and eternal values (There is no eternal value). With the change in terminology a shift in the concept of value education is noticed in the year 1992 when our Government focussed attention on "nurturing a sense of pride in being an Indian, patriotism and nationalism tempered with the spirit of vasudhaiva kutumbakam."

      India is a country known for ages for its multiplicity of tribes, clans, castes and sects and communities and is also divided into several economic classes. The manners of its citizens, their habits, their perceptions and their values are all varied. The concept of patriotism may be commonly sought but the concept of sense of pride of nationalism and of vasudhaiva kutumbakam may not be grasped or embraced by all its citizens. Tagore writes, "Life finds its truth and beauty not in any exaggeration of sameness but in harmony." The main

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

function of education is to pass down knowledge from generation to generation and develop a process for improved culture and not to restrict it within the bounds of historical decadence. The pattern of behaviour of the Indian citizen is structured more in their economic, social and status positions than in their religious positions. Even in one social group an individual performs varieties of roles. If these positions have to be normalised for a better understanding of each other we should equalize educational opportunities first and then speak of one family.

      Immediately after Independence the founders of the nation had other priorities. They cannot, however, be pardoned for not paying proper attention to education. As a result fifty years thereafter not even 8% of our population could come upto high school. Basically there was no education and because of the rural base, poverty base and middle class background not only the skills of the youth but their feelings too remained distorted, misguided and they have gone astray. Discipline, of course, is a sine-qua-non of a healthy and progressing society but obedience and submission are rather misleading terms and can be construed differently by different levels and categories. Values should not be imposed from the above. They should be experienced, explored and developed by the individual himself keeping in view the historical situation of the society within which he exists. He should develop such a frame-work that education becomes his capacity and not a tool. To achieve this object the policy making body should be divorced from political/ideological interest groups. Next, the implementation frame-work should be confined to the educationist, executors and the acquirers of education.

      Having said so it is incumbent on my part to spell out the scheme of education, which holds the concept of value-orientation. Not all aspects of education from L.K.G. to Ph.D. can be discussed here. A broad outline is suggested below:

Education upto Primary and Secondary levels:

      1. Education upto HSC should be compulsory and be the responsibility of the Government.

      2. No discrimination be made as to the standard of education between the poor and the rich, girl or the boy belonging to any caste, creed or religion.

      3. In village schools women should be involved to manage and run the schools along with men teachers or even independendy. The villagers themselves or the Mandal Authorities can select such women.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 4. Pictures, photographs, toys, etc. be placed free for KG. children and small library of short stories be made available for primary classes.

      5. Morning classes should start with songs and prayers acceptable to all.

      6. Folk-songs, folk-stories, plays and folk music be introduced wherever possible.

      7. At least one period be allotted for physical training.

      8. Skill based education be introduced from 5th or 6th standard.

      9. History lessons should be based on facts and should not be twisted to suit an ideology of an individual or a social group. Lessons may include fairy tales but should not be mired in superstition. Use of terms

          with which people are not familiar be avoided.

     10. Sports including indoor games should be the part of curriculum. Where possible swimming, cycling, horse riding be intorduced.

Higher Education

      1. Admission to higher education including professional courses be purely on merit.

      2. No donation, no capitation fee other than what is prescribed (in some cases by Supreme Court) be allowed. Education should not be in the hands of traders and businessmen. How can persons of

          immoral practices be allowed to handle education?

      3. Minorities and religious institutions are used as instruments of money-spinning and favoritism. Endowments by minority groups be restricted to social, cultural and educational purposes and they should not be

           the breeding ground of political activity.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


      V. R. NARLA



The Brahmana thinks that when

      He takes the sacred thread

His Sudraship is o'er.

      How strangely he forgets

That when he comes to die

      His Brahmanship is o'er.

He leaves his house and wife,

      With iron binds his loins,

Prefers bad food to good,

      And bitter drink to sweet!

Will living like a beast

      Secure him endless bliss?



Do nothing slowly, else 'twill never come to pass:

Do nothing hurriedly, for then 'twill surely fail.

Will unripe fruit grow ripe if cut too soon?


In water ships ride easily, yet on the land

Cannot be moved a step. And thus the skilful man

Is only worth his salt at his own trade.


The crocodile will kill an elephant within its stream,

And yet on land a little dog can master it.

Thus things are strong when in their proper place.


A pig will have at least a dozen little ones:

The giant lordly elephant can have but one.

Is not one worthy man enough at once ?


What teacher fails to benefit the clever man ?

What man, however wise, can teach a stupid fool?

For who can make a crooked river straight?


The empty man will always talk in boastful style

The excellent will keep his peace or gently speak

Will gold ring out, when struck, like brazen bells ?

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

The mighty Ganges flows in peace, with quiet stream:

But with a roar leaps down the short-lived turbid brook,

The base are not as quiet as the good.


Will those who love a lie e'er prosper like the good?

Will fortune smile on them or glorify their home?

'Tis drawing water with a leaky pot.


      He who has himself become the universe and knows that the great whole dwells in him, and who has learned to unite his inner man with all that is external, this man, while yet on earth, has attained perfection.

      Go and say, I have cast a great shame upon Vemana himself who shamed Vishnu and disgraced Siva and even Brahma. Let the one God alone be honoured.

      He that knows his mother knows the deity. He that knows the earth knows heaven. He that knows heaven and earth knows himself.

      Whose son is Brahma? Whose son is Vishnu ? Whose son is Siva? Men are ignorant who dare call these persons gods.

      Numerous as creeds be, they are impermanent. Truth is but one on the earth. It consists in leaving every creed and beholding the one and only deity.

      The height of excellence is to abstain from slaying. Thus say the Brahmins, lords of earth, and still commit slaughter of animals in sacrifice. Better is thechandala. (the outcaste) who devours, dead cattle.

      Men imagine stones to be Siva, and magnify them. Stones are stones and not Siva. Why is it that we cannot discern Siva who dwells within us?

      If the eye be single, thy knowledge shall be one like a man united with a woman. Then shall thy interior be full of light like the lord of the world.

      If thou consider the deity far removed from thee, he shall be far from thee. If thou consider the body as his dwelling, he shall dwell therein; and, if thou hold life to be his vehicle, such men shall remain stable

      as gods.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

   Though he hath the hills of silver and gold, why doth the God Siva wander and collect alms. His neighbour's property is sweet to every man, however great.

      Still do they call the world an illusion. It is no illusion. It is formed of the divinity. If this be illusion, tell me where the actual divinity is to be found.

      False is their creed who declare that it is greatly profitable to give up the enjoyment of this life. Can ye not see that the next world shines forth in the present life

      * * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


Translated from the Telugu


J.S.R.L.Narayana Moorty


Elliot Roberts

The Ways of the World



No need to reckon depths

greater than you can swim;

no evil on earth

worse then death;

nothing more humble

than an old loin cloth.


He takes a hide,

models a puppet,

makes it play,

then tosses it


Why doesn't he know


who turns him?


No Release in childhood.

In youth you won't give up lust

Only worries in old age.

Perhaps you will be free

when you are dead.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


The Brahmin

eats meat;

the widow

parties with wives;

caste and decorum



are on the rise.



makes for


Ethics causes

an evil



leads men



If you examine:

pleasures are indeed sorrow;

good deeds are full of sin

as if a thief would ask

to be impaled on stake.


The more you read,

the more you doubt;

the more attached,

the more anxious;

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 the wealthier you are,

      the bigger your worries.



      The mind delights in

      the fragrance

      of sandalwood.

People relish it,


      "How aromatic!"

Do they sense

the odor

of their past?



      As a foetus in your mother's womb,

you recall your past karma

and roll and wail,

      When you're born,

you carry on,

      in oblivion.



      One who abandons

his loin cloth,

      you make him dance

      like a monkey,

treat him

      like a crazy man,

and chase him away.

      Don't you remove

your loin cloth

in front of your wife?

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


      If a pitcher is broken

      we can buy a new one;

      but it ins't often

      that a man who is

shattered c

an piece hims

elf to




      You can mill a log

      until it is true;

you can chisel a stone

      to make it straight;

but no one can correct

      a crooked mind.



      A carrier of tales

is playmate

      to the aggressive rogue;

      a pauper,


      to the stupid king;

      a monkey,

      fit companion

for the baboon.



      Sweetest of the sweet

in one's

own life.

      Sweeter than life

is gold.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Much sweeter than gold

are the words

of a woman.


      He may be born

of high caste,

      but if he has

      unshaven head,

dirty clothes,

and greasy body,

      Peoply say,

      "Get going!"


      He may be of low caste,

yet if a man

      wears bead earrings and a vest,

      looks well-fed

      and chews a roll of betel,

      they call him great

and ask him in.


    If you claim the earth is yours,

the earth bursts

into laughter,

      Looking at a miser,

money mocks.

      Looking at a coward in battle,

Death laughs.


      He who trusts to a king's favour

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

   and plunders the land

will be struck

by people's grief

and will


      How long will a ball

tossed in the air

remain there?


      A fig may look golden,

but if you slit it open,

you will find worms.


the coward's presumption

of courage.


      A homely wife

      is sure to be faithful

  An unhandsome man

is a battle hero.

      A gonorrhoea patient

is God's servant.


      No need of rabbit hops

      for a lame dog,

or a trophy umbrella

      for a spiritless soldier.

Why tittering smiles

      for an old hag?


      Kings always think

of the battlefield;

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

great sages,

of the hereafter;

the lowly,

  of ladies.


      The merchant wishes

for famine


      The physician always wishes

for people's


      The prostitute wishes

for the patronage

of the rich.


      As long as one lives,

      the tongue


      tastes; wife and husbsnd



      and wealth;

the oblation bearer—





A healing

      which knows not

the disease;

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


      which know not




      who know not

the mind—

      what good are they?



      What good


      who can't settle

or reconcile?

      a mechanic

      who can't assemble

or take apart?

      a braggart

      who can't put his money

where his mouth is ?


      A donorless house—

is street

of ghosts.

      An unfair word—

a blow

with a rock.

      A loveless concubine—

a bearer of corpses.


      Religious taboos vanish

at hunger;

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

      purity of mind,

      at night; past tautness,

      at pregnancy.



      What does a dog know

of ajahgam teacher?

      It only grabs his foot

and tears into it.

      What does a whore by the fair

know of a friar?



      In water a crocodile can

      grab an elephant;

out of water; even a dog

      can humble it.


      The power is of the place,

not one's own.




      your relatives

in times of need.


    a soldier

in times

of danger.


      your wife's ways

when you're


Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 Your passion grows

when you see

her face.

      Your mind is hooked

when you look

at money.

      When you thus fall,

all your joints

will break.


      No water is deep

if you can swim.

      An old criminal

is never afraid.

      Doesn't monkey climb on a branch

and hop and swing?


      The lords and ladies of cities

have great passions:

they have "big" ideas.


      they don't know the way

to Release.




      like a woman's breasts,

show charms for a while,  

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

  then suddenly sag—

      like moonlight and the dark.


      all tricks

      or the Siva Lingam.



      A sinner who did no good

in his past life,

yet longs for wealth,

      is like a farmer

      who forgot to sow

yet seeks to reap.



      When grains are gone,

      he falls on hard times.

      When he has grains,

troubles will pass.

      At the porch of the whores

of the man with grains

men wait for gruel.



      He sees,

   yet does not see;

he hears,

      yet does not hear!


      He does not move

      that mouth of his!

Ah, the paralysis

      of a wealthy man!


Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

   A blister on a rich man's back

becomes quite newsworthy.

      Who has heard of wedding

in a poor man's house?


      A lamp with oil

      will burn gladly.

      A rich man's thoghts

light up.

      When his money is gone,

his thoughts go

their own way.


      When they come back to this life

      and depart,

they will not bring wealth

      nor carry it away.

      Where will they go?

      And where their wealth?

      The Impostor


 Ten thousand religious impostors on earth

flock around the innocent

to convert them.

      Don't cranes

      flock around carcasses

and tear into them?

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1


      The fallen men,

      walking in sinful ways,

wearing Siva's guise,

yet reviling Him,

      are like charming ladies

living in adultery



      Monks dress and speak properly,

wear ochre robes,

and shave their heads.

      If their head are bald,

      are their thoughts bald, too?



      Chicken-breath, crane-mediation—

Brahma wrote fittingly

on monks' foreheads.

      Perhaps their past sins

still afflict them.



      Black shaven heads,

white woolen blakets,

smeared ashes,


      such guises—

      merely for filling the belly.



      You roll a rosary

      and never get tired. Y

ou rarely fail

      to fill your belly.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

     Who do you look up

like a crane?


      When a thief visits a holy place,

he only unties people's bundles;

he has no time for worship.

      When a dog break into a house,

will it not ransack the pots?



      Even a man

      who has sat down

after a full meal

      chases a woman

      when he sees her.

      The essence of food

rouses lust

in the body.


      When the fat of food

arouses passions

in men and women,

      they say

      it is Madana

tormenting them.

      When the food is gone,

where does Madana go?


      Billy goats eat

their fill of leaves.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

  Why can't they attain

body perfection?

      Wordly people go

crazy ways.

      Worldly Wisdom


      If he knows

      the secret of speaking

never mind

      whether he is young or old.

      Doesn't a lamp shine brighdy

even in little hands?


      Even if flawed,

      a poem read at the right time,

       will sound fane.

      Doesn't a woman

appear beautiful

at bedtime?     

      Falsehood and truth

      the Black-Necked-One knows.

      Truly, water knows

low ground.

      The mother knows

her son's origin.


      The village chief knows

the liar;

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 the Lord knows

      the teller of truth;

      the glutton's wife knows

how much he eats.


      He who says he knows

is a mere talker;

      he who says he doesn't

is clever;

      he who keeps quiet

is wiser.

      A gossip monger's word

gains currency

in the market place.

      A dog's prowess

is displayed

in the hunt.

           The penis

      stands erect

in front of a woman.


      You can break

      boulders of rock;

you can pulverize

      all the mountains

but you cannot melt

      a hardened heart.


      If iron is broken once or twice

the smith can heat and weld it.

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 If the spirit is broken,

can it be mended?

      Don't admire the elders

and try to walk their way.

      You'd be like a fox

watching a tiger,

then striping itself.


      One saphire

      good and true

is enough.

      Why have

      baskets full

      of glittering rocks?

      Isn't it enough

      to have one poem

worth reading?


      Even a meager dog

can torment

an emaciated lion.

      When you lack strength,

being stubborn

      will be of no avail.


      An umbrella

provides shade.

      Knowledge of scriptures

provides proper wisdom.

      just as a father

gives shelter

to his son.


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  Easy to talk

      but difficult

      to hold your mind steady.

      Easy to teach another

 but difficult

to know yourself.

      Easy to hold a sword

but difficult

to become a warrior.



      Only a knife's blade can cut,

not its handle.

What good is goat strength

without brains?


      Don't claim to be superior

where it's not proper.

      Being humble

      is not shameful.

      Doesn't a mountain look small

in a mirror?



      Feeling your body

      as full of strength,

don't pick a fight

      with an evil man.

      By striking a stone

      a milk pot can break.



      Work to be done

      at the proper moment,


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 when done in haste,

will turn to poison.

      Bryonia fruit is bitter;

when it ripens,

it turns sweet.


      A jasmine blossoms

only if you water it.

      Without work

      how can there be results?

      How can you have cakes

without cooking?


      Look at a dog

      and learn to serve

the Master.

      Look at a crow

      and discover the comraderie

of well-wishers.

      Look at a donkey

      and know the way

of patience.


      He who desires royalty

yet lacks patience

 with kingly burdens

is ruined in both worlds.

      Can a lead ball in water

stay afloat

without sinking?

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On water

a ship glides


      out of water,

it can t move

even a foot.

      Out of his element,

even an expert

won't be of use.


      When famine strikes your land,

      you must move to neighboring country.

      When a lake dries up,

will cranes remain?


      It's not valor

      to bind with force.

      The mind will haunt

and torment you.

      Conquer at home

      before you conquer abroad.


      A meal without ghee, I swear,

      is like grass;

a meal without curry,

      food for dogs;

a me, al without affection,

      morsels offered to the dead.


      A feast without affection

is not worth the cakes.

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A worship without devotion

is not worth the leaves.

      A wayward wife

      is not worth her dowry.


      The king intent on killing

      grants leniency;

seeking to ruin,

      he befriends the enemy.

      The cobra about to strike

lies in wait.


      Company with evil men

brings harm to anyone.

      Don't drink milk

under a palm tree!


      How foolish

      to put money

      in a stranger's hands

      and follow him!

Would a cat

that has just

grabbed a chicken

      answer your call?


      Men regard the milk

you drink in a tavern

and call it liquor.

      Staying at places

you ought not will

cause scandal.

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      Company with a whore

is a leaking sack

of mung beans.

      Company with a thief

brings blame.

      Company with hangman

will only end

with the head.


      Amicable marriage ties

based on give and take

      spread wide

      like a lotus.


bear fruit,

      and ripen



      If you smear perfume

      on a donkey,

      it will not enjoy it

      but will rear and kick you.

      Such is the love

      of an immature boy.


  The uncorrupt who can tell

the creature from the Creator

will attain Brahman.

      Will a drop of water

once turned into a pearl

turn back to water?

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      The course of time

belittles everyone,

      however great.

This is not rare.

      Didn't Krsna,

      who raised a mountain

      on his finger,

float on a banyan leaf ?


      If you imagine you'll build

      a bower of jasmine

      and a garden with a well,

      join a maiden,

and enjoy yourself,

      time will slip away.



      The Earth is your mother;

the seed, your father;

the crops, your children;

milk and honey, Heaven.

      Surely, your virtue

is your God.


      Your wife will belong

to others;

      your money will go

to whores;

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your body will return

to the earth.

      Surely, your good deeds

are your only



      An act done with a pure heart,

although small, is not insignificant.

      Compared to a banyan tree

how big is its seed?


      Only a righteous man

can see what is right.

How can a sinner?

      Without entering water

you can't truly know

its depth.


      Those who set store by the body

take no heed

when someone speaks

of virtue.

      When Yama's folks come,

terrorize, break in, bind,

and drive them,

      can they escape?


      Not bringing ruin on others

has as much merit

as feeding the poor.

      Not harming other

has as much merit

as helping another marry.

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      A man strikes another

      on the mouth

      and kills him; i

n turn,

      Death will smite him

      on his mouth.

      A large fish feeds

on a school

of small fish;

      in turn,

      man kills

the large fish.


      When you winnow a bushel

of pithless grain,

      you will gain

      a mouthful of husk.

      Even less valuable

      is a broken promise.


      Why would Laksmi dwell

in the houses of those

who often lie?

          Water does not stay

in a cracked pot.


      As honey is made in the hive,

as gems are formed in a hill,

as fire arises in wood,

      being born on earth,

you should give.    

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      The man

who cannot keep his word

is a pariah.

      The king

who cannot command

is effeminate.

      The god

who has no power

to answer your prayer

is a clay tiger.


      A sinful man

coveting another's wife

      is like a fish

      trapped by the craving

      of its tongue.

      Doesn't the brave fly

touch honey

and die?


      If you so desire sex

      with another's wife,

      you will be robbed

      of a million prayers.

      Won't butter melt

      from the heat of the fire



      If you husband knows,

he will kill you;

      there will be trouble,

if the king hears.

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It's the abode

      of all kinds of blame.

      Going with another man

is veritable hell.



      If you blame a man,

he will beat you.

      If you strike him back,


      will cut short

your life.


      anger may lead

to the sin

of murder.


      If an enemy deserving of death

falls into your hands,

you must not harm him.

      Help him

      and send him off:

      that itself is death.


      You must not kill an animal.

      Slay your hostilly to the world instead.

      How can a scorpion sting

when its tail is cut off?

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      'This I cannot do without"—

      to think thus and be attached

and not be able to let things go

      is the bondage of worldly life.

      Self knowledge


      He is a fool

      who seeks elsewhere

      the Release which is in his mind,

      like the shepherd

      who searches for the sheep

      he is classping

under his arm.


      If you seat a dog on a palanquin,

it's not going to stay



      the ignorant man

who can't hold his mind



      The mind bolts and races


      like a startled horse.

      Hold it in rein

      with persuasion or threats,

and restrain its roaming.

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 He who lacks learning

does not become a scholar

by being around a scholar.

      He will be like a crane

at a like

living near swans.


            Anyone can teach

a man of sense.

      No one can teach

a vile man.

      Who can straighten

the bend of a river?


      The worship of Siva,

knowingly performed,

will never be in vain.

      Don't let go

      of your first grasp.

      Can we build

the top of a wall

without the bottom?


      The wealth of a virtuous man

who retains the scent of his past

seeps like water in a spring.

      However many he gives to,

it will remain

as always.     

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      Neither this world nor the next

for the wise man—

      no loss of soul

      when the world is dissolved.

      He merges then

      with the Supreme Self.

      The Wise Man


      He who has seen

is superior

      to the one who has heard.

      Even greater

      than the one who has seen—

he who has merged.

      He is the noblest

of the noble

on earth.


      With the skill of a snake

watching with its head


      like a crow

looking from under

a cornice,

      so with his inner vision

the yogi regards

      the path of Release.


      Does a little boy know

of the ripening

of a young woman?

      Only a divine yogi knows.

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He knows the nature

of attachment,

and lets it go.


      Men are glad

to live in towns

but are afraid

to live in jungles.

      The accomplished yogi

looks upon

jungle and town

as one.


      Why love of musk for the king of elephants

when he has the fragrance

of his own dripping fat?

      Why Rambha for a yogi

when he has

yogic bliss?


      The crow's baby

      is precious to the crow.

      The hen's baby

      is precious to the hen.

      The "splendors" seen by the yogi

are precious to the yogi.


      The Siva yogi knows

the nature of his body;

      he is not trapped

in his passions

and deceived.

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 A magician

      is not tricked

      by his own illusions.


      It's not a rag he wears

      but China silk;

his body is not dirty

      but a tool for Release.

      Rare is the greatness

      of the supreme yogi.


      As the adulteress pleases her husband

but is devoted only to her lover,

      the yogi minds his body

for the sake of the Other.


      As the man

      who has crossed the river

and reached the other bank

      cares no longer

      about the raft,

      why would a yogi

      care about his body?


      The soul of a siddha shines

for he does not value

the shining of the body.

      How can the value

      of the jack fruit  

   be apparent on its skin?


      He who knows the Source

will not remain in town.

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He won't abandon his pursuit,

      even if you pay him.

He will leave town and walk away

      while everyone is watching.


      When you have become an "alien",

      what does it matter what people say?

Only their mouths will be tired—

      as a dog barks

      at the moon

 above the mountain.


      Once absorbed

in the delicate path of the knowledge of God,

why would a Siva yogi

mingle with people?

      Once turned into a pearl,

would a drop of water

mingle with

yesterday's water?


      As the swan glides about

on the Manasa Lake

untouched by its water,

so the yogi goes about

joyously untouched by past deeds.


      A peppercorn looks black

      outside; if you bite it,

      it will taste sharp.

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 So, too, the essence

of a wise man.


      No lack in the company of a good man:

all your base qualities

will be uprooted,

      just as body odor abates

when you smear on

sandalwood paste.


      The soul is saddened

      at the death

      of a son-in-law;

it's grieved

      by the death

      of a son.


      When a holy man dies,

      everyone mourns

as though time itself

      has shrunk.

           The Path



      With the wondrous axe

      of discrimination

chop down the forest

      of ignorance

and hold in hand the great lamp

      of wisdom:

      then you can see Release.

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 Sow a seed with care—

it will become a great tree.

      Know God with your heart—

you will become God.


      By rubbing and rubbing,

fire arises in wood.

      By churning and churning,

butter comes from curds.

      By minding and minding,

      wisdom is born in the body.


      Make your house the niche,

      your gunas the wick,

      the host of past karmas the oil:

      light it with a flame

in a corner

and see.


      He makes his body a mill,

      his organs the bulls,

      his karmas sesame seeds—

      this maker of oil

mills the soul



      Search for the treasure

where it lies.

      Why search

      where it is not?  

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 whithout the magical salve

you won't find that Treasure.


      Without one's own experience

mere savoring of scriptures

will not remove doubt

in seekers,

      as a lamp in a painting

does not dispel



      Fire even a little,

ruins all.

      The mind, growing ever more,

      destroys illusion.

Being filled with Brahman

      breaks all bonds of being.


      Keep travelling—

      you will arrive at Kasi

by and by.

      Keep listening—

      you will hear the rich sound—


      Keep looking—

what arises

 is the Cause.


      Only when the root of the mind


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 will the tree

      of your nature


      and the large branches

of desire

wither away.

* * *

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In the present paper, Tribal literature in place of Folk literature has been used as a synonym with reference to a particular society or societies, which are widely known as tribal societies. It is the outcome of literary activities of a group, which is normally not easily equated, with the literature of our conception. An attempt has been made to discuss the possibility of the use of folkloristic materials while constituting the idea of a Value-Oriented Education. Samples from folk literature and tribal-lore of Orissa have been presented here to explore such possibility.


      The legend Sibei Santara is well known through out the province. Sibei, the great architect of the Emperor Narasingha Deb was given the charge of constructing the world famous black pagoda of Konark. The place fixed for the construction was in the deep water of the Chandrabhaga. The architect threw hundreds of cartloads of stones into the midst of the water to no effect. Raghaba, a legendary sea-fish, as said, swallowed them up. He however could not detect his own mistake and discontinued the work in great despair. Once while going on his way fully exhausted, he was invited by an old lady for dinner and was given hot pudding. Sibei ate the hot pudding from the middle and not from one side and consequently burnt his hand but could satisfy his hunger. The old lady remarked that he should not behave like Sibei whom she could not recognize. Sibei enquired her of his defects to which she said that inspite of his great wisdom and skill in architecture; he lacked awfully in common sense. He tried to lay the foundation from the middle and not from one side and became unsuccessful in his endeavour. Sibei fully enlightened tried again in the new method and his efforts were crowned with success.


      Sujan, the prince was ordered to paint the palace with a particular colour not available in the kingdom or faced death. He succeeded in his endeavour. He was then asked to bring seven leads of Hatikena flower heard only in dream. Otherwise he would be thrown down from a high peak. This time also he was

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successful. He was again asked to bring seven leads of Patal Ketakai, a legendary flower. He proved his worth and efficiency this time also. The king passed these unusual orders at the instigation of a barber, an evil spirit who wished that Sujan should be killed in course of these ordeals. Lastly the king ordered him to bring a twelve-colour bird. Sujan now in a revengeful mood captured the barber, painted him with many colours and decorated him with feathers of many birds with a big beak on his mouth. He submitted it before the king saying, "this is the twelve-colour bird. It eats nothing but fire." Burning fire was poured on the open beak and the mischievous barber died.

      III. FOOL

      A fool did not know much of this world. He used to cut down the branch on which he was sitting. Once, a traveller marked this and warned him against the danger. The fool took him to be an all-knowing person and asked him of the day when he would die. When the fool did not let him go the traveller said that he would die on the day when he would see two suns. The fool once discovered one sun in the pond water and the other in the sky and took it to be the day of his death. He lay asleep as a dead man and was taken to the cremation ground by his neighbours. Keeping the corpse, they all but one went back to the village to bring wood. A traveller was in difficulty in crossing the stream. The fool forgot that he was dead and advised him how to cross the stream. The man in charge of the corpse was terribly afraid of the ghost in occupation of the body of the fool. He caught hold of the spade and smashed the head of the fool.


      At first there were no trees or shrubs and the earth looked ugly and naked without any ornament. Raniaru went to the place where she had been born and found a Pipal fig. She put it behind her house. Two months later a shoot came up. She tended it carefully and in twenty years it was mature. When it was about to bear fruits the tree said to Raniaru, "I have all these fruits on my body what am I to do with them?" She said birds will eat your fruits and from their bellies seeds will drop and trees will spring everywhere. The tree said, "Call them quickly. I am weighed down by their burden." Raniaru called the birds and they sat on the tree and ate and then flew to the surrounding hills and new trees grew from their droppings. Raniaru gave Nailipinnu a place to live in this tree and even without wind its leaves tremble as fans to keep him cool.

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रवि प्रकाश टेकचंदाणी


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The aim of education is twofold: collective and individual. At the collective level, the aim is to make an individual into a good citizen; i.e. a person with harmonious relationship with other members of the community, a person useful to the society and one who fulfils his obligations as a citizen. At the individual level the student expects an educational institution to help him develop a strong and healthy body, build his character attain self-mastery and supply him opportunities to discover and realize his natural abilities.

      Both expectations are justified but it is necessary to understand the relationship between the individual and society and that the aspirations of the two need to be mutually harmonized. The human mind tends to emphasize one or the other and the current dominant thought is that individual interest must be subordinated to societal interest. Therefore, the collective aim of education has overshadowed the individual aim and the chief challenge facing educators is how to fit the individual to the demands of the society.

      The needs of society are determined by what society thinks it requires at that point of time. For example, at the time of war, society may require defence personnel, scientists for arms industries, traders in arms and ammunition, defence strategists and others. Such societal aims are usually determined by the perceptions of the ruling class. If there are powerful patrons of culture, society will produce artists of all kinds. If industrialization is taking place, then the need will be for engineers and technicians.

      There are less obvious societal influences on individuals. For example, if competition is a cherished value of society, a person may be thrown into the corporate jungle after completing education primarily on his own resources and with whatever help he can get from family and friends. This is also because a paradigm shift has taken place from hereditary trades to the freedom of choice for the individual. The price for it is greater insecurity and consequent mental tension.

      Again, money has come to play a vital role in moderm society. For example, in a technologically driven society, the greater the investment in research and development, the greater the number of scientific discoveries and inventions, translating into increased productivity and creation of wealth. In such a society, money has become an indispensable condition of material achieve-

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ment and the benchmark ot success. The same money has also become a corrupting agent because it is not always the most honest and capable who get the greatest share of it but often the clever and the crafty.

      Education is supposed to give the intellectual elite for society and mould it through them but, in fact, systems of education and society influence each other. Since modern education is also a means of upward mobility in society, it leads to a race for marketable degrees rather than for real knowledge and much less for wisdom.

      The last century belonged to the West. Events and movements that started mainly in the West from around the fifteenth century onwards with the Renaissance culminated in the twentieth century. The seventeenth century brought the idea of progress through enlightenment and for the next two centuries, Europe became a scene of intense intellectual activity in the field of education and culture. Keen interest developed in the applied sciences as humankind tried to break free from tradition, convention and prejudice. The Age of Englightenment and Reason brought a great sense of optimism and paved the way for the Industrial Revolution. In between came the upheavals of the American Independence, French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic wars. With Industrial Revolution, technology was harnessed to the production of economic wealth and material prosperity. Wealth and the means of its production became the focus of study for the first time. Science and technology made nature subservient to man and money was enthroned replacing human values. However, the pursuit and accumulation of wealth led to the terrible exploitation of man by man. This became the first cause of disillusionment in the agenda of progress as intense hostility developed between the workers and the employers.

      Other disillusionments were to follow. Science had claimed the pursuit of truth as its ideal. It was seen as the chief tool of progress; not just material progress but also of moral progress. The idea was that as men acquired more and more knowledge, they would become wiser and wiser and consequently more impartial and just. The subsequent course of events belied this faith. Liberty, equality and fraternity, the great ideals of the French Revolution that aroused so much enthusiasm proved to be hollow words as events unfolded. Democratic institutions that men fought to build and died for have also proved to be so imperfect that often they have ended up supporting greater authoritarianism and corruption that the ones they replaced.

      The truth of science in itself got limited to only that knowledge which was gained through the senses. By dismissing possibilities of any higher form or

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source of knowledge, utility replaced truth as the object of science. This is not a value judgement as this point of view in itself proved very useful in ridding the human mind of its irrational beliefs and blind superstitions. It led to a marked advance in the economic sphere raising standards of living, improving health care and ameliorating conditions of work. Far reaching societal changes came about like the abolition of slavery and child labour, dismantling of colonialism, protection of the rights of workers leading to an improvement in their social status, emancipation of women, better health care services, elimination of famines and starvation deaths and increase in longevity

      However, two things also took place. One, different nations arrived at different levels of material prosperity for historical and sociological reasons and within each of them, too, there were marked inequalities. Second, no amount of material progress and social engineering could prevent two major world wars from taking place, causing massive destruction not to speak of regional wars that continued and that have never came to a halt.

      However, from the very places where material progress and collective societal wealth seemed to have reached its peak, subtle signs of change have also begun to emerge. There is a growing realization that we are all interconnected. This has been a consequence of break through in technology and rapid transport and communication that have made the world a global village by creating a global network. Actions in one part of the world have repercussions on people, places and events in other parts. In times of the Afghan War this hardly requires further elaboration but it can be seen even in ecological and environmental issues where it may be less obvious. Further, mass communication and satellite technologies have all ensured that now there are no more secrets. All movements, whether environmental or human, can be mapped and recorded.

      The realization that our actions do not take place in isolation but have far reaching implications, has led to several grassroots movements through nongovernmental organizations, social activism and propagation of practices like the recycling of waste, tapping of alternative energy sources, holistic medicine and others. We are just beginning to comprehend that we cannot confine ourselves to the narrow spheres of our own personal identities or even of the identities of the family and immediate community. We need to expand our vision to not only include the nation but the entire humanity and also non-beings in nature. If we are all so interconnected, existence cannot be a ladder of hierarchies but rather, of networks, inter-relationships and connectedness requiring an ability to see eternity in a grain of sand.

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

 A telling example given by Thich Nhat Hahn is a case in point. A piece of bread has within it the wheat, the air, the water, the sunlight, the soil, the seed, the work of the gardeners that made the wheat grow, those who harvested the crop, the mill and the workers that made the flour, the elements of the implements used and of those who made them, the oven, the ingredients in the bread and all that went into their production and so on. The list is endless and leads to the embracing of the entire universe. When such a perception dawns, the nature of awareness or consciousness is also bound to change. It makes us realize that we have the potential to evolve to higher levels of consciousness that embrace all creation rather than the narrow immediate one from where we usually function. Also, we understand that things have different significances and meanings for different people according to the levels of their consciousness. Hence, there is no one single objective truth but many truths and we have the potential of finding greater meaning and significance in our milieu and thus in our own lives according to the level of our consciousness.

      The question arises how are we to acquire a higher consciousness and awareness and whether formal institutions of higher learning are equipped to bring this about. Universities lay a great emphasis on the development of the mind but there is no clarity on what exactly is meant by the mind. As Sri Aurobindo has pointed out, the word is used indiscriminately to cover "the whole consciousness for man is a mental being and mentalises everything", but actually the mind is that "part of the nature that has to do with cognition and intelligence with ideas, with mental or thought perceptions, the reaction of thoughts to things, with the truly mental movements and formations, mental vision and will etc. that are a part of (a person's) intelligence."

      It has, as Tony Buzan has pointed out, five major functions:

      1. Receiving : it receives the impressions and perceptions taken in by the senses;

      2. Holding : this is the ability to store information and to recall it when required;

      3. Analyzing : this is a part of the pattern of recognition and information processing;

      4. Outputting : this is any creative act or communication including thinking, analyzing, writing, painting and others;

      5. Controlling : this refers to all mental and physical functions.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

These five functions reinforce each other. For example, it is easier to receive data if one is interested and motivated and if the receiving process is compatible with brain functions. If the information is received efficiently, it is easier to hold and analyze it. Conversely, if efficient holding and analysis takes place the ability to receive information increases. Analysis is a complex array of information-processing tasks that requires an ability to hold the information that has been received. The quality of analysis is affected by the ability to receive and hold information.

      The three functions of receiving, holding and analyzing converge into the fourth of outputting or articulating through speech, gesture, writing, painting or any other form of creating or expressing. The fifth category, "controlling" refers to the brain's general monitoring of all mental and physical functions including general health, attitude and environmental conditions. Therefore, the mind is the faculty through which we seek knowledge, expressing it to the extent it is comprehended and then formulate action based on it. However, it is a scientifically proven fact that we all use a very small portion of our mind. Therefore, in spite of all the knowledge placed in front of it, it only remains an instrument with possibilities, faculties that are latent but which can be developed. One central area of concern for educational institutions must then be how to widen one's mind, overcome rigidities, preconceived ideas, conceptions, points of view so that one learns to consider everything from as many points of view as possible.

      Since training of the mind is at the heart of educational institutions, they must devise methods of making it capable of meeting the challenges of the times through adjustment, adaptation and accountability. It is not merely a question of reacting to constant changes by making minor adjustments while essentially maintaining the status quo because that would only obscure the sense of what we are, who we are and what we might become.

      Bertrand Russell has analyzed the far-reaching effects of modern knowledge on the growth of our mental life that influences our way of thinking, willing and feeling. The three are interconnected because knowledge has given us the kind of power unimaginable before and made us thus capable of both great good and great bad. We have, on the hand, created instruments of mass destruction like the nuclear bombs but we have also, on the other hand, made medicines that can affect miraculous cures.

      We can mould life on earth or put an end to it because science has vastly extended human power. We have the power to control the weather, cause drought and flood, change the tides, raise levels of the sea and alter climates.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

As Russell points out that hitherto man has been unable to do too much harm because of his ignorance and his inefficiency but at the bottom, unless moulded by civilization and educational influences, he is a ferocious animal. Tyrants and bigots in the past have pursued horrifying objectives and if the working of the mind is not transformed, human beings will continue to do so with even worse consequences. We will perish as the dinosaurs did in spite of once being the lords of creation because now those objectives can be followed more efficiently, completely and ruthlessly due to the increased power that enhanced knowledge has put in our hands.

      As Russell has pointed out "Hitherto, although we have been told on Sundays to love our neighbour, we have been told on week days to hate him, and there are six times as many weekdays as Sundays. Hitherto, the harm that we could do to our neighbor by hating him was limited by our incompetence, but in the new world upon which we are entering there will be no such limit, and the indulgence of hatred can only land to disaster."

      One of the imperative tasks of education then, must be to re-tool our thinking, to bring about the transformation of consciousness; a paradigm shift in the mind from seeing ourselves as separate from the world to perceiving ourselves as an integral part of the whole. This would widen our consciousness to understand the interdependence of multiple factors in events. It would change our view of the world from a hierarchical one to a system of interconnected networks and make us realize that in any given event, since so many interlinked factors are involved outcomes are always indeterminate and unpredictable.

      We are not living in a world that is 'given' to us in its entirety like a book leaving us free to open this chapter or that. It is a world being constantly created, emerging and evolving towards something more integrated and complex here and now and not in some distant future that we can complacently ignore as of no consequence to us. Hence, the systems we create and teach in a learning institution have to be open rather than closed ones because the latter are bound to decay while the former have an inherent possibility of evolving into states of increasing complexity and order. Since this feature applies to all aspects of the universe and to all living things including human beings and organizations such an approach tends to lead to harmony of action rather than to contradictions.

      Sri Aurobindo has suggested that evolution offers human beings the possibility of development towards higher levels of consciousness—a more integrated, whole personality and opening to a fuller humanity. Humankind

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

is not the end point of development but only a step along the way. Ken Wilber, on whom Sri Aurobindo has a significant influence among other thinkers, suggests that our task is to shift beyond our present limited rationality to a wider integrated rationality or to a 'vision logic' that helps us to hold various rational perspectives together at once and reconcile seemingly incompatible notions. It is this vision logic, according to Wilber, that helps us to prepare for the challenges of a global network. In the field of education it means designing novel processes and programs that can be created on the spot out of events, dialogues and relationships of that moment that is developing the creative spirit rather than working on preconceived notions and prearranged solutions through rigid institutional frameworks.

      Bertrand Russell points out that the physical universe is continually expanding according to astronomers. Everything that is near us is moving away and the remoter things are receding even faster. Now, whether this scientific theory of an expanding physical universe continues to be accepted or not, there is no doubt that the mental universe will have to expand to comprehend the cosmos now revealed by science. We have to stretch our imaginations both in space and time to an extent unknown before. This can be bewilderingly painful to many because it makes them feel that they and their preoccupation are puny and insignificant in this cosmic theatre. In an effort to make us understand the magnitude of space that our imagination must encompass, Russell lists a few figures. The nearest fixed star is about twenty-five million millions miles. The Milky Way, the system nearest to us, has about three hundred thousand million stars and there are many million assemblages like the Milky Way. The distance between each of these is such that it takes about two million years for light to traverse. The sun weighs about two billion billion billion tons and the Milky Way weighs about a hundred and sixty thousand million times as much as the sun. Also, while there is so much matter, the immensely large part of the universe is empty or very nearly so. The mind has to stretch to its utmost to even begin to understand this vastness.

      A similar stretching of our thoughts is necessary with respect to time as has been shown by geology and paleontology. The dating of fossils and of sedimentary and igneous rocks proves them to be much older than we had previously imagined. Then there is astronomy constantly pushing forth fresh discoveries about the origin of the solar system and of the nebulae. With the most powerful existing telescopes, we can see objects from which light has taken five hundred million years to reach.

      A moment's thought about this cosmic theatre fills us with awe but after the first reaction is over the rational mind realizes that there is no great quality

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

necessarily connected with size. The physical size of the man's brain is small but its vastness is to be measured by the size and complexity of the universe or other issues that he can grasp in thought and imagination. However, as Russell points out, the mind of the astronomer should grow step by step with his knowledge of the universe notjust in the intellectual aspect but also in his will and feeling, because if the intellect becomes cosmic but feeling and will remain parochial, a disharmony would be produced which would be disastrous. That is, in effect, wisdom must grow. Wisdom can be said to be a harmony of knowledge, will and feeling, which does not come with the growth of knowledge.

      As far as will is considered, man has to understand that there are things that can be achieved and others that cannot be. In the past, the capacity was limited to do both good or bad. Every increase in knowledge has meant an increase in man's capacity to act. Science and technology have ensured that good men can do more good and bad men more bad than our ancestors could have dreamed possible. Hence knowledge, and the power that it brings needs to influence feelings because it is feelings that decide what an individual will do with power. As Russell has pointed out, feelings too have evolved through the struggle for existence. As humankind formed itself into a society, it grew from an individual to a family to tribes nations and federations. It got divided into two large groups with two opposite systems of morality. One for dealing with one's own social group; and the other for dealing with outsiders. It came to be considered to be 'moral' to support members of one's group while waging wars against the other. The fame of many 'so called' heroes of history rests on their role in helping their own group to kill other people's group and to steal from them. Hence history till recently has been read chiefly as a chronology of wars. This whole conditioning has now become disadvantageous. Previously, when a tribe killed the other tribe and occupied its lands it acquired greater prosperity and lived more comfortably. But now the consequences are the opposite. Two nations that co-operate are more likely to achieve economic prosperity than those who compete. However, the faith in competition continues as we are conditioned from the past and cannot make our emotions grow at the same rate as our skills. We see are everyday that in a technically developed world, what is done in one region has enormous effects in other regions but as long as we feel for only our region conflicts will remain because we will go on acting in our narrow self-interest unmindful of the consequences on others in spite of knowing intellectually that the world is interconnected.

      Today, the interdependence in the world is becoming as close as that which exists between the cells of a body. What one eats nourishes every part of

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

the body but the mouth does not say why it should take so much trouble for the entire body. We will similarly have to realize that it is in our enlightened self-interest to forgo short-term gains to achieve long-term goals. This requires an expansion of the mind and vision.

      Religion, as Russell has pointed out, has always taught us that it is our duty to love our neighbour and to desire the happiness of others rather than their misery, but active men have paid little attention to this. However, the kindly feelings towards others advocated by religion will have to become an indispensable condition of survival. In a human body, for example, the hands cannot be in conflict with the feet and the stomach cannot be at war with the liver. Human society is becoming more and more like the human body and so feelings of welfare towards the whole society will have to become necessary for human beings to be able to accomplish what they wish to enjoy. This requires the expansion of the ego which seers and sages have taught for long. They have taught that man is capable of wisdom that does not consist of knowledge, will or feeling as mutually exclusive but as a synthesis and intimate union of all the three.

      When a child is born, his world is a tiny one bound by what is apparent to his senses in the immediate present. Gradually, as knowledge grows, his limitation recedes. Memory and experience make what is past and what is distant gradually more vivid in the life of the growing child. As his knowledge grows, his universe of experience expands in terms of time and space. But his life will always remain full of contradictions and his capacity to act will remain limited unless his feelings harmonize with his thought and will to enable him to act wisely which can be safely said to be synonymous with what Russell calls 'acting ethically'.

      As Bertrand Russell points out: "We are beset in our daily lives by fret and worry and frustrations. We find ourselves too readily pinned down to thoughts of what seem obstructive in our immediate environment. But it is possible, and authentic wise men have proved that it is possible, to live in so large a world that the vexations of daily life come to feel trivial and that the purposes which stir our deeper emotions take on something of the immensity of our cosmic contemplations. Some can achieve this in a greater degree, some only in a lesser, but all who care to do so can achieve this in some degree and, in so far as they succeed in this, they will win a kind of peace which will leave activity impeded but not turbulent."

      Such a state of mind is one of wisdom and the world needs it as it has never needed it before. If humankind can acquire it, it can bring the greatest

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

measure of happiness and well being with the new powers that knowledge has brought, otherwise there can be irretrievable disaster. Therefore, learning organizations need to devise modes by which the great potential of human nature is encouraged to seek the highest. Although the capacity to learn lies at the heart of humanity, it cannot just happen. It is a difficult and demanding task and has to be systemically constructed. As Joseph P. Healey has pointed out, there are three strands in learning: to be competent, to be engaged and to be ethical.

      Competence embraces development of skills, a critical capacity to think, ability to identify problems and suggest solutions. But what is competence itself? It is redefined continuously from one generation to another according to the changing conditions of the world, advances in science and technology and the general rise in human expectations.

      Some skills can be seen as fundamental in spite of changing requirements of capacity building like the ability to read and write, proficiency in mathematics, an understanding of scientific thought and theory, and a historical consciousness. But even these get redefined with technological advances. Today knowledge can be accessed through sources not known before from simple classrooms to a thousand different sites on the computer screen. In fact, so much information is now available that sorting, evaluating andjudging it has become a critical task. The other side to it is that learning institutions have lost their primacy as sources of information. As Einsten has pointed out: "It is not so very important for a person to learn facts. For that he does not really need a college. He can learn them from books. The value of an education in a liberal arts college is not the learning of many facts but the training of the mind to think something that cannot be learned from textbooks."

      Healey defines engagement as the capacity of knowledge to change society. While personal growth and fulfilment may be the fundamental objects of learning, human beings being social creatures naturally look outwards." The change that we seek to bring about is usually concerned with improving living standards but that can only be one aim of education and not the most fundamental one. Today, under all the glitz, there is a genuine sense of searching. The older verities have lost their hold and a society that is essentially rootless and ephemeral lacks the structure to build a meaningful life. This accounts for the rebirth of very structured and conservative movements. It is a sign of the spiritual emptiness that people feel. They are searching for greater clarity and security.

      The desire for good and the search for truth are real and active components of every human life. Hence morality is not to add something to human

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

beings but the act of coming to consciousness and education is the vehicle to create conditions for consciousness. Educational institutions must devise means to produce not just technologically competent individuals but also ethical beings. J. Krishnamurti has attempted to sketch what should be the aim of educational institutions. J. Krishnamurti, talking in the context of the two schools, one at Pdshi Valley and the other at Rajghat, talks of what he thinks is the fundamental function of education and hence of a learning organization. Most educational institutions all over the world produce specialists— technicians, scientists, educators and others. However, these specialists are not capable of meeting the enormously complex challenge of life although they are supposed to provide leadership. The problem is that they are all responding to immediate problems while simultaneously a long view of the challenges have also to be taken. The function of education is to bring about a mind that can go beyond the immediate. As J. Krishnamurti points out, "The real issue is to find out how to live in a world that is so compulsively authoritarian; so brutal and tyrannical, not only in the immediate relationship but in social relationships; how to live in such a world with the extraordinary capacity to meet its demands and also to be free. I feel education of the right kind should cultivate the mind not to fall into grooves of habit, but to have a mind that is extraordinarily alive; not with knowledge, not with experience but alive. Because often the more knowledge one has, the less alert the brain is."

      Learning therefore is not the same as acquisition of knowledge because that amounts to only gathering information and storing it up. Since education round the world is merely concerned with the acquisition of knowledge, the mind being overloaded with information becomes dull and ceases to learn. The question then arises whether it is possible to develop a mind that simultaneously acquires the knowledge needed to live but also constandy learns. This can only happen when education concerns itself with the totality of life and not just with responses to immediate challenges. A person who lives only in the immediate lives a superficial and rather empty life that he tries to fill up with more and more wealth, drink, alcohol, clothes, sex, power or even books.

      The question is what kind of individuals do we want our educational institutions to shape. As Krishnamurti points out, "If we concentrate very much on examinations, on technological information on making the child clever, proficient in acquiring knowledge, while we neglect the other side, then the child will grow up into a one-sided human being. When we talk about a total human being, we mean not only a human being with inward understanding,

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

with a capacity to explore, to examine his inward being, his inward state and the capacity of going beyond it, but also someone who is good in what he does outwardly. The two must go together. That is the real issue in education—to see that when the child leaves the school, he is well established in goodness, both outwardly and inwardly."

      Therefore, educational institutions must not only develop the technological proficiency in a student but must also uncover the deeper layers of his mind. A human being whose inner development is neglected while making him a perfect professional, does not just grow into that but is also jealous, angry, frustrated, in despair and ambitious. Hence, there is always disorder in society. It may create a great society in which there is immense material wealth and social equality but a great society need not necessarily be a good society. A good society implies order that is not merely external like trains running on time or mail efficiently delivered. The order has to be an inner one. Therefore, both technology and the inner life of a human being must be simultaneously and equally developed. There can be no separation between the two of the kind as we have presently created done. It is the job of the educational institution to unite them. As Krishnamurti says, "If there is proper education, the student will not treat them as two separate fields. He will be able to move in both as one movement. In making himself technologically perfect, he will also make himself a worthwhile human being."

      An ethical person recognizes the great potential for good in human life and so tries to cultivate it. It means having profound respect for each person, which leaves no room for racism, poverty and exploitation. It is also opposed to dogma and inflexible moral positions. It leads to a realization that sexual preferences, ethnic identity, gender, learning and physical differences have to be accommodated with dignity because when we reject them we not only sacrifice the dignity of those rejected but of all. We have to always remember that we are not islands unto ourselves but form a part of the great fabric of human activity. Our deepest personal needs remain unmet if we do not rise above our narrow concerns and biases and seek the good of others.

      Somehow we feel compelled to suppress with great force the inner feeling and voice that reminds us from time to time that our true task is some kind of mystical evolution. Why do we do this? Perhaps, because to acknowledge it would, most of our political gyrations, battles on grounds of religious dogma and financial manoeuverings, not only be counter productive but also trivial. Today this quest for ultimate meaning has broken the bound of rationalist movement as is evident from the amazingly large number of books and

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

magazines on the theme of personal and social change. The desire for meaning in life and fulfilment is growing to be a part of something that is greater than just as. We seek these answers although we know that the reality will not become perfecdy clear to us and that our questions will remain unanswered. However, we still embark on the quest because we are convinced that even our striving makes us grow as human beings.

      Many view the concentration on inner growth and development as egocentric and self-centered but there are others who recognize the moral idea behind this commitment, which is "a picture of what a better or higher mode of life would be, where 'better' and 'higher' are defined not in terms of what we happen to desire or need, but offer a standard of what we ought to desire." For many this ideal involves a pursuit of earning; for others, it is the need to become authentic, that is to define ourselves as true to one's own originality. It is only through authenticity that we become better equipped to create harmony in ourselves and in others. Paradoxical though it may sound, personal change leads to social change because those who undergo personal change, bring their ideas and vision into the mainstream of society.

      Sri Aurobindo and the Mother, who did a lot of work on education have given us some practical guidance on how to achieve this personal transformation and then use it towards the growth of institutions and organizations thus moving from the individual to the collective and creating a symbiotic relationship between the two. As the Mother points out when the imagination expands and consciousness widens, tension evaporates and action can be done in a calm frame of mind. 'The easiest way", she says, "is to identify yourself with something vast. For instance, when you feel that you are shut up in a completely narrow and limited thought, will, consciousness, when you feel as though you were in a shell, then if you begin thinking about something very vast, as for example, the immensity of waters of an ocean, and if reallyyou can think of this

      ocean and how it stretches out far, far, far, far in all directions, like,

      compared with you, it is so far, so far that you cannot see the other shore, you cannot reach its end anywhere, neither behind or in front nor to the right or left... it is wide, wide, wide, wide... you think of this and then you feel that you are floating on this sea, like that, and that there are no limits... this is very easy. Then you can widen your consciousness a little."

      Most difficulties arise because of our egos which make us react from a narrow personal position to circumstances, events and people around us. But if as a first stage we can create the sense widening ourselves a kind of unfolding of ourselves, then whatever was holding and strangling us making us suffer or

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

paralyzing our movements also begins to gradually unfold and become diffuse as if it has been exposed to the light rather than being packed away within. When, one can attempt to mentally let go or relax, that is unfold one's mind to allow higher influences to enter, the problem inevitably dissolves as the ego preventing the solution from emerging dissolves.

      This is as the Mother points out, much easier than struggling against the difficulty with one's thought because if one begins to discuss with one's own self one finds that there are arguments both for and against and both are so convincing that it is quite impossible to get out of the inconclusive debate within without a higher light. By allowing the mind to widen and receive the possibilities of different solutions, one does not struggle against the difficulties, nor does one try to convince oneself but allows a solution to emerge. It is somewhat like what Keats meant by 'negative capability'.

      Again, when we find ourselves hurt and disheartened, the feelings can be overcome by bringing about a shift in attitude, perception or point of view. As the Mother says, "there is, a way also of trying to identify yourself with all things upon earth. For example, when you have a small narrow vision of something and are hurt by others' vision and point of view, you must begin by shifting your consciousness, try to put it in others, and try gradually to identify yourself with all the different ways of thinking of all others. This a little more... how shall I put it?... dangerous. Because to identify oneself with the thought and will of others means to identify oneself with a heap of stupidities... and bad wills, and this may bring consequences which are not very good. But still, some people do this more easily. For instance, when they are in disagreement with someone, in order to widen their consciousness they try to put themselves in the place of the other and see the thing not from their own point of view but from the point of view of the other. This widens the consciousness, though not as much as by the first ways I spoke about, which are quite innocent. They don't do you any harm, they do you much good. They make you very peaceful."

      Thich Nhat Hahn has also given us a meditation, which is a useful tool in problem solving and is used in many Buddhist monasteries for the training of the mind. In any conflicting situation, it is necessary for the mind to comprehend both points of view. In the example that he gives of a river and a swimmer, a student is asked to first give the point of view of the swimmer in the river. However, after a while, he is asked to articulate the feelings of the river in which the swimmer is swimming. This makes the mind supple and flexible and is likely to lead to an understanding through which a solution is possible. As the Mother points out "all contradictories can be transformed into comple-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

mentaries, but for that one must discover a higher idea that will be able to harmonize them. It is good to consider all problems from all possible standpoints to avoid partiality and exclusiveness, but if the thought is to be active and creative it must, in each case, be the natural and logical synthesis of all the point of view taken in. And if you are to make to the totality of your thoughts a dynamic and constructive force, you must take great care as to the choice of the central idea of your mental synthesis; for upon that will depend the value of your synthesis."

She gives a useful exercise for problem solving:

"........there is an exercise which gives great suppleness and elevation to the thought. It is as follows: a clearly formulated thesis is set; against it is opposed its antithesis, formulated with the same precision. Then by careful reflection the problem must be widened or transcended until a synthesis is found which unites the two contraries in a large, higher and more comprehensive idea."

Acquiring this suppleness of mind and techniques of problem solving is absolutely essential for living in communities because human beings as we have seen, have to work in collectivities rather than in isolation. Living in a community we see perceptions of ourselves are reflected back to us. It is easy to dismiss these, especially the negative images but we must learn to accept them and try to see and hear even when we want to reject them. When we work in a community, our shared experiences allow us to clarify our thinking, open ourselves to critical ideas, increase our awareness of others and uncover our values and beliefs, that is, our self-knowledge increases through community. Thus experience is enhanced when we respect diversity. Listening carefully and learning from our differences broadens our point of view. Besides, listening creates a community because we then notice not only those needs and understandings that are fully formed but also participate in the formation of new needs and understandings. In this way, mutual learning and growth takes place.

      The challenge before learning institutions is how to reshape our thinking, recreate our organizations and how to redefine the way we work within the universities and thus the mode of our functioning outside in society. The organizations can only reshape themselves through a shared vision among their members, an invitation to them to engage in a dialogue among themselves and with those outside the organization. The three cornerstones for an organization to change itself could be aspiration, conversation and con-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

ceptualization. Aspiration takes into account the personal vision of the individuals and tries to create a shared vision for the institution. This can only be done by a process of conversation or dialogue through which individuals attempt to draw out into the open their internalized assumptions and subject them to the scrutiny of others and of their own selves. These processes are carried out within a context of systems thinking-looking at relationships and interdependence of the parts of the organization. For example, if we adopt a systems orientation, we might ask ourselves who is an expert or a specialist. We may realize that such rapid changes are taking place in knowledge, the problems and issues are increasingly complex and there is a diversity of expertise available among individuals and groups. We may then, instead of relying on one individual or discipline, adopt a more interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach. Also, we may realize that we have to employ new combinations of resources and knowledge orientations to deal with issues. Another approach would be to take a longer-term perspective that gives less importance to immediate pay-offs and more to multiple benefits in the future.

      If we really do have a capacity to develop psychologically toward greater integration, consciousness and wholeness, it means we have a capacity to develop not just horizontally as in the expansion of knowledge and skills but also vertically as in the evolution and transcendence of ourselves, our perspectives ad world views. Vertical education for transcendence and integration moves beyond horizontal expansion and through its challenges and support of growth and development, promotes those processes, integration and transformation.

      In institutions of higher education, there is considerable experience in addressing development along the horizontal plane but very little on how to develop along the vertical plane. Universities have not had issues to spirituality, transformation and transcendence on their agenda. Educators themselves are not ready to accept that spiritual strivings and personal transformation are part of the challenge of higher education. Many see it as self-indulgence or are wary of supporting moral ideas outside their sphere of work. Also, in the age of computation and measurable outcomes education that attends to personal transformation is as odds with education that promotes observable knowledgeable skills. Also, successful programmes on the vertical plane would require adult educators who themselves are on the development path of the transformation of the self.

      However, themes of meaning, spirituality and human consciousness need to be given a place. Students often have well-worked out career related goals

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

but the inner dissatisfaction and groping arises out of a need to know more about and develop their own selves. Educators tend to get too involved in extrinsic aspects of motivation and miss the intrinsic goal which is to foster human qualities that would contribute to the functioning of the whole integrated personality. Hence, a more central place needs to be given to self-development and consciousness studies in higher education through forums, courses, conferences, symposia and study groups. Another important task is to create opportunities for self-reflection. It is important to be consciously self-reflective, aware of the way our organs register information and how we can direct and control our experiences. A brief moment occurs, if we can train ourselves to be aware of it, between the stimulus and our response to it, which can be used for self-reflection. With self-reflection we begin to write our own programme for action. It is to be proactive in a very specific way because then we stop reacting; get a moment to reflect on our own action and figure out whether we are contributing to our own problems. If educational institutions can teach us to view ourselves to become witnesses to our own thoughts and actions and to have the honesty and courage to act dispassionately apart from making us technologically proficient, they will impact society in a way so as to create a better and more humane world for all to live in. They would then have attained their true goals.

      * * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 1

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