Philosophy of Value-Oriented Education -Theory and Practice - Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


      (PART II)


Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2




Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


      There has been much to feel elated in the current terms. The knowledge 'explosion' has extended the mental horizons of human beings. Utilisation of skill and knowledge has brought economic affluence and political power to some. There are also areas of serious concern, which have emerged promi-nendy. The domain of human values continues to erode. The crisis of human values is worsening and its shadow looms large. The calm and peace, which could be an outcome of advancing knowledge and technological development is being shattered by turbulence, disturbance, conflict and distrust everywhere. It is not that mankind lacks knowledge and skills, but it is wisdom, character and values, which are in crisis. The economic and technological values are in conflict with 'human values.' In a world which is primarily torn between a few 'haves' and majority of 'have nots' in a highly disproportionate manner, tensions, diversities, violence, terrorism, consumerism and the like are creating a dreadful scenario. Education can be the universal hope. Education can contribute immensely to the culture of peace, social cohesion and international collaboration. Crisis of values needs to be seen both at individual and societal level. In individual it manifests itself in a sense of drift and helplessness, in an alienation of meaning and purpose of life and living. The alienation may be the result of neglect, poverty and impact of technological presence. The individual has become an object of manipulated disposition. At the societal level the crisis is manifested by increasing fragmentation and divisions of population, in the diminution of human relationship, increasing exploitation and consequent degradation of the natural environment, diminishing concern for the future and increase in all form of violence.

      Education is the most powerful instrument for achieving social cohesion and harmony. In Indian context the national goals include internalising secularism, strengthening democracy, ensuring equality, striving for national integration, revamping fraternity, providing social justice and liberty. The system of education must perceive human needs, perceptions and aspirations. It must develop respect for awareness of human rights. It is essential that every child internalise the fundamental duties as enlisted in Article 51(A) of the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Constitution. Unity and integrity of India, harmony, spirit of common brotherhood, preservation of rich cultural heritage of our composite culture, compassion, scientific temper, humanism, abjuring violence etc. have been included in fundamental duties incorporated in Indian Constitution by 42nd Amendment. These also highlight the need to improve and protect natural environment, develop scientific temper, humanism and spirit of enquiry. No education system can ignore these aspects. Every child needs to internalise the values enshrined in our constitution, the values that have developed in cultural contexts and could be derived from our heritage. The Delor's Commission Report, (UNESCO, 1996) very strongly recommended to every country that their education system should be 'rooted to culture and committed to progress'. The Commission visualised social cohesion and 'Learning to live together' as most important objectives of education of 21st century. Education for peace and for a culture of peace is being globally accepted and adopted by the nations and more so by the education systems worldwide. In India, the social cohesion, adherence to moral and ethical values and commitment to the society have been the hallmarks of socio-cultural ethos. Gandhiji had identified truth and non-violence as the two central pillars to ensure peace, prosperity, progress and perfection in thought and deed of every individual. In Upanisad, the guru advises his disciple who desires peace of mind to persue three fold paths of (a) knowledge to end conflict with nature (b) service to end conflict with other human beings and (c) renunciation to end the internal conflict of mind when many pleasures are greedily sought from life. Threat posed by LPG (Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation) in the shape of cut-throat competition, materialism, decline of values, rise of consumerism and technological culture to the acculturating role of education, traditional values and objectives of education as perceived by great Indian thinkers, philosophers and educators needs to be analysed carefully. There is a great danger that the acculturating role of education may be relegated to the background and the influence of market forces and materialistic pursuits may overrun the traditional values. Promotion of value-oriented education thus becomes one of the critical ingredient of educational process. NCERT has a role to play. It has responded by adopting multiple strategies to strengthen value-orientation and value inculcation at all levels of school education in the country.

NCERT's Mandate

      The mandate of NCERT is to advise and assist the government of India in formulation and implementation of policies and major programmes in the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

field of school education and also to assist and collaborate with state education departments in the implementation of their policies and programmes in the area of school education. During the last forty years NCERT and its constituent units have assisted in promoting quality and standard of school education, helped in building capacity of state-level resource institutions and developed partnership and linkages with state departments of education and state level resource institutions through inputs like development of curriculum and instructional materials, training, research, survey, extension activities, innovation, experimentation, documentation and dissemination. Education is in the concurrent list of the Constitution of India. NCERT is not a statutory but an advisory body. State Governments develop their own syllabi, text book and other materials through their own agencies. NCERT assists in such initiatives. Its professional credibility has been well established and it has also been appreciated by state agencies and institutions.

Value education initiatives

      Educational Initiatives of the post-independence period have unequivocally included emphasis on values in education. These are prominently included in recommendations of Kothari Commission (1964-66), curriculum for the ten year school: A Framework (1975), National Policy of Education (1986 with 1992 modifications) National Curriculum Framework (1988) and the recommendations of Parliamentary Standing Committee on Human Resource Development—Eighty-First Report on Value based Education (1999). National Curriculum Framework for School Education (2000) has observed that

"Truth, righteous conduct, peace, love and non-violence are the core universal values that can become the foundation for building the value based education programme... These five universal values represent the five domains of human personality intellectual, physical, emotional, psychological and spiritual—are correlated with the five major objectives of education, namely knowledge, skill, balance, vision and identity."

      In addition, key qualities like regularity, punctuality, cleanliness, self control, industriousness, sense of duty, desire to serve, responsibility, enterprise, sensitivity to equality, faternity, democratic attitude and sense of obligation to environmental protection have been highlighted. The framework has proposed inculcation and nurturance of moral, ethical, humanistic and constitutional values.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

 Violence is the weapon of the weak;

      Non-violence; that of the strong


      He who has neither peace nor strength

      Of mind, how can he have knowledge?


      Pure love removes all weariness


      Without truth it is impossible to observe

      any principles or rules in life.

      There must be truth in thought.

      Truth in speech and Truth in action.

                                                          —Mahatma Gandhi

      The Kothari Commission (1964-66) had observed that "A new pride and a deeper faith expressed in living for the noble ideals of peace and freedom, truth and compassion are now needed." As early as 1966, the Commission made significant recommendations about "Education on Social, Moral and Spiritual Values" in chapter VII on 'School Curriculum' and use of direct and indirect method in teaching of human values, which are still relevant.

      * A man's value does not depend on what he learn or his position or fame, or what he does, but on what he is and inwardly becomes.

      * Truth is the foundation of real spirituality and courage in its soul.

      * Love leads us from suffering of division into the bliss of perfect union.

      to the acculturating role of


                                                                                                                                                                                                              —Sri Aurobindo

      National Curriculum Framework (2000) has recommended education about religion and not religious values. Awareness of religions has been conceived as one of the major source of values. The Framework observed that

"What is required today is not religious education but education about religion, their basics, the values inherent therein and also a comparative study of the Philosophy of all religions. These needs to be inculcated at appropriate stages of education right from primary years. Students have to be given awareness that the essence of every religion is common, only the practices differ. The students should also be led to believe that differences of opinion in certain areas are also to be respected" (Page 19).

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

The Framework had added caution that:

"Education about religion must be handled with great care. All steps must be taken in advance to ensure that no personal prejudice or narrow minded perception are allowed to distort the real purpose of this venture and no rituals, dogmas and superstitions are propagated in the name of education about religion. All religions therefore are to be treated with equal respect (Sarva Dharma Sambhava) and there has to be no discrimination on the ground of any religion (Pathanirapekstata)" (Page 20).

      The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Human Resource Development—Eighty First Report on Value based Education (1999) (Chavan Committee's Report) submitted in both houses of Parliament observed that

'Truth (Satya), Righteous conduct (Dharma), peace (Santi), Love (Prema) and Non-violence (Ahimsa) are the Core Universal Values which can be identified as the foundation stone on which the value based education programmes can be built up."

          The report of the Committee in para 13 has also made significant observations:

"Another aspect that must be given some thought is religion, which is most misused and misunderstood concept. The process of making the students acquainted with the basics of all religion, the values inherent therein and also a comparative study of the philosophy of all religions should begin at the middle stage in schools and continue up to the university level. The students have to be made aware that the concept behind every religion is common, only the practices differ. Even if there are differences of opinion to certain areas people have to learn to co-exist and carry no hatred against any religion."

          The ideas as elaborated are essentially based on the recommendations of the Kothari Commission 1964-66, National Policy of Education 1986 and the S. B. Chavan Committee's Report, 1999. The Kothari Commission has observed that:

"In such a society however, one had to make a distinction between 'religious education' and 'education about religions'. The former is largely concerned with the teaching of the tenets and practices of a particular religion, generally in the form in which the religious group envisages them, whereas the latter is a study of religions and religious

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

 thought form a broad point of view—the internal quest of the spirit." (Page 20, para 1.79).

      The Commission had recommended that:

      "It is, however, necessary for a multi-religious democratic state to promote a tolerant study of all religions so that its citizens can understand each

      other better and live amicably together............................we suggest that a

      syllabus giving well-chosen information about each of the major religion should be included as a part of the course in citizenship or as part of general education to be introduced in schools and colleges up to the

      first degree." (Page 20-21, para 1.79).

      The Curriculum for Ten Year School—A Framework (1975) had emphasised the need of character building and cultivation of human values.

      National Curriculum Framework (1986) had highlighted the need of character building and inculcation of social and moral values (p. 5) and values for strengthening of national identity and unity (p.5) and preservation of cultural heritage and traditions (p.4).

"Through law we find the freedom of peace in the external world of existence, through Goodness or Love we find our freedom in the world of deeper social relationship. Such freedom of realization is possible only because supreme Truth is Shantam, is Shivam, is Peace, is Goodness, is Love."

      —Rabindranath Tagore

         National Policy on Education 1986, in part VIII para 8.5 had made following observations:

         * "In our culturally plural society, education should foster eternal values, oriented towards the unity and integration of our people."

         * "................value education has a profound positive content, based on our heritage, national goals, universal perceptions."

      In part XII under the heading "The future" NPE (1986) had further observed that

'The future shape of education in India is too complex to envision with precision. Yet, given our tradition which always put a high premium on intellectual and spiritual attainment we are bound to succeed in achieving our objective.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

The Programme of Action and National Policy on Education 1986 in the chapter entitled 'The Cultural Perspective' under sub-heading 'Institutes of Moral Education' at the end assigned the task to NCERT:

A special place has been assigned to imparting of value oriented education in the Education Policy document. A beginning would be made by instituting a special study on value oriented education. Based on its analysis, it would in collaboration with NCERT and state institutions, help in suggesting broad parameters of values of integrity, truth, devotion, loyalty etc. with particular reference to their embodiment in Indian heritage, so as to blend naturally with the overall educational process" (Page 176).

Approach of Value Education

      The NCERT approach to value education could be summarised as follows:

* The Curriculum Framework for School Education has observed that: value education and education about religious would not form a separate subject of study for examination at any stage. These would be so judiciously integrated with all subject of study in the scholastic areas that the objectives thereof would be directly and indirectly achieved in the classroom, at the school assembly places, play grounds, cultural centres and other rich places.

* Every teacher has to be a teacher of values.

* Every activity, unit, textbooks and classroom interaction should be examined from the point of view of value identification/inculcation and reinforcement and appropriate strategy needs to be evolved.

* Value education needs to be integrated to all activities of the school, classroom teaching, games, cultural activities, welfare services, help to needy students, remediation and nurturing of talent etc.

General Interventions in Value Education

The interventions in the teaching—learning process must:

* highlight the values inherent in different subject area.

* provide opportunities for questioning, sharing and practising values.

* provide opportunities for learning democratic principles.

* emphasize equalities of gender, social caste, class and religion.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

* underlines human rights, rights of the child, environmental protection, healthy living etc.

* make the classroom atmosphere tension-free and democratic to enhance values.

* encourage exhibitions, Bal-melas, Fairs and folk cultural activities.

* provide appropriate guidance and counselling.

* organise inter-state cultural exchange programme.

Stage Specific Inputs

          The examplar activities at different stages are highlighted below:

At Elementary Stage

* the school assembly, group singing, practicing silence and meditation.

* simple and interesting stories about the lives and teaching of prophets, saints and sacred texts of different religions.

* field activities like game and sports, social work leading to the attitude of service (seva) to humanity and other creatures, and even to nature.

* cultural activities, plays etc. on appropriate theme.

      At the Secondary/Higher Secondary Stages

* morning assembly, readings from books of wisdom, great literature or an appropriate address by a teacher or a guest speaker.

* essential teachings of major world religions, comparative study of the philosophy of religion.

* social service during holidays outside school hours.

* community singing programmes, National Integration Camps, the National Social Service, National Cadet Corps, Scouts, and guides programme.

* cultural activities, play, debates etc. on appropriate themes.

          School may organize joint celebrations of the important occasions and festivals of major religious and cultural groups.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Role of Teachers

      The criticality of the role of teachers is well established and widely acknowledged. They have to be professionally prepared and made to internalise their role in value inculcation. Since every teacher is a value educator it is expected that he/she:

      * Would develop a clear vision of their role in value orientation.

      * Would be able to identify the potential of different subjects and situations in school for fostering universal human values and be sensitized about their own influence as role models.

      * Would be able to analyse their own biases and attitude towards students.

      * Would evolve a positive approach to authentic orientation related to different religion and religion related values.

      * Would be a good communicator.

      * Would be able to delineate stage specific strategies.

Supportive Initiatives

      A National Resource Centre for Value Education (NRCVE) has been set up at NCERT as an outcome of strategic planning to realize the objectives of value-based education at the school stage in the country. The Centre was inaugurated on 14th September, 2000. All the constituents of NCERT have been taking up programmes in the area of values education under the aegies of NRCVE. The goals and functions of the centre are to:

* A reference library has been set up and is being enriched continuously. A wide variety of resource materials on values education like books, journals, other print materials, audio and video cassettes, CDs/multimedia packages etc. are being continuously procured. The Centre has also procured literature on values enshrined in different religions and literature for children.

* Networking with organization/NGO's working in the area of value education has been taken up with a view to develop linkages, with various organisations/NGO's, within and outside India, working in the area of value education. Information about 300 organisations including their aims, nature of activites and publications have been procured

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

and a directory of these organisations has already been brought out. The database could be accessed on the website of NCERT.

*The Journal of Value Education was launched under the aegies of National Resource Centre for Value Education, NCERT, in order to provide a forum for expression and sharing of issues related to education in human values among students and teachers at all levels, as well as the parents and the community.

*Identification and compilation of materials/references of books, journals, articles, Ph.D. researches, NGOs' work and audio-video programmes brought out/published in English and Hindi in the country on values education since 1980 in the form of Annotated Bibliography on Value Education in India are in progress in the seven constituent units of NCERT covering all the regions of the country.

*Recently on recommendations of NCERT Department of Education, MHRD has declared prominent NGO's like Ramakrishna Institute of Moral and Spiritual Education (RIMSE) Mysore, Sri Aurobindo Education Society, New Delhi, Chinmoy Mission, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris lswariya Viswa Vidyalaya, Santi Kunj, Hardwar, Kendriyajeevan Vigyan Academy, National Spiritual Assembly of Bahais of India and Sri Satya Sai Institute of Higher Learning as Regional Resource Centers on Value Education. NCERT is to coordinate and guide the activities of the Regional Resource Centres in the area of in-service education of teachers at all levels and for promotion of research related to value education. The NRCEV has also initiated:

*Development of a framework on value education in schools.

*Conceptualisation of some important values such as caring, excellence, creativity, spirituality etc.

*Development of materials such as supplementary reading material for children, audio cassettes, video cassettes and multimedia.

*Development of training materials for teachers and teacher educators.

*Media mobilization for awareness generation, training and preparation of resource materials etc.

*The revival of the community singing programme which is being organized by all constituent units in order to promote values among

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

school children. Several state level organisations have shown keen interest in the programme.

Teacher Education

      Curriculum Framework for Quality Teacher Education of the statutory National Council for Teacher Education, (NCTE, 1998) has highlighted that the student/teachers should be capable of understanding the importance of value education, able to interpret values in the contemporary context and evolve strategies of imbibing these by students.

      The concerns, issues related to strategies/approaches of value inculcation, integration of value related activities with all programmes of the school and with the curriculum, textbooks, workbooks, multimedia and production of materials needs to be incorporated with pre-service teacher preparation of all levels of school education. Value education issues and methodology have been integrated in the innovative 2 years B.Ed programme and 1 year Diploma course in Counselling and Guidance offered by the Regional Institute of Education of NCERT. Similarly, the design of in-service education of the teachers, principals of schools and DIET faculty needs to be relooked at and the concerns, issues, approaches related to value education will have to be incorporated there in. NCERT has incorporated value education related issues in the redesigned Special Orientation programmes for Primary Teachers, (SOPT) and in the in-service training design for DIET faculty and DIET principals. In practically all the in-service training programmes organized by different constituent units of NCERT, the innovative methods/strategies of value education are being highlighted.

      The teachers' comprehension need not extend only to transmitting information from a prescribed textbook to the children but in developing capabilities to evolve the curriculum from the surroundings itself at the primary stage of school education. In developing such an approach, the criticality of the need for value inculcation and emphasis on ethical and moral education should form an integral part of each and every unit and activity. Small stories and parables drawn from epics, mythologies and history suitable to the stage and linked to the value inculcation would generate interest amongst the young learners and could familiarise with the cultural evolution and heritage. This would also lead to understanding of the culture and heritage of different communities and gradually help in developing respect for religions, languages and cultural practices which may be different from that being practiced.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

 Teacher preparation must ensure development of commitment amongst teachers. It is a tough proposition when most of the other sectors are influenced by self interests and material pursuits everywhere. However, teacher education needs to emphasise throughout each programme that teachers alone can kindle the spirit of value based growth and development and motivate other to lead their life with full commitment and adherence to common values as imbibed in the constitution of India.    

Material Development

      * There is need to develop supplementary reading materials for school children based on stories and parables available/developed on value themes.

      * Following example of NCERT, community singing programme needs to be extended to schools on a large scale and materials prepared for the same in each language.

      * Audio, video and multi-media modes needs to be explored in a large scale for production of materials.


      Institutions working in the area have primarily been concerned with development and extension aspect of values and not much efforts have been made on research and innovation in the area. NCERT recently has already funded a number of research projects on value education.

      NCERT SCERT, CTEs, LASEs, DIETs and University Departments of Education will have to encourage, sustain and carryout research in the area of value education and disseminate the findings. The non-governmental organisations involved with development, innovations and experimentations in the area of value education may make their research finding available.

The suggested areas of research are:

      - Analysis of value education programme of an institution/organisation through case study.

      Experimental study to find out the effectiveness of different interventions applied for value inculcation in school system.

      Development of instruments to measure value climate of schools.

      - Field testing of effective methods of value inculcation in schools.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

  Identification of effective methods for resolving value conflicts—conflict between societal value vis-à-vis school value, conflict between school value vis-à-vis values propagated by media etc.

      Methodology of integration of values of text books and other instructional materials in different classes.

      Integration of value related issues to teachers training programmes with focus on value integration to methodology of transaction.

      Conduct of innovations/experimentations on value education.

      Conceptual clarification, classification and behaviour specification of values.

      Methodology of developing cooperation between home and school for value development.

      Instructional strategies for transaction of value related topics/themes.

      Identification of indigenous approach of value development for incorporation in pedagogy for schools.

      Exploring methodologies of sustaining values among school children.

      Exploring methodologies of value inculcation through community involvement.

      Identification of sociological, psychological, cultural and technological factors influencing values.

      Study on value preferences of different groups of school children.

      Development and try out of an integrated approach a combination of methods approaches/ programmes for promotion of values in schools.

Tasks Ahead

      There is a need to disseminate the messages related to value education in a mission mode to the schools located in district and sub-district level. The action plan of NCERT in this respect include:

      * Development of decentralized management structure with networking and linkages for implementing the programmes on value education at state, district and grass root levels and its monitoring.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

  * Development of strategies for massive awareness generation/ sensitization programme on value education.

      * Development of strategies for material development relevant to school system and teacher education system using print, non-print including multimedia.

      * Strategies of integrating value education issues, methodologies and transactional approaches to the training programmes for teachers and teacher educators.

      * To evolve minimum standard in education of human values and development of a framework of value education.

      * Creation of a separate value education website for networking and dissemination.

      * Documentation and dissemination of strategies for nurturing universal human values.

      * Media mobilization activities with specific focus on multimedia packages on value education and the use of information technology in sharing and dissemination of value education issues.


      With all the limitations, deficiencies and rigidities inherent in our educational system and functioning of the schools and other learning centres, transformation and overhauling of the system needs to be achieved only through the combined efforts of the teachers, institutions/organisations and the communities. A value based approach must form the backbone of the educational system and also the teacher education system. Effective and visible steps needs to be formulated by the teacher education institutions and motivated schools at the earliest. I have every faith that the multiplier effects would be tremendous.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2




Since independence education system in the country has expanded very rapidly. In spite of the recommendation of the several commissions on education that education in human values should be made an integral part of the curriculum, it is hardly visible in the State's schools, perhaps, because of lurking suspicion that value education might be used for religious education. India is a multi-religious country and comprises of multicultural societies. The Constitution of the Republic of India is based on the concept of secularism. Therefore, it is imperative to distinguish value education from religious education or even education about religions.

      As a result of quick economic growth, influence of western culture, over mechanisation, urbanisation and craving for materialistic life there has been a loss of values and of the value system at the individual level and in the country as a whole. Materialistic needs and never ending lust to earn more and more by putting in less and less effort, therefore, have to be balanced by a value-based life and by inculcation of an attitude that earning money is for leading a respectable life and for helping others who are disadvantaged. Where and when this value orientation should take place in the life of any person? It should begin from home, be buttressed by the community and be entrenched positively by one's school. The kingpin in the schooling process is the teacher. If the teacher is personally committed to the values and practises them in his/ her own life, it is a foregone conclusion his/her students will imbibe the values for which the teacher stands. It is for this reason only those teachers who leave deep impact on their students are remembered and also revered. Therefore, if values have to be nurtured in children it would be crucial that their teachers function as role models. For helping teachers in internalising values that should be developed in children through the schooling process, making education in human values an integral part of the curriculum of teacher education will be necessary.

      Also, the country needs teachers with vision—as good teachers make good schools and a good nation. Teachers are the real masons who lay the foundations of a nation. They can make or unmake a nation. Teachers have to be competent and be committed to their task of nation building by developing values in the future citizens. In the UNESCO Commission Report, Education

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

for the 21st Century—Learning the Treasure Within, emphasis has been laid on reorientation of pre-service and in-service teacher education for enabling teachers in acquiring intellectual and emotional qualities that a nation wants to be developed by them in their pupils. In the National Policy on Education (NPE) and the Programme of Action (1992) emphasis was given to value oriented education, and 10 core elements were made an integral part of the school curriculum. But their transaction has continued to remain fragmented. What is now required is to use the instrument of pre- service teacher education for ensuring that entrant teachers understand holistically the concept of education in human values, and are able to use direct and indirect techniques in formal and informal education for the development of values through the schooling process.

      In sweetened milk sugar is not visible but its presence is felt by its pleasant taste. All of us prefer to drink sweetened milk than to drink unsweetened milk and eat sugar afterwards. Therefore, for giving value orientation to the curriculum of teacher education instead of adding to the existing courses a separate course it would be preferable to inseparably integrate value education in it. Metaphorically it should be like dissolving sugar in milk.

      Some institutions have already developed professional programmes in teacher education in which value education has been incorporated in the curriculum and have been conducting such courses. The Ramakrishna Institute of Moral and Spiritual Education (RIMSE), Mysore, has been conducting a value oriented B.Ed, course for over 25 years.

      There are two challenges that may have to be faced in providing value orientation to teacher education—stability and change. Stability demands preservation of culture and change demands technology. The National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) is well aware of this challenge. The foci of its recent in initiatives have on developing resource material on indigenous thoughts on education and promotion of use of information and communication technologies in school education through teachers. It has been playing the role of an innovator and that of a facilitator at the same time. Hence, the thrust of its recent efforts has been on production of multimedia resource materials on education in human values and conduction of orientation programmes for teacher educators with the help of experts and of institutions, which have specialised in the field of value education.

      The NCTE has been conducting orientation programmes on education in human values for teacher educators and repackaging electronically the contributions of the experts and those of the participants. The outcomes of its

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

programmes are distributed to each of its recognised institutions on multimedia CD-ROMs and through the World Wide Web of the Internet. Full texts of publications on value education in easily downloadable form have been made available on the NCTE web site ( Titles related to value education available from the web are: Education for Character Development; Education for Tomorrow; Report of the Working Group to Review Teachers' Training Programme; Role and Responsibility of Teachers in Building up Modern India; Gandhi on Education; Sri Aurobindo on Education; and Tilak on Education. The titles of the NCTE CD-ROMs on value education are: New Education for New India - Integral Education of Sri Aurobindo,Jeevan Vigyan and Teachers as Transformers. A CD-ROM based on the workshop that was organised by the NCTE jointly with the Chinmaya World Centre will be released shortly. Recently, in December 2001 two workshops on value orientation in teacher education for teacher educators of the Southern States were organised by the RIMSE.

      It may be appreciated that the role of the NCTE in bringing any curricular change in teacher education programme, even providing facilitation in integration of education in human values in it, at best, is that of a catalytic agent. What NCTE is trying is to make available a basketful of resource materials on education in human values to teacher education institutions.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2




      R. M. KALRA

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

This is based on experience and contacts with numerous science educators who have been concerned with "HAVE NOT" (less advantaged/disadvan-taged/socially, culturally, and economically different) students around the world. I conclude that recent curricular efforts in science and technology education offer no solutions for these students.

      The failure is partly due to the structure of the present system of science and technology education—a structure which is based on the assumption that individuals in various subcultures will respond to the opportunity to receive science and technology education, and that individuals will understand its value to themselves, their families, and their communities. If students do not demonstrate this level of understanding, they are regarded as dumb—that they do not want to or are unable to cope with modern society.

      Manipulation of the physical world is the strength that the material culture has to offerandwe say, "Ifonlywe could teach these 'have-not' students to think logically, that is, scientifically, to bring them into the 20th century and get them to abandon their obviously unsuccessful customs, they would be better equipped to handle the problems and live more productive lives. "There is enough truth in this thinking to validate demands for more technological education; but there is also enough narrowness and over-simplification to trap the unwary into believing that technology is a complete system of thought and, therefore, the key to heaven's gate.

      If we identify a weakness of various ethnic cultures as their resistance to scientific thinking, then an equal stubbornness on the part of Western-scientific culture exists in its over-commitment to technology.

      The historical records of all great civilizations tell us that cultural idealism and technology exist side by side. Great engineering masterpieces in all ethnic cultures testify that science and technology are many thousands of years old. What Westerners call the 'Industrial Revolution' only means an unprecedented acceleration and exceedingly strong emphasis on the technological

      * This is based on a presentation to the Second Jerusalem International Science and Technology Education Conference in Israel, January 8-11, 1996.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

aspect of human activity. The fact is that five or six thousand years ago, the rise of the great civilizations was not brought about by technology alone, but by radically new social inventions. Keep in mind that the overwhelming commitment to industrial affluence in the West appears to be at the expense of health and mental balance, and with the advent of the nuclear bomb, survival itself.

      Today, less advantaged students are aware of the phenomenal advancements of Europe and post-European cultures. At the same time, they perceive that their own culture has contributed little to the current syndrome of technology. They feel it is too late for them to make a significant contribution to the society in which they must live. Nowhere is ruthless effacement of a people's pride in their own achievements more evident than in current education practice as it affects less advantaged pupils. These students may be of people whose culture was solidly science-based long before modern technology came into existence, yet this fact is ignored in the present teaching curriculum. Have their achievements in applied science, agriculture, construction, and mathematical manipulations been so useless as to be given no consideration in the present science and technology education curriculum? I am not consciously digressing from my purpose here, but only seek to suggest new directions for imparting meaningful science and technology education of our less advantaged (have-not) students.

      Now the following question arises:

      What, then, should be the nature of science and technology education for these students?

      In my opinion, a totally new system of science and technology education is needed that will enable these "have-not" students to develop skills and acquire knowledge, which has a higher probability of producing a better understanding of their environment, and which will make possible for the students an acquaintance with the process or discovery of knowledge. Such a curriculum in science and technology education would lay emphasis on the practical understanding of science and not on theoretical and scientific principles that are unrelated to the students' daily lives. Rather, the emphasis would be placed on the application of scientific knowledge to improve living conditions and to other aspects of everyday life.

      Furthermore, science and technology education must be correlated with scientific and technological achievements of the cultural heritage of these less advantaged people. Hopefully, these students may develop pride in their scientifically and technologically rich heritage, develop an interest in learning and understanding of science and technology education, and, consequently, achieve satisfaction from success.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

To understand adequately the role of science and technology education in the tribal areas, urban slums, native Indian reserves, American ghettos, or Mohri Natives in New Zealand, it is necessary to ask the following question:

      What are the major problems of our "have not" people that science and technology education should prepare the students to tackle intelligently and purposefully?

      In the first place, whether it is a ghetto, a reserve, or urban slum where the majority of less advantaged students live and assuming minimal socially healthy conditions, all should work. And this work is practical. In these places there are many problems such as sanitation, health, hygiene, and water pollution, and basic life facilities are very few. The economic condition of these people is really pathetic. Such a situation calls for a science and technology education programme to be closely related to the real problems of community life. It must be so presented that the conventional gap between science and technological knowledge and life situation disappears. If such a curriculum could be developed, schools may be transformed into miniature communities where students learn by applying knowledge. Such a curriculum effort may also bring theoretical scientific and technological knowledge out of its isolation and connect it with all the worthy aspects of community life. It calls for schools to utilize students' outside experiences and basing and integrating studies upon the knowledge and information and interests students bring to school. The school thus becomes the centre of community life.

      With these factors in mind, the author has piloted a teaching and evaluation approach that appears to have promise for success with these students. It is a science and technology teaching programme based on environment and is aimed at raising the level of knowledge, skills, and attitudes of these students to allow them to be more productive in their home environments. To achieve this, science and technology education are taught on four levels: the facts level, the concepts level, the values level, and work experience (technology) level. The author taught a course based on this concept to native Americans in Canada.

      In conjunction with the course taught at the different levels, I utilized a personally developed evaluation system. This system took into consideration the unique learning and cultural needs of the students. It provided opportunities for student-teacher interaction. To a large extent, it provided for contract learning based upon pre-testing to determine the students' knowledge and skills; and it provided mastery learning opportunities (i.e. the students had several opportunities to demonstrate improvement in meeting course criterion measures without penalty).

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Very encouraging results were achieved from implementing the evaluation system with the culturally different children in Canada. The students' increased progress and interest in the subject were quite evident.

      In my opinion, there is a striking resemblance between culturally different children in Canada (in this case, American indigenous Indians) and "have not" students around the world. These students are generally disinterested in science, and this lack of interest is often a major factor in failure in the subject. It is obvious, also, that these students need individual recognition and attention.

      As we internationalize science and technology education, the special needs of the "have nots" of the world must be addressed or we will fail to reach a significant portion of the world's inhabitants. I have attempted to outline in general terms the nature and needs of this group. I have also tried a promising instructional approach with "have nots." I hope that all curriculum developers and instructors will consider the general guideposts I have discussed.

      Students attained more when the author's evaluation system was used than with the traditional system. That they learned more is suggested by an increase in average test grades when viewed as a single criterion. There was a general increase in each class. Admittedly, the study is not experimentally "clean," and one certainly cannot infer any causative relationship. Still, subjective observation suggests that some of the components built into the proposed evaluation scheme of Schematic I are tied to a positive shift in interest in the course. The writer believes that the proposed scheme builds on a feeling of reduced failure potential by the students, resulting in a reduced antipathy toward science. In the absence of a thoroughly controlled experiment, this is a tempting explanation of increased achievement.

      These results are, of course, highly subjective in interpretation, but the writer's strong feeling is that two very important factors are operating. First, the system makes it clear to the students that their grades are not entirely the result of their rote-learning performance as reflected in test grades. Second, the cycle of teaching and testing activities described reduces the feeling of finality and hopelessness attached to any given evaluation.

      The success of these evaluation procedures in stimulating "have-not" students to improve performances has significance for the meaningful science and technology education for these students because of being different by virtue of a vastly different environment and lifestyle from that of the other major population groups.

      No matter what is put in print to ensure that a given science and technology education programme will be executed in such a way as to de-emphasize

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

memorization and emphasize understanding in the context of real problems, if science educators do not sympathize with this approach or understand it, the outcome may not be positive. The most important contribution of science educators must always be their ability to make interpretations, make innovations, invent their own study units, and make them close by adapting to opportunities in their classroom and living environment. They must be inventive in demonstrating examples for an idea from the resources at hand in specific situations.

      Let us think, organize, and strive together as professionals so that our "have-not" (less advantaged) students can discover for themselves the value of logical inquiry, tested intuition, and the general process of innovation for themselves and their community.

      * * *


Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2




This paper is based on a qualitative research study on managerial leadership from a sample of 1000 Indian managers from 12 Indian organizations. Here the author emphatically distinguishes between management and leadership orientation in organizations and argues that the quest for managerial leadership is essentially a transformational journey toward a new identity. This identity, according to the author, stems from the experiential understanding of SELF which is enshrined in classical Indian wisdom. Finally the paper argues that the notion of leadership as a state of consciousness is critical in unravelling the mystery that distinguishes management and leadership functions.

Key Words : Leadership, Self-Conciousness, Organizational Behaviour,  Character Empowerment, Transformational Leadership.


One of the most significant transitions in management thinking in recent years has been a shift in emphasis in the context of managerial leadership from 'management' to 'leadership'. In an article published in Harvard Business Review entitled, "Managers and Leaders: Are They Different?", Abraham Zaleznik highlights a watershed in the conceptual understanding of leadership as a function distinct from that of management (Zaleznik, 1986).

One important dimension of Zaleznik's research finding is that managers tend to adopt impersonal attitudes toward goals whereas leaders bring into play a personal and active attitude while seeking their goals. This represents a turnaround in contemporary scholarship in managerial leadership from a search for leadership traits in the objective world of behavior to the subjective domain of character.

Leadership Issue: From Behaviour to Character

An analysis of some of the findings of major scholars of managerial leadership will reveal to us a continuous spectrum of ideas that deal with the subtle and subjective world of character in leadership. Here are a few excerpts:

A. " Leaders should lead not only through knowledge, competence and skill but through vision, courage, responsibility and integrity". (Drucker, 1955).

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


      One of the most significant transitions in management thinking in recent years has been a shift in emphasis in the context of managerial leadership from 'management' to 'leadership'. In an article published in Harvard Business Review entitled, "Managers and Leaders: Are They Different?", Abraham Zaleznik highlights a watershed in the conceptual understanding of leadership as a function distinct from that of management (Zaleznik, 1986).

      One important dimension of Zaleznik's research finding is that managers tend to adopt impersonal attitudes toward goals whereas leaders bring into play a personal and active attitude while seeking their goals. This represents a turnaround in contemporary scholarship in managerial leadership from a search for leadership traits in the objective world of behavior to the subjective domain of character.

Leadership Issue: From Behaviour to Character

      An analysis of some of the findings of major scholars of managerial leadership will reveal to us a continuous spectrum of ideas that deal with the subtle and subjective world of character in leadership. Here are a few excerpts:

      A. " Leaders should lead not only through knowledge, competence and skill but through vision, courage, responsibility and integrity". (Drucker, 1955).

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

 B. " ... the leader who cannot control himself can never control others. Self control sets a mighty example for one's followers." (Hill, 1958).

      C. "... the leader is responsible for the set of ethics or norms that govern the behavior of people in the organization." (Bennis and Nanus, 1985).

      D. "... leadership that provides pseudo-solutions to pseudo-problems to satisfy pseudo-needs exploiting group fantasies and group delusions is immoral leadership" (Bass, 1985).

      E. " The wise leader models spiritual behavior and lives in harmony with spiritual values. The leader demonstrates the power of selflessness and the unity of all creation." (Heider, 1986).

      F. "...leaders should be reliable. Reliability is a primary sign of the grown up executive" (Crosby, 1990).

      G. "... real leadership power comes from an honorable character." (Covey, 1991).

It will be clearly evident from the above excerpts that there exists a certain consensus among management scholars that leadership reaches beyond the objective and ephemeral functions of day to day management to a more subjective plane of human interaction. This explains the enigma of managerial leadership.

      This also is the reason why a search for a consistent theory of leadership based on objective parameters has eluded the grasp of behavioral scientists.

      In the introduction to a recent issue of The Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, the editor R. E. Kaplan tells us that leadership entails notjust a change of behavior but a more fundamental change in character and identity:

      "Behavioral change certainly has its place in management development. ...But for senior managers to significantly change the way they lead their organizations, behavioral change by itself is often not enough. Instead, some type of change in character or identity is required." (Kaplan, 1990).

The Leadership Quest: A Transformation of Identity

      The quest of leadership is essentially a transformational journey towards

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

a new identity. This paper will attempt to explore the nuances of "transformational leadership" (Bass, 1990) from an Indian perspective. This research is limited to a theoretical and qualitative search in the domain of human values in leadership. However, some quantitative data gathered from a questionnaire survey on leadership among Indian managers have been used to augment the researcher's theoretical standpoint.

      Classical Indian wisdom recognizes that the ultimate quest of leadership is the search for the transcendental SELF. It is this process of transcendence that enables a leader to enter into communion with larger concerns of the organization. For instance, a classical Indian text, the Mundaka Upanishad states:

      'The wise, satisfied with their knowledge of the Self after finding it, with their self -disciplined and prepared, dispassionate and serene enter from here into the omnipresent allness." (III.2.5). Indian thought grapples with the notion of the "spirit of leadership" rather than behavioral traits. To the seers of the Upanishads what is of ultimate value is a radical transformation of the ego-driven self to the spirit-driven SELF. In his interpretation of the wisdom of the Bhagavad Gita, Sri Aurobindo sheds light on transformational leadership:

'The Gita's solution is to rise above our natural being and normal mind, above our intellectual and ethical perplexities into another consciousness with another law of being and therefore another standpoint for our action; where personal desire and personal emotions no longer govern it; where the dualities fall away..." (Aurobindo, 1991).

According to Indian wisdom, what distinguishes leaders from non-leaders are not specific behavior patterns but a more fundamental entity called identity. When a human being's identity crosses the boundaries of ego-centric desires toward a larger aspiration of the human spirit, leadership is a spontaneous outcome. This fact is borne out by research evidences that what subordinates primarily expect of their leaders is not an array of technical skills but such intangible values as trust, ethical rectitude and vision which extend the frontiers of the leader's identity from merely the personal concerns to the larger concern for the community.

Managerial Perception and Leadership In The Indian Organizations

      In a questionnaire survey conducted in 1994 by this researcher among 1000 Indian managers from 12 Indian organizations at the Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta the following facts emerged:

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

1. The respondents were middle and senior level managers and officials from public sector organizations like Indian Oil Corporation, The State Bank of India, The Reserve Bank of India, Gujarat Narmada Fertilizer Corporation; organizations in the private sector like Telco, Jamshedpur, Associated Cement Company, Godrej and Boyce Manufacturing Company and Salora International Limited; multinationals operating in India like Siemens India Limited and Glaxo India Limited; and Government of India departments like College of Defence Management, Secunderabad, Administrative Training Institute, Calcutta.

2. A sample of 1000 valid responses were analyzed for understanding what were those qualitative aspects of leadership thatwere foremost in the minds of Indian managers. The respondents were asked to rank the following 15 leadership attributes and practices in the descending order of priority: Dynamism, Inspiring Character, Impressive personality, Simple lifestyle, Ethical rectitude, Ambitiousness, Excellent verbal communication, Spiritual strength, Assertiveness, Gratitude, Ability to negotiate, Shrewdness, To work for the sake of work, Public visibility and acclaim and Visioning power.

3. The Indian managers ranked the following qualities as the top five requirements of an ideal leader:

i) Dynamism

ii) Inspiring character

iii) Visioning Power

iv) Excellent verbal communication

v) Ethical rectitude

4. Among the last three qualities were:

xiii) Ambitiousness

xiv) To work for the sake of work

xv) Shrewdness

 5. It was clear from the survey as well as from personal interviews of practicing managers and officers that the notion of 'character' in leadership went hand-in-hand with 'dynamism' in determining leader-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

ship effectiveness. An assistant General Manager from Telco, Jamshedpur said "In my opinion a leader, however dynamic and result oriented he maybe, cannot inspire top performance unless he demonstrates a consistent and a humane character." A manager from The State Bank of India commented, "The recent financial scams in India does indicate to me that although character in corporate leadership has degenerated in recent times, it is still the most valued element in leadership." A colonel from the Indian Army when asked, if he were to chose between a dynamic leader and a leader with a good character, reflected for a while and said, 'These two are not mutually exclusive qualities and a commanding officer with a good character can motivate and infuse greater dynamism in the ranks by personal example."

      6. From the classical psychological perspective of Vedanta, the ideal leadership model of India tended to be a blend of sattwik and rajasik qualities. While inspiring character, visioning power and ethical rectitude represent sattwik qualities, dynamism and excellent verbal communication can be classified as predominandy rajasik qualities. Although the element of dynamism is the most preferred leadership attribute according to a significant number of respondents, it is clear from the interviews that managers tended to qualify the word' dynamism' as illumined and values-based dynamism and not the dynamism propelled by greed and personal ambition. Many managers tended to blame the corporate and political scandals in the nineteen nineties as a fall out of the speed and greed syndrome of the leadership in the context of a liberalized Indian economy.

      7. Surprisingly, ambitiousness and shrewdness are not considered as leadership virtues by the respondents. These two qualities were among the least preferred elements in the perception of the managers. When asked what she meant by the expression 'ambitiousness', a civil services officer of the West Bengal cadre said that she meant, "pursuit of personal goals at the expense of the organization." Clearly, ambition meant 'personal ambition' for her and for most of the respondents— and this was something, which was unforgivable in a leader. The quality of shrewdness was equated with 'manipulative prowess'. Shrewdness also meant,' lack of transparency'. One respondent from Siemens Ltd. said "although shrewdness could be a good managerial skill, in the Indian context it is unlikely to be valued very much in a leader."

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

The quality of work for the sake of work, which was a literal translation of nishkama karma—an expression from the classical work—psychology of Vedanta, was not found to be preferred as a leadership quality. Most respondents misunderstood the expression 'To work for the sake of work" as plain laziness, although the expression was intended to convey the sense of "work done without the craving of ego or personal ambition." Apparently, the researcher was not able to clearly state what he intended to convey through the expression, 'To work for the sake of work."

Classical Indian Wisdom : Leading By The Self

      From our research, it was evident that leadership in the Indian context is more of an intrinsic quality rather than a measurable and quantifiable extrinsic behaviour. A key component of leadership quality, which emerged from this study is that an ideal leader was someone who was able to influence the members of the organization by leading at least a moral, if not a spiritual life. In this, the managerial perception of leadership in India is not entirely incongruent with the broad notion of 'influence' that characterize, the standard definition of leadership in behavioural sciences textbooks. To quote from Stephen P. Robbins' book:

Organization Behaviour:

      "While almost everyone seems to agree that leadership involves an influence process, differences tend to center around whether leadership must be non-coercive., .and whether it is distinct from management." (Robbins, 1994).

      The classical Indian understanding of leadership influence is based on the foundations of self-discipline and an inner spiritual quest. In the' Shantiparva of the Indian epic Mahabharatawe get a glimpse of the ideal leader (king): 'That king... who is free from malice, who has his senses under control, and who is gifted with intelligence, thrives in affluence like the ocean swelling with the waters discharged into it by a hundred streams." (Ganguly, 1981). Sri Aurobindo, interprets the notion of leadership influence as an inner quest for the higher Self which has been enshrined in Vedantic literature as the ultimate destiny of human development:

      'The men who prided themselves that great events were their work, because they seemed to have an initial hand in them, go down into the trench of.... The greatness of individuals is the greatness of the eternal Energy within." (Aurobindo, 1974).

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

The perennial Indian quest in leadership has been a quest for the highest principle in human nature rather than a search for the highest personality. Swami Vivekananda states this unequivocally in one of his writings:

      'The masses will always have the person; the higher ones the principle. We

      want both. But principles are universal, not persons. Therefore stick to

      principles." (Vivekananda,The Complete Works 1959). The Upanishads describe the ultimate universal principle that inhere in all human beings as the transcendental self or the SELF.

      Indian wisdom has always conceived the leadership journey in terms of a search for the SELF. According to the Upanishads the principle characteristic of the SELF is wholeness or poornatwa. Wholeness is not graspable by the senses and behavioural traits alone: it is acquired by a radical transformation of the nature and the character of the empirical self. How does one bring about this transformation? The Taittiriya Upanishad enumerates some methods by which the SELF can be realized. They are:

      1. Ritam (righteousness)

      2. Satyam (truthfulness)

      3. Tapasya (meditation)

      4. Dama (discipline of the senses)

      5. Sama (discipline of the organs of perception)

      6. Swadhyay (learning about the self) (Verse 1.9.1)

      Of these methods, the Taittiriya Upanishad emphasizes, swadhyay, or self-learning as of utmost value in SELF realization. Leadership in the classical Indian context is indistinguishable from continuous process of learning. This learning entails the progressive evolution of the leader's identity from a fragmented body-mind-senses self to the spiritual wholeness of being. The leader is, therefore, primarily a state of being (consciousness) and only then an agent of doing (executive functions).

      The Indian model of leadership is that of the rajarshi, a combination of the illumined consciousness of the rishi or sage and the action orientation of the raja, or the king (Chakraborty, 1995). The Sanskrit expression rishi, translates as "seer of the whole."

      The rishi consciousness represents the wholeness of the SELF. From the standpoint of this wholeness, the executive and managerial actions of leader-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

ship assume the qualities of perfection and harmony. A key leadership function, that of bringing harmony among several diverse groups in organization, is ideally served by the rajarshi model of leadership. The notion of Karmayoga of the Bhagavad Gita is a crystallization of the Indian model of leadership whose essence is illumined dynamism: "Change your being, be reborn into the spirit and by that new birth proceed with the action to which the spirit within has appointed you." (Sri Aurobindo, Message of the Gita, 1977).

      Leadership as a state of consciousness

      A leader who has embraced the SELF is spontaneously able to lead his followers. His spontaneity comes from the experience of one-ness with his followers through whom the same consciousness runs its course. The leader-follower relationship is therefore one of unity of consciousness. The Sanskrit word for this isekatmanubhuti. Leadership and followership become one entity in the state of ekatmanubhuti. They merge in the common ground of the unity of consciousness—SELF is another name for this unity. Ekatmanubhuti is the source of the leader's power and influence.

      Empowering leadership is a conscious process of building capacity in an organization. As the German poet Goethe once said: "If you treat an individual as he is, he will remain as he is. But if you treat him as if he were what he ought to be and could be, he will become what he ought to be and could be."

      Ekatmanubhuti also fosters the ability to discover potential within an individual and to allow this potential to become a fire of inspiration for pursuing the organizational goal. Leadership facilitates the conscious evolution of the follower's capacity for action. On the other hand, it is also an evolution of consciousness. Bill Gates, CEO of Microsoft is a prime example of what a conscious leader is. About his leadership style, he says:

      "You don't just think about what a company does and try to do it faster. You want to empower somebody like a product manager to be able to digest more things. Why do you have meetings? Well, the top executive has more data than other people, so he has to have meetings to share his data. What if everybody had the same data and had a better way to look at it? Would you need as many meetings, as many levels of management? May be not." (Fortune, Vol.121, March 1990).

      Consciousness is therefore the edge that separates the mediocre from the heroic. This consciousness is the gateway to the SELF and passport to the ultimate leadership possibility. Gandhi, talking about the enlightened leader

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

said, 'There comes a time when an individual becomes irresistible and his action becomes all-pervasive in its effect." (Fischer, 1962).

      When Buddha was asked whether he was a human being, an angel or a God, he replied, "I am just conscious." (Smith, 1991).

      The Vedantic psychology tells us that the ultimate source of human consciousness is a centre of bliss. The Sanskrit word for this state is ananda. It is a state of absolute stillness amidst the wild turmoil of life. Ananda is not an other-worldly state. We have all experienced it sometime or the other. A basketball player in championship form finds that centre of quietude from which all his actions flow flawlessly. So does the star manager and the star musician. The leader who has had a revelation of this state of consciousness finds the secret of his peak performance.

      It is from the conception of leadership as a state of consciousness that we can unravel the mystery that distinguishes management and leadership functions. This mystery is nothing but the enigma of consciousness. A manager who merely is an executive and a bottom-line performer, without the salvaging quality of consciousness, ceases to be a leader. Corporate life is replete with examples of predominantly rajasik, go-getting managers who in pursuit of their own ambitions, miss and dismiss their relationship with the organizations at large. Such ivory-tower performers become poor team members. They hardly ever become conscious leaders.      

Leadership and Values : Toward Virtuous Reality

      Exploration of the deep structure of the leadership process in the context of Indian organizations yielded to us a strong normative focus of Indian managers while they described the qualities of an effective leader. "A leader should be seen to be honest", "He ought to be unbiased", "He must be ethically above-board", were some of the recurring comments of the managers studied in the research survey. The following column describes the shift in managerial perspective on leadership from management to leadership orientation:

      Management Orientation                                                                            Leadership Orientation

      Strong work-ethic                                                                                         Strong ethics in work

      Predominantly skills-based                                                                            Primarily values -based

      Motivated by love for power                                                                         Inspired by power of love

      Disciplined by organizational control                                                              Relies on self-discipline

      Effective communication                                                                                Authentic communication

      Personality-centred                                                                                       Principles-centred

      Focussed on appropriate behaviour                                                               Focussed on Character

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

To elaborate further on the above distinctions, it is evident from our research study that managerial work relies heavily on a strong work-ethic and delivering of end results. Whereas, a leader is as much focussed on end results as he is on the means employed for achieving it. Thus, doing the right thing is of as much concern to the leader as doing the thing right. This is what distinguishes managerial work (where ethics is secondary) from leadership work where ethics is of primarily value (Chakraborty, 1993).

      It is also evident from the managerial responses that leadership functions revolve around certain core values like 'honesty', 'impartiality' 'ethical correctness' and 'dynamism'. On the other hand attributes of an effective manager tends to get clustered around such descriptions as, 'job-knowledge', 'communication-skills', 'ability to work in teams' etc. Thus managerial work tends to get defined by objective and tangible parameters whereas leadership work revolve around more subjective and normative parameters.

      'Power' is an important ingredient of leadership work. Stephen P. Robbins describes the concept of power in the following words, "Power refers to a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B, so that B does something he or she would not otherwise do." (Robbins, 1994). Our research study however shows that this definition of power is more appropriate to managerial work rather than leadership work. A manager is driven by his love of power that designation and status bestows on him. In this sense managerial motivation is predominantly extrinsic. A leader is not altogether immune to this love of power. However, the ideal leader, according to our respondents' perception, wields power by appealing to the heart of the followers rather than through coercive methods. He accomplishes through the power of love what cannot be done by mere love for power.

      The issue of discipline in the context of leadership points toward inner discipline in thought and deed. Whereas a manager is regulated more by external control system consisting of organizational rules and procedures; the leader relies more on the intrinsic virtue of anushasana or intrinsic discipline. The locus of control, in the case of a leader's discipline shifts to a more subjective plane of character and conduct.

      The managerial obsession with effective communication is not as important in the case of leadership as authentic communication is. When Gandhi was asked to communicate a message for people of the United States, he said, "My life is its own message." Authentic communication demands a one-ness of intent and content of speech and a synchronization of what the leader says and how he lives. As a senior manager in ACC Limited commented, 'The leader

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

must walk the talk." For an ideal leader, authentic communication seems to be the foundation of effective communication.

      Yet another finding of the study was that leaders unlike managers tended to be more principles-centred rather than personality-centred. An Indian Administrative Services Officer and the Director of the Administrative Training Institute of the Government of West Bengal said, 'The leader cannot afford to be personality centred as he has to get along with many different personalities. He would much rather be a stickler for a set of principles. He can be a better leader that way."

      The ultimate value of leadership is not positional but relational, as our study shows. Russi Mody, India's most charismatic corporate leader, believes that the leader's main source of strength lies in human relationships. He says, 'The Bible is the only book on modern management that I have read. The Bible contains the wisdom of the Ten Commandments. Two of the commandments are: A) Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. B) Love thy neighbour as thyself.... It is a philosophy on which good industrial relations can be built, good personnel management can be practised and excellent human relations developed." Russi Mody's words epitomise the search for virtuous reality in leadership in the Indian context.


      1. Zaleznik, A. Excerpts from "Managers and Leaders: Are They Different?" Harvard Business Review, May-June, 1986.

      2. Drucker, Peter F. The Practice of Management. New York: Harper and Row, 1955.

      3. Hill, Napoleon. Think and Grow Each. Greenwich: Fawcet Publishing Inc., 1958..

      4. Bennis, Warren and Burt Nanus. Leaders. New York: Harper and Row, 1985.

      5. Bass, Bernard. Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press, 1985.

      6. Heider, John. The Tao of Leadership. New York: Bantam Books, 1986.

      7. Crosby, Philip. Leading. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1990.

      8. Covey, Stephen R. Principle Centered Leadership. London: Simon and Schuster, 1991.

      9. Kaplan, R.E. "Introduction", The Journal of Applied Behavioral Sdewce5, Vol.26, No. 4, pp. 417-18.

      10. Radhakrishnan, S. The Principal Upanishads. London: George Allen and Unwin Limited, 1953.

      11. Sri Aurobido. "Right Attitude in Work", quoted in All India Magazine. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Society, April 1991.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

12. Robbins, Stephen P. Organizational Behavior. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1994.

      13 Ganguly, KM. The Mahabharata New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1981, p. 202.

      14 Sri Aurobindo; The Ideal of the Karmayogin. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1974, p.60.

      15. Swami Vivekananda; The Complete Works. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama, 1959, Vol. VI, p. 268

      16. Taittiriya Upanishad. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama, 1980, p. 30.

      17 Chakraborty, S.K. Ethics in Management. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995 p. 151.

      18 Sri Aurobindo; The Message of the Gita. Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1977.

      19 Fischer, Louis (Editor). The Essential Gandhi. New York: Vintage Books, 1962

      20 Smith, Houston. The World's Religions. New York: Harper San Francisco, 1991.

      21 Chakraborty, S.K. Management by Values. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993, p. 164.

      22. Robbins, Stephen P. op. cit., p. 407.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2




The Islamic concept of ethics or moral philosophy, known in Arabic Islamic literature as Al-Adab or Ilm-al- Akhlaq, is closely associated with its concept of man and his relationship with God. He is viceregent of Allah on the planet earth. Being vicegerent of Allah is a big responsibility which other creatures refused to bear.

      Islam is in tune with Judaism and Christianity in that it believes that Allah (SWT) has created man in his own image. This bestows on man a very high status which other creatures are deprived of. Man's high status is not only due to his being created in the best form (Al-Quran 95:4) but also because he has been endowed with faculties which enable him to hear, see or feel the reality and distinguish between the wrong and the right.

      Islamic ethics can be defined as a science or moral philosophy that teaches how to distinguish between good and evil or how to deal with one another and what should one adopt or avoid in life. In simple words, the moral philosophy of Islam is a code of life, a set of codes and behaviours that regulate man's life in the mundane world.

      It ought to be clarified here that Islamic ethics acts as a vehicle of guidance, and does not compel one to compulsorily follow the straight path that it prescribes for good living. Its job is to show the straight path and warn of the consequences of evil; it is the duty of man to adopt either of the two, good or evil and hope for reward or be ready to face punishment. "No person is responsible for the guilt of another; to every person belongs (the merit or demerit of) what he has wrought," says the Holy Quran. (53:38-39)

      Islamic ethics believes that it is ingrained in human nature to look at things from the perspective of their being good or bad. Man either likes or dislikes things that he comes across. Moreover, man's perception of good and evil is strikingly similar. It is a common day observation that human conscience usually condemns a few things as evil and appreciates others as good. There might be individual who think the vice versa but such exceptions only improve the universality of the rule. As a result, we see that by and large the mankind has always liked and appreciated good values such as truth, justice and honesty and has never lauded evil, lies, injustice and dishonesty as desirable values. We also see that promise-keeping, sympathy, generosity, large-heartedness, patience, forbearance, bravery, chivalry, broad-mindedness and being resolute in adversities are the virtues which men generally like and do not appreciate their counterparts in evil.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

It is obvious that the values mentioned above are universally acknowledged; and in all stages of known human history they have been the same. This is the reason that the Holy Quran has described them as Maroof and Munkar, things which people have known as good or bad in all ages. The Holy Quran also says that man is usually endowed with faculties which help him to easily recognize and distinguish the good from the bad. This, then, also proves beyond doubt why some virtues, and also certain evils, are universally acknowledged realities, and hence easily recognizable.

      Here the question arises if good and evil are universally known and man has the innate capacity to distinguish between them why there exist differences among the moral philosophies of the world? The reason is that mankind has different worldviews, perspectives and ways of life. The question of emphasis on a particular value is also involved here. The people's criterion to judge or create balance between various values is also different. Then they also differ as to how the values are to be implemented in individual and collective lives. Given the diversity of world population such differences are not unnatural, specially when we see that they have different views about God, the universe and man's place in it.

      Islam believes in strict, uncompromising monotheism. This belief is central to all the concepts that Islam has developed. From it has sprung the Islamic concept about the unity of mankind; it is also the source of Islam's concept of man, his place in the universe and his relationship with the Creator. Islam believes that Allah (SWT) is the Creator and Administrator of the universe and man is His vicegerent on earth. It is, therefore, natural, even essential, for men to obey Allah's commands and desist from what He has forbidden. He must feel that his life is not a sport; he would be responsible for all his omissions and commissions. This is the Islamic concept of the life hereafter. It means that the world we live in is not our permanent abode; it is emphemeral and a place of trial for men. A Day of Reckoning or Judgement will come at the end of the world when all human beings will be questioned about their deeds and misdeeds, and would be rewarded or punished accordingly. This concept plays a vital role in character building of the Muslims.

      The Islamic concept of universe, man and the life hereafter help in determining the moral purpose of life. This persuades and encourages men to try to achieve what should be the real goal of his life. That goal, according to the Holy Quran, is worshiping or seeking the pleasure of Allah. Seeking Allah's pleasure or worshipping Him is both a goal as well as a criterion. This helps in determining whether a particular act is morally good or bad. This gives life a purpose in the light of which man is able to develop a moral code for himself. This also gives man a set of permanent moral values which transcend time and space and act as a beacon to guide and lead our lives on the right path.

      The Holy Quran accords a great deal of importance to reason. That man should think over what he is, why he has been created, how he should behave, how should he spend his life and where ultimately he has to go or end up. That he also must try to know what is morally good for him which would please his Creator. If man thinks

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

continuously and moves in the right direction, he might fnd the truth. But there is also the possibility that he might go astray. Likewise, man is capable of developing a moral code by employing his mental and intellectual faculties. However, the possibility of making errors also exists. Keeping in view man's limitations Allah (SWT) has given the mankind the Holy Quran which the Prophet (Pbuh) interpreted through his deeds and sayings. Islam, therefore, recognizes the Quran and Sunnah as the main fountain-head of its moral philosophy. As a result we see that the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet (Pbuh) have given mankind a comprehensive moral code to guide them in their individual as well as collective lives.

      Islam is a social religion; it believes in fashioning a socio-political order that would try to implement the desirable moral code in the society. But it does not rely on this external agency only; it also tries to discipline men from within through its concept of Aahhirah, the life hereafter. It tells people that their Creator sees all their actions all the time. He can even see through people's intentions, minds and hearts and has the power to reward or punish them according to their good or bad deeds. Thus the Islamic concept of Aakhirah, the promise of paradise and the warning ahout the fire of hell, persuasively urge people to obey their God and lead an exemplary moral life.

      The inner urge of man to act correctly is the most distinguishing feature, even the pinnacle, of the moral philosophy of Islam. Another feature of Islamic ethics is its balance as well as permanence. Permanence does not mean that the moral philosophy of Islam is static and the door of improvement has been shut on it. It means that people are not free to change it according to their whims and wishes. The moral principles of Islam are usually derived from the Holy Quran and the Sunnahand they discipline human existence for his own benefit. Finally, the moral philosophy of Islam is comprehensive. It covers the entire spectrum of human existence from its cultural to political aspects. The Holy Quran, the Sunnah of the Prophet and the Muslim thinkers such as Al-Ghazali and Ibn Miskawayh have discussed in detail a large number of moral virtues and characteristics which Islam holds in high esteem. It would appear that the desirable values that Islamic ethics tries to develop in men are related either with inter-person relationship or man's dealings with fellow human beings. It may also be noted that the Islamic ethics strives to inculcate those virtues which Allah (SWT) likes very much. For example, God is compassionate and, therefore, it is desirable for men to be compassionate towards fellow human beings or fellow believers. A saying of the Prophet is worth quoting here:

Do not envy one another; do not inflate prices ...; do not hate one

another; do not turn away from one another; and do not undercut one

another, but be you, O servants of God, brothers...

      The Holy Quran, too, has discussed many a good characteristics that men should espouse. The purpose of the ethics that Islam has developed is to create a morally responsible man who would be good to himself to fellow human beings, to the world he lives in and to God who created him.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


The Islamic concept of ethics or moral philosophy, known in Arabic-Islamic literature as Al-Adab or Ilm-al- Akhlaq, is closely associated with its concept of man and his relationship with God. He is vicegerent of Allah on the planet earth. Being vicegerent of Allah is a big responsibility which other creatures refused to bear. Says the Holy Quran:

      We offered our trust to the heavens, the earth and the mountains, but they refused to carry it and were frightened by its burden. However, man accepted to carry it. (33:72)

What is the divine trust that the mighty creatures were frightened to shoulder? A proper answer to this question is essential, for it would explain, in large measure, the Islamic concept of ethics. A great modern Islamic writer, Prof. Ismail Raji al Farooqi, has explained Allah's trust to man as follows:

The divine trust is the fulfilment of the ethical part of the divine will, whose very nature requires that it be realized in freedom, and man is the only creature capable of doing so. Whenever the divine will is realized with the necessity of natural law, the realization is not moral, but elemental or utilitarian. Only man is capable of realizing it under the possibility of doing or not doing so at all, or doing the very opposite or anything in between. It is this exercise of human freedom regarding obedience to God's commandment that makes fulfilment of the command moral.1

From the above passage it is also clear that man has been created with a purpose; indeed all the creatures including the universe have a purpose. The Holy Quran says:

      We have not created heaven and earth and all that is between them in sport. (21:16)

Another holy verse has directly addressed the mankind:

      Do you think, O men, that We have created you in vain? That your return is not to Us? (23:115)

The following verse clearly describes the purpose of man's creation:

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

 I have not created the Jinn and man (or mankind) but to serve Me (51*56)

Islam is in tune with Judaism and Christianity in that it believes that Allah (SWT) has created man in his own image.2 This bestows on man a very high status which other creatures are deprived of. Man's high status is not only due to his being created in the best form (Al-Quran 95:4) but also because he has been endowed with faculties which enable him to hear, see or feel the reality and distinguish between the wrong and right. Says the Holy Quran:

      But Allah fashioned him (man) in due proportion, and breathed into him of His spirit. And He created (or gave) you (the faculties ot) hearing, sight and (discerning) heart. Little do you thank (Allah). (32:9)

Being gracious and merciful Allah (SWT) did not stop here; knowing well the nature of His best creature He also made arrangement for his continuous guidance through His prophets and scriptures. The Muslim faith is that the Holy Quran is Allah's final message to humanity.

      It would be appropriate here to explain in brevity what it means to be a believing and practising Muslim Ummah. The Holy Quran has defined the status of the Muslim Ummah as follows:

      You are the best of peoples, evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong. (3: 110)

Clearly the Ummah's status of being the best of people is conditioned with how long itfulfils its divine duty? In another similarverse of the same Surah (chapter 3) Allah (SWT) says that at least a group of Muslims must call people to what is right and impress upon them to desist from what is wrong. The two terms,MarooJ'and Munkar (translated as right and wrong respectively) are important here. They, in fact, cover the whole spectrum of ethics or moral philosophy of Islam This is the reason that both the Holy Quran and the sayings of the Prophet (Pbuh) have explained the ethical aspect of Islam at numerous places in a variety of ways. Precisely for the same reason the Muslim jurists and classical as well as modern scholars such as Al-Ghazali, Ibn Miskawayh and Maududihave also written abundantly on this subject. Writes Prof. A.R. Momin:

 The moral code... makes a distinction between what is right and desirable (Maroof) and what is wrong and undesirable (Munkar). The former include piety, compassion, patience, charity, altruism, moderation and the like. The wrong and the forbidden

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

include oppression, pride, jealousy, deceit, hypocrisy, dishonesty, malice and the like.4

Islamic ethics, therefore, can be defined as a science or moral philosophy that teaches how to distinguish between good and evil or how to deal with one another and what should one adopt or avoid in life. In simple words, the moral philosophy of Islam is a code of life, a set of codes and behaviours that regulate man's life in the mundane world.

      It ought to be clarified here that Islamic ethics acts as a vehicle of guidance, and does not compel one to compulsorily follow the straight path that it prescribes for good living. Its job is to show the straight path and warn of the consequences of evil; it is the duty of man to adopt either of the two, good or evil and hope for reward or be ready to face punishment. "No person is responsible for the guilt of another; to every person belongs (the merit or demerit of) what he has wrought," says the Holy Quran. (53:38-39)

      Islamic ethics believes that it is ingrained in human nature to look at things from the perspective of their being good or bad. Man either likes or dislikes things that he comes across. Moreover, man's perception of good and evil is strikingly similar. It is a common day observation that human conscience usually condemns a few things as evil and appreciates others as good. There might be individuals who think the vice versa but such exceptions only improve the universality of the rule. As a result, we see that by and large the mankind has always liked and appreciated good values such as truth, justice and honesty and has never lauded evil, lies, injustice and dishonesty as desirable values. We also see that promise-keeping, sympathy, generosity, large-heartedness, patience, forbearance, bravery, chivalry, broad-mindedness and being resolute in adversities are the virtues which men generally like and do not appreciate their counterparts in evil.

      It is obvious that the values mentioned above are universally acknowledged; and in all stages of known human history they have been the same. This is the reason that the Holy Quran has described them as Maroof and Munkar, things which people have known as good or bad in all ages. The Holy Quran also says that man is usually endowed with faculties which help him to easily recognize and distinguish the good from the bad. These basic faculties, according to the Quran, are as follows:

      Have We not created for him his eyes (to see)? His tongue and lips (to speak) ? Have We not given him his orientation between the path of righteousness and that of evil. (90: 8-10)

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

The Quranic term, Najdayn, means the two highways which we have translated as paths of righteousness and evil, for this is what it really means. The same above theme has been described in the following verse also:

      He (Allah) has put in her (human soul the capacity to know about) its rightness

In simple words it means that the man has the basic capacity to know and distinguish between right and wrong. This, then, also proves beyond doubtwhy some virtues, and also certain evils, are universally acknowledged realities, and hence easily recognizable.

      Here the question arises if good and evil are universally known and man has the innate capacity to distinguish between them why there exist differences among the moral philosophies of the world? The reason is that mankind has different worldviews, perspectives and ways of life. The question of emphasis on a particular value is also involved here. The people's criterion to judge or create balance between various values is also different. Then they also differ as to how the values are to be implemented in individual and collective lives? Given the diversity of world population such differences are not unnatural, specially when we see that they have different views about God, the universe and man's place in it.

      Islam believes in strict, uncompromising monotheism. This belief is central to all the concepts that Islam has developed. From it has sprung the Islamic concept about the unity of mankind; it is also the source of Islam's concept of man, his place in the universe and his relationship with the Creator. Islam believes that Allah (SWT) is the Creator and Administrator of the universe and man is His vicegerent on earth. It is, therefore, natural, even essential, for men to obey Allah's commands and desist from what He has forbidden. He must feel that his life is not a sport; he would be responsible for all his omissions and commissions. This is the Islamic concept of the life hereafter. It means that the world we live in is not our permanent abode; it is emphemeral and a place of trial for men. A Day of Reckoning or Judgement will come at the end of the world when all human beings will be questioned about their deeds and misdeeds, and would be rewarded or punished accordingly. This concept plays a vital role in character building of the Muslims:

      The Islamic concept of universe, man and the life hereafier help in determining the moral purpose of life. This persuades and encourages men to try to achieve what should be the real goal of his life. That goal, according to the Holy Quran, is worshipping or seeking the pleasure of Allah. Seeking

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Allah's pleasure or worshipping Him is both a goal as well as a criterion. This helps in determining whether a particular act is morally good or bad. This gives life a purpose in the light of which man is able to develop a moral code for himself. This also gives man a set of permanent moral values which transcend time and space and act as a beacon to guide and lead our lives on the right path.

      The Holy Quran accords a great deal of importance to reason. That man should think over what he is, why he has been created, how he should behave, how should he spend his life and where ultimately he has to go or end up. That he also must try to know what is morally good for him which would please his Creator. If man thinks continuously and moves in the right direction, he might find the truth. But there is also the possibility that he might go astray. Likewise, man is capable of developing a moral code by employing his mental and intellectual faculties. However, the possibility of making errors also exists. Keeping in view man's limitations Allah (SWT) has given the mankind the Holy Quran which the Prophet (Pbuh) interpreted through his deeds and sayings. Islam, therefore, recognizes the Quran and the Sunnah as the main fountain-head of its moral philosophy. As a result we see that the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet (Pbuh) have given mankind a comprehensive moral code to guide them in their individual as well as collective lives.

      Islam is a social religion; it believes in fashioning a socio-political order that would try to implement the desirable moral code in the society. But it does not rely on this external agency only; it also tries to discipline men from within through its concept of Aakhirah, the life hereafter. It tells people that their Creator sees all their actions all the time. He can even see through people's intentions, minds and hearts and has the power to reward or punish them according to their good or bad deeds. Thus the Islamic concept of Aakhirah, the promise of paradise and the warning about the fire of hell, persuasively urge people to obey their God and lead an exemplary moral life.

      The inner urge of man to act correctly is the most distinguishing feature, even the pinnacle, of the moral philosophy of Islam. Another feature of Islamic ethics is its balance as well as permanence. Permanence does not mean that the moral philosophy of Islam is static and the door of improvement has been shut on it. It means that people are not free to change it according to their whims and wishes. The moral principles of Islam are usually derived from the Holy Quran and the Sunnahand they discipline human existence for his own benefit. Finally, the moral philosophy of Islam is comprehensive. It covers the entire spectrum of human existence from its cultural to political aspects. The Holy Quran, the Sunnah of the Prophet and the Muslim thinkers such as Al-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Ghazali and Ibn Miskawayh have discussed in detail a large number of moral virtues and characteristics which Islam holds in high esteem. It would appear that the desirable values that Islamic ethics tries to develop in men are related either with inter-person relationship or man's dealings with fellow human beings. It may also be noted that the Islamic ethics strives to inculcate those virtues which Allah (SWT) likes very much. For example, God is compassionate and, therefore, it is desirable for men to be compassionate towards fellow human beings or fellow believers. A saying of the Prophet is worth quoting here:

      Do not envy one another; do not inflate prices...; do not hate one another; do not turn away from one another; and do not undercut one another, but be you, O servants of God, brothers...5

      The Holy Quran, too, has discussed many a good characteristics that men should espouse. It is not possible here to discuss all these, however, some important moral values of Islam are outlined below:


1. Wisdom: Allah (SWT) is Hakeem, Full of Wisdom, Wise, and He likes His best creature, the man, to fully develop this quality in him. Al-Ghazali has placed wisdom on top of the moral chart, and he is right because without it man would become a mediocre creature. It is wisdom that leads man to the right path and enables him to develop all other morally desirable values in him.

2. Patience and Forbearance: Sabr or patience is one of the most important virtues that Islam wants to develop in its followers. Compared to 'patience' (the term) the Sabrof the Holy Quran has a wider meaning. It is not just being patient in difficult situations; in Quranic parlance it means to bear all sort of pangs and difficulties in the way of Allah; to uphold and propagate truth resolutely and face the consequences whatever they might be. At one place the Holy Quran has described Sabr as a source of strength:

      Seek help (or strength) from Sabr (patience) and Salat prayer. (2:45)

3. Truth and Love of Truth: Being truthful is highly desirable in Islam. One must speak the truth in all circumstances. A saying of the Prophet (Pbuh) has it that speaking truth before a cruel king is the best of Jihad.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Being truthful is more than just speaking the truth; it means the truthfulness of heart and intention which should also reflect in actions. That there should be no difference or contradiction between man's action and intention, between his inner and outer selves or that his actions must be in full harmony and agreement with what he has in his heart and mind. Such a man has been called Sadiq (singular of Sadiqun) in the Holy Quran. (49:15; 59: 8)

4. Justice: Justice, Adl or Mizan, occupies a high place in the ethical teachings of Islam. God is just in His dealings with man and likes him to be just in his behaviours, dealings and relationship with fellow human beings. At several places the Holy Quran has explained that God sent prophets and (revealed) books in order to enable men to establish justice. Read the following verses:

a) We sent our messengers with evident (truth); We revealed to them the Book and the balance (Mizan, i.e. the criterion of justice) so that the people may establish justice (on earth, or may stand byjustice). (57: 25)

b) We have sent down to you (Muhammad) the book in truth that you may mete out justice to the people according to His revealed criteria (4:105).

c) ... And judge between them (0 Muhammad) by what Allah has revealed to you... (5:49).

The Muslim scholars, in view of the above verses, have concluded that justice, in a sense, is an extension of truthfulness. It means that a truthful man is bound to be just. Practising justice is ethically and Islamically required in all circumstances whether it goes against one's kith and kin, hurts the rich, antagonizes the privileged or even causes harm to the poor and the marginalized.

5. Honesty: Closely associated with truthfulness is also honesty; many would perhaps say that honesty is a form of truthfulness. In Islamic ethics, honesty implies to fulfil the rights of Allah as well as of man with utmost sincerity. To advise someone with sincerity is also a kind of honesty and so are thinking about the welfare of or doing good to the people.

6. Forgiveness: To forgive is a major attribute of Allah (SWT) which He also likes to see in men, particularly in those people who believe in His

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

oneness and lordship. In simple words, it means not to take revenge from the person who has wronged you. In a sense, it is a moral code evolved for individuals which would not apply to the socio-political order of Islam.

7. Rivadari (Tolerance): One wonders what is the English equivalent of this Urdu term, Rivadari because 'tolerance' does not capture its whole meaning. In a sense, it is similar to forgiveness and means that one should avoid many an irritating nuisance, ignore small mistakes or misdeeds and wish for or seek the welfare of all in mutual relationships. Rivadarithus, promotes brotherhood in a given human society, a value which Islam holds in high esteem.

8. Ihsan (sympathy): Sympathy is near to Ihsan but does not convey its full meaning. It means that one should seek good for fellow human beings and behave or deal in such a way that benefits the concerned persons or the humanity. Ihsan can be practised in many ways, for example, to financially help the needy and the relatives. To deliver a person from miseries, to pay more than the due or being generous—are also called Ihsan in Islam.

9. Equality: this is one of the most fundamental social teachings of Islam. Muslim scholars have explained equality both in legal and social terms. Legal equality obviously means that all people are equal before law. In Islam, there is one and the same law for every one whether he is a slave or a master, poor or rich, educated or illiterate and officer or an ordinary subject. It also means that all people have equal opportunities to develop themselves, economically, educationally, even intellectually.

By social equality Islam means that the places, where people gather for any kind of interaction, should be open for all and no discrimination of any kind against anybody would be permitted. For example, in the mosque no one should be treated as superior to others; even in mundane social gatherings the Islamic principle of equality should reign supreme and admit of no privilege based on caste, community, race, language and the like. The following verse of the Holy Quran is the guiding principle of equality:

      O mankind, We have created you male and female (or from one pair of man and woman). We have constituted you into peoples

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

and tribes that you may know one another. Noblest among you in the eye of Allah is the most righteous (49:13).

      In his speech at the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet (Pbuh) also highlighted the significance of equality in Islam when he said that no Arab would have superiority over the non-Arabs and viceversa.

10. Brotherhood: Islam believes in human brotherhood. As all men and women have descended from a single pair, they are a natural brotherhood. This brotherhood becomes more desirable among the people who embrace Islam. This is not parochialism but a natural social development. Faith has always been an integrating social agent and Islam is no exception. Islam wants its followers first to develop a strong brotherhood among themselves that cares for all and creates a healthy environment for a harmonious, prosperous and happy living together. This Islamic brotherhood is, then, extended to the entire humanity. That it is binding upon a true believing Muslim to work for the welfare of the whole mankind.

Brotherhood, Ukhuwah in Arabic, puts a great deal of emphasis on inter-person relationship. That a man should do what promotes brotherhood, mutual love, respect, cooperation and avoid things that create cleavage, tension, hatred, enmity and the like so that a healthy, harmonious and civilized social order comes into existence for the welfare of all and sundry.

11. Neighbourliness: Islam puts a great deal of emphasis on the rights of the neighbours; a good number of sayings and practices of the Prophet (Pbuh) bear testimony to it. The Prophet is reported to have said: "He who is not good to his neighbours is not from us." It means that a good Muslim is one who behaves well with his neighbour, helps him if he is poor, sides with him when he is in need and takes care of him when he is unwell or suffering from a disease.


Both the Holy Quran and the traditions of the Prophet (Pbuh) have recorded moral evils which, when found in a man, disfigure his personality. These vices are: false pride, vanity, miserliness, back-biting, speaking lies, bigotry, narrow-heartednessjealousy, promise-breaking, bribery, hoarding, fraud, oppression

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

(of others), prejudice (of all kinds), practising injustice, dishonesty and the like. A few of these vices merit a discussion, for they not only corrupt individuals but also the whole society.

1. Greed: Three kinds of greed are dangerous: the greed for wealth, the greed for position and authority, and the greed for popularity. The greed or love of wealth is a dangerous moral disease which is hard to cure. And yet most people are mad after it and lose in the process such precious things as peace of mind and heart.

The greed for government and state is equally insatiable. Man's desire to rule over others has always caused bloodshed, pillage, destruction and rape of women. Further, this greed has been behind most of the bloody wars fought in human history. This encourages men to seek superiority over others through armed intervention, aggression and invasion which frequently disturb the world peace. Allah (SWT) does not like such people who seek domination over others. Says the Holy Quran:

      This home of the hereafter We have made for those who do not seek high-handedness (domination) or mischief on earth. (28:83)

2. ZulmZulm (wrong-doing, injustice, transgression) is a kind of disease that eats into the vitals of a society. Murder or throwing somebody behind the bar are surely Zulm. But the worst kind of Zulmis to murder or imprison some one without genuine reasons, deny people their due rights and torture them mentally or physically. Allah (SWT) does not like Zulm as is evident from the following verse:

      Do not think that Allah is unaware of the deeds of the wrong-doers. (14: 42)

Generally speaking, only those people indulge in Zulm who have acquired power, position, prestige, enormous wealth, state and government through unfair means. Such people ignore the divine law, forget the reality of the Day of Judgement and do not have the fear of God in their hearts. But those who fear Allah, they never indulge in Zulm; instead, when given a chance to rule, they give the poor due and establish prayer, justice and peace in the world (Al-Quran:22:41).

3. Speaking Lies: Several sayings of the Prophet (Pbuh) have condemned liars as the worst elements of mankind. In fact, speaking a lie is the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

source of all evils. Lies appear in numerous forms: people speak lies while making business deals and while selling or purchasing goods. People often swear by God and yet speak a lie. This vice is wide spread and has been a major cause of so many social and moral evils in the world.

4. Back-biting: This vice, too, like a lie, is very dangerous. The Prophet (Pbuh) is reported to have said that back-biting is a bigger sin than rape. The Holy Quran has also condemned it at several places. Read the following verses and judge for yourself how big a sin back-biting is?

      Do not obey every mean swearer (and) a slanderer, going about calumnies (68:10-11); woe to every (kind of) scandal-monger and back-biter (104:1).

      There are many more vices which the Holy Quran and the sayings of the Prophet (Pbuh) have condemned. The great classical Islamic scholar, Al-Ghazali has explained how vices corrupt the true nature of man. Umaruddin has summed up Ghazali's views in the following passage:

Vices are unethical forms of the natural propensities of man. Propensities become harmful when they engender love for the world at the expense of spiritual development. The love of this world is the root of all vices. If the self is to attain perfection, these propensities must obey the dictates of reason. But it often happens that they disobey reason, transgress their proper limits and gradual decay. It is this transgression which takes the shape and colour of so many vices. Vices, then, are the wrong developments of human propensities which act as curtains between man and his goal.6

To sum up, it may be said that the ethical system of Islam is man-centric; it has a complete scheme for men to lead a moral life. The focus of Islamic ethics is on the individual; the individuals, then, create a society in which moral values are respected as well as implemented. Islam, in fact, creates an environment that helps man in developing an all round moral personality.


      1. Faruqi, I. R., Al-Tawhid: Its Implications for Thought and Life

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

2. The agreement is only up to this point. Islam does not subscribe to the Christian concept of man's original sin and salvation through the crusifixcation of Christ etc. Nor does it share the Jewish perception of their being chosen people of God. The Islamic belief is that man will he rewarded or punished according to the merit or demerit of his action.

3. For AI-Ghazali's moral philosophy see Muhammad, Umaruddin, The Ethical Philosophy of Al-Ghazali (second reprint), Shaykh Muhammad Ashraf, Lahore, 1977;for Ibn Miskawayh's moral Philosophy see Abdul Haq, Ansari, The Ethical philosophy of Ibn Miskawaih, AMU press, 1969; and for Maududi's views on Islamic ethics see his work Ethical viewpoint of islam (tr. Khursheed Ahmad), Markazi Maktaba Islami, Delhi,1996.

4. Momin, A. R., Islam and the Promotion of Knowledge, Institute of Objectivs Studies, Now Delhi, 2001, p.160.

5. As quoted in Ibid;pp-61.

6. Umaruddin, op-cit.,p.189.      

      * * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2





Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


Values may be defined as 'Qualities that a person has learned to believe are important or worthwhile. They can be principles to live by or goals to be achieved.'

      By 'value', as used in the title of this paper, we mean those desirable ideals and goals which are intrinsic in themselves and which when achieved or attempted to be achieved, evoke a deep sense of fulfilment to one or many or all parts of what we consider the highest elements of our nature.

      'Crisis' means a time of difficulty, danger or anxiety about the future.

      And the word 'we' refers to the older generation of the present Indian society especially the teacher community.

      The phrase 'The Present Times', refers especially to the period 1947, when India became free, and after.


As things are, value crisis is a hard reality and a cause of serious concern to the country. What should be of greater concern, however, is the fact that in spite of our being alive to the gravity of the situation, things are going from bad to worse.

अकल बारीक हुई जाती है

रूह तारीक हुई जाती है|

         aql baarik hui jaati hai

         rooh taarik hui jaati hai

      The intellect is sharpening, but the spirit is becoming darker every day.

Value-crisis is deepening day by day with rapid advancement in knowledge, science and technology on the one hand and constant deterioration of values on the other. The very survival of man seems to be at stake.


The national document: "Challenge of Education—a Policy Perspective (August 1985)" brought out by the Ministry of Education, Government of India, drew attention of the nation to this problem thus:

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

"Though tful people in all walks of life are greatly disturbed by a progressive erosion of values and the resultant pollution of public life. The fact that this crisis of values is as pervasive in schools, colleges and universities, amongst teachers as well as students as in other walks of life, is seen as a highly dangerous development."

Erosion of values is definitely disturbing but the real threat lies in its being progressive right from the time India became free. National leaders and educationists have been siezed of the situation all through. Consequently, all National Commissions and Committees on Education in the post-independence era have been emphasising the importance of character formation in our educational institutions. Unfortunately recommendations in this regard were hardly put into practice. The downward journey of values continued without ever showing even the least sign of improvement.

    मर्ज बढ़ता गया जूं जूंदवा की

      The more we treated the malady, the more it grew.

It was in 1960, therefore, that Sri Prakasha Committee on Religious and Moral Instruction had to report:

'The many ills that our world of education and our society as a whole are suffering from, today, are mainly due to the gradual disappearance of the hold of basic principles of the religion on the hearts of the people. The old bonds that kept them together are fast loosening and the various new ideologies that are coming to us, are increasingly worsening the situation."

      Top priority given to Value Education by the National Policy on Education (NPE 1986) is a logical conclusion of the sad tale of the diminishing human values in our society, The NPE has clearly stated.

"The growing concern over the erosion of essential values and an increasing cynicism in society has brought to focus the need for readjustments in the curriculum in order to make education a forceful tool for the cultivation of social and moral values. In our culturally plural society, education should foster universal and eternal values, oriented towards the unity and integration of our people."


For the first time, in the history of free India, the Central Government had

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

pledged itself to a Programme of Action (POA, August 1986) as a follow-up measure to make the NPE successful.

      POA, to my mind, is a unique national document of great potential with a solid supportive and an optimistic approach. In its own words, "There is today, as never before, an upsurge in favour of national integration and adherence of certain national values and concerns." "If implemented with sensitivity, vigour and persistence, the proposals contained in the Programme of Action... will enable the educational system to move towards the democratic and socialist ideals enshrined in the Constitution."

      The fundamental question which crops up once again, of course with greater concern and intensity is, "Shall we succeed this time ? Or to put it more bluntly, shall we ever succeed?"

      The answer to this question could range from a definite 'No' to a positive 'Yes'. Much would depend upon the type of person who is responding. Objectively speaking, NPE and POA will be successful only to the extent we implement the policy and programmes sincerely, efficiently and effectively. The document POA makes a million dollar point in this regard when it observes:

"Implementation of N.P.E. has to begin now wherever possible, in whichever way possible. Bigger schemes of quantitative expansion and quality improvement take time to get formulated and processed, and even longer to get understood and implemented. The process of preparation of these schemes has commenced and will be followed up with necessary urgency. Meanwhile, every institution, every centre of non-formal education and of adult education, every teacher and student and every member of the society must examine what they can do... While the Central and State Governments will fully shoulder their responsibilities and will give an account of it to State Legislature and Parliament, it is people's involvement in the educational reconstruction which will make the real difference. Time is of essence, and unless we act now, we stand in the danger of once again missing the opportunity of educational reform, so critical not only for the development of our nation, but for our very survival."


Jaques Delors vested with the sacred responsibilities of giving a future direction to the society in matters relating to education highlights and emphasizes once again the immense and urgent need of Value Education/Value Development in all systems of education. The Report entitled "Learning: The Treasure

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Within" which he, as chairman of the International Commission, submitted to UNESCO in 1996 discusses, among other things, the major tension facing the 21st century. In this connection, the Report goes on to say,

"Lastly—another perennial factor—the tension between the spiritual and the material : often without realizing it, the world has a longing, often unexpressed, for an ideal and for values that we shall term 'moral.' It is thus education's noble task to encourage each and every one, acting in accordance with their traditions and convictions and paying full respect to pluralism, to lift their minds and spirits to the plane of the universal and, in some measure, to transcend themselves. It is no exaggeration on the Commission's part to say that the survival of humanity depends thereon. "There is, therefore, every reason to place renewed emphasis on the moral and cultural dimensions of education, enabling each person to grasp the individuality of other people and to understand the world's erratic progression towards a certain unity; but this process must begin with self-understanding through an inner voyage whose milestones are knowledge, meditation and the practice of self-criticism.

          This message should guide educational thinking, in conjunction with the establishment of wider and more far-reaching forms of international cooperation.

         Coming straight to the theme—Value-Crisis, We And The Present Times— let's discuss in brief the teacher's role (i.e. our own role) in overcoming the present value—crisis in society. Teachers, to my mind, occupy a privileged position in representing other sections of the older generation also, especially when we are talking about human values.

      OUR ROLE

I am one with those who believe that teachers could be one of the most powerful agents of social regeneration. Placed as they are, even a little (but sincere) effort on their part could do wonders. At their best, their contribution to the noble cause has always been significant and positive. A role like this is based on a few assumptions, however.


      1. Teachers are conscious of the role they are expected to play in the regeneration of society.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

 2. Teachers are confident of their capacity to bring about the desired change.

      3. Teachers are pained at the progressive erosion of values around, and

      4. Teachers have a genuine wish to make things better.


      To get the best possible results of our efforts, teachers would do well to remember:

      1. That they are only one force to influence the society in general and their students in particular.

      2. That there are many other agencies like the home, religion, professional, social and cultural organizations, the Government, public media and so on, which play no less a role in shaping the personalities of people.

      3. That the limited role as indicated above should in no way be a cause of any kind of pessimism or inaction.

      4. That cursing the darkness would never bring light. Darkness will go only when the lamp is lit.

      5. Blaming others for the lack of values in their behaviour won't serve any purpose. Explanations like the following won't take us any where.

दिलसाफंहो किस तरह कि इन्यासफ नहीं है,

इन्यासफ हो किस तरह कि दिल साफ नही है|

           dil saaph ho kis tareh, ke insaf nahin hai, insaaf ho kis tareh, ke dil saaf nahin hai.

           There can be no sincerity of heart without justice and vice-versa.

This is a vicious circle and the teachers have to make an effective dent to come out of it.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

 6. That in Value Education, nothing is more infectious than example and nothing is more unerringly judged than insincerity in the other person. Teachers have to be sincere in all what they say and do and they

          have to lead others by their own exemplary behaviour.

      7. That there is no substitute for good teaching.

      8. That Teaching is a comprehensive concept. The three instruments of teaching are said to be Instruction, Example and Influence. All the three are essential for inculcating values in our students.

      9. That Teaching must be for some noble cause. Teaching with a narrow or low aim is not worthy of a good teacher. In the words of the Mother, "Let our aim be lofty, broad, generous and disinterested."

      10. That a teacher's behaviour in general and his/her teaching behaviour in particular must be based on values expected of those engaged in the noble profession of teaching.

      11. That they would command real prestige among students only if they have a genuine concern for their welfare and development.

      12. That they should follow Emerson's words: "Let's Be; Not Seem" in letter and spirit.

      13. That Action speaks louder than words.

      14. That Truth is higher but higher still is truthful living and that the greatest homage we can pay to truth is to use it.

And lastly

      15. That we should sincerely try to make "Towards Better Living" and "Towards Better Teaching" as permanent values in our personal and professional lives. Continuous development both as a person and as a teacher would make our lives enjoyable, fruitful and worthwhile in the truest sense.

I would like to conclude the brief presentation and discussion by reminding my fellow teachers what Gurudev Rabindranath conveys through a small earthen lamp. The setting sun was worried as to who would provide light to the universe in its absence. A little earthen lamp took up the challenge and assured the mighty sun that it would do its best to dispel the darkness.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

  Will we, the custodians of values in our society, follow the example of the little lamp?


      1. Terrance, C.R. (Ed.), Towards a Renaissance of Humanity,

      2. Ministry of Education and Culture, Govt, of India, N.D., Report of the Working Group to Review Teachers' Training Programme

      3 Yadav, D.S., Education of the Complete Man,

      4. Passi, B.K., Singh, P., Value Education,

      5. Das, Manoj, Sri Aurobindo on Education,

      6. Ministry of Education, Government of India, Report of the Secondary Education Commission

      7 Ministry of Education, Government of India, Report of the Education Commission

      8. Ministry of Education, Government of India, Challenge of Education—A Policy Perspective,

      9. Towards an Enlightened and Humane Society

      10. The Mother On Education,

      11. Sri Aurobindo and the Mother,

      12. Lala Hardyal, Hints for Self Culture,

      13. Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, New Delhi, Programme of Action,

      14. 'Value Education (Through Stories in Indian Tradition)", Vivekananda Kendra Patrika,

      15. National Policy on Education

      16. UNESCO Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century: "LEARNING - The Treasure Within", 1996.

      * * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2




Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

We are living in a world largely shaped by violence. Wars have pushed man into internalizing violence into their social systems. There is conflict all around us and there is conflict inside us. Each of us grow up with a whole host of identities: religious, ethnic, racial, family, national, etc. We are conditioned into attaching great significance to these identities. In times of conflict we invoke any of these according to our individual psychological needs of security—of gratification, possession and dominance. As individuals we are fragmented within us, as each identity makes its own demands upon us. My religion tells me to love my neighbour. But when I go out into the world, I am under such a pressure to make an extra buck that I forget all about love. Our ethical culture tells me to be tolerant, kind to others, treat everyone impartially, be honest and industrious and so on. But in the world of the struggle for survival all these counsels of good will are drowned or ignored. Each of us remains a bundle of conflicts within ourselves. Each identity trying to assert itself, but in the end we are driven by the dominant mood of the social dynamics and the principles of self-concern and security operating within us.

Inspite of tremendous technological advancements, the economic situation remains still Hobbesian. There is a growing energy shortage, unsustainable growths and overcrowded urbanization. The earth is getting replete and loosing its power to renew itself. Our failure to reach agreement on the principles of distributive justice compels us to look at our way of life and to revise our value system. One is remainded of the Socratic dictum that an unexamined life is not worth living.

Disharmony between the fragments of the psychological structure of the society has become the characteristic feature of our way of life. So there is no peace, which is nothing but the natural state of harmony. We have divided existence into the inner and outer. But the outer, the society needs to be fleshed out with individuals who carry an inner conditioned mind. In itself the society is a mere abstraction from real relationships between real people. In concrete it is an ensamble of individuals in dynamic relationship with each other. But if these individuals are conflict-ridden in their inner life, can they relate to each other in peace and harmony in the outer society? Can a crowd

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

of confused, agitated, fragmented individuals create in relationship a truly human society? Can there be peace in the outer if there is no peace in the inner? Are the inner and the outer not really one movement of life anyway? And what am I to do as an individual in this chaotic state of affairs? These are some of the questions that I will try to tackle in this paper. I am less concerned with individual cases of conflict which I am in no doubt that governments will try to resolve with habitual responses of power and prejudice. My aim is to find out if it is at all possible to have truly ethical individuals to whom virtue is natural, who in their relationship, quite spontaneously, create a conflict-free, an authentic human community.

We have to begin with the realization that the political approach to conflict-resolution is fragmentary and rather superficial. In that approach The L«g-aZreplaces TheEthicaldcad the notion of a powerful state replaces the notion of a human Community. But LAW cannot create a conflict-free society, at the most it can punish the violators of peace. Moreover in the modern times duplicity, preference and guile have become the very life of politics. The existence of conflict in society is like a disease, where prevention is always better than cure, of course the current disease has to be checked but the wider holistic perspective of prevention should never be forgotten. By that I mean that too much attention to the individual situations of conflict is provided and ad hoc solutions are sought, forgetting the fact that knowledge has reached a stage where conscious direction has to be given to civilization where knowledge can be just as destructive as gracious. We have to learn to move towards the goal of living together in a truly human environment of sharing and caring for the other. The goal of politics is surely not merely grasping of power but to assist in reaching the goal of creating a free and just society which by its inner strength can develop its human potentialities to enable man to pursue the higher ends of life of truth, goodness and beauty. For this we must enquire in a more fundamental way about what is behind this ugly way of life, which we are creating today. We must place the problem of conflict in its total environment and consider it holistically.

Today the collective acceptance of violence as the legitimate means of the resolution of conflict, together with an aggressive individualism and consumerism have become the settled features of our social culture. But unfortunately the individualism invoked is nothing more than an egoistic self-assertion of an essentially alienated and insecure individual. The true individualism refers man to his creative freedom, to his capacity to ignore the forces of propaganda and conditioning. It is a safeguard for his humanity. The true individual has

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

self-knowledge and has located his existence in the unity of being. He moves with a sense of responsibility for the whole and not by the impelling forces of the conditioned mind of the collective or the forces of the market economy. He is free from the fear of the contingencies of life, and the pressures of conformism for security. He is sensitive to the spiritual dimensions of human existence and respects nature and life in all beings. We are faced with a choice, which endures true individuality. It is the choice of a culture of freedom and justice and not a political of economic choice. It can be made by the individuals themselves and not by the collective.

A consumer dominated culture is inherently violent. Today life is all about more and more—not more of wisdom or love or understanding and harmony in social relationship, but more of wealth and power for oneself. The culture of caring and sharing has almost disappeared. Any extension of caring and sharing to others exists only in so far as they are seen as propitious to their own prosperity. This is so because the culture of more is in its very nature competitive, ruthless, aggressive and superficial. The last is true because it is not concerned with the deeper realities of human existence—with the quest of goodness, beauty and truth in the togetherness of life as a whole. The living encouraged by this culture is fragmentary, concerned with specialization in a part for a success which is oblivious of the wholeness of human life.

In reality human beings are 'wholes' within themselves and parts of larger wholes. We can see this by simply acknowledging the fact that we simply cannot subsist without constant interaction with and utilization of resources from the larger wholes to which we belong. The relevant notion of 'part' here is to be understood. Compare a machine with a living organism. In a machine parts are related externally. Each piece earn survive oh its own. But it is not the same with a human being. Each of us has grown out of a human seed, which is integral to nature as a whole. This part-whole relationship of an individual with a community and a community with the larger society is sacred. It is prior and necessary to the individual. The individuals need to be in harmony with each other so that the whole, which sustains them is in peace. But the individualism and consumerism, which we face today advocates a relationship, which is far from harmonious. It teaches us to look at the other as a necessary evil—an enemy, a potential snatcher who will take away from me for his own self. Each is a team in himself who wants to win over the other. Each is alone and secretive in his exploitative enterprises. Some philosophers maintain, as for example Sartre, that the human situation is inherently like that and land into the disastrous thesis that conflict is the original meaning of existence.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

In the same vein the great Australian social philosopher, John Anderson, maintains that social institutions essentially embody 'scenes of conflict'. To understand them do not ask what end or purpose do they serve "but rather 'of what conflicts is it the scene?' " (see Alasdair Maclntyre, After Virtue, p,153). I do not subscribe to these pessimistic views. I shall contend that love and harmony is the essential meaning of human existence and we need to encourage and constitute social institutions specially educational which promote these ends.

We cannot close our eyes to the fact that we are being sucked into a culture of utter selfishness and consequently the fear of being trampled over in the race for more, producing social alienation of the individual and social conflict. This culture is flourishing not because of the need of survival as such but because of the unnatural fear of becoming a nonentity in the aggressive competitive culture of false individualism and the consumerist meaning of life. We need to ask therefore who or what we really are as human beings and what we can do to shape our destiny ourselves. We need to know ourselves as social animals as well as beings who can transcend 'the given' and comprehend the 'whole'. We need to locate ourselves in the nexus of nature and evolution as well as in the nexus of inter-subjectivity, which is ruled by the desire not of separation but of belonging to the 'whole'. It is the experience of belonging to the whole which is the source of the feeling of compassion and the sense of responsibility for the whole. This is also the central message of ethics as we understand it today. Ethics is no longer in bondage to tradition. Nor is it a matter of acting out of fear either of man's law or of God's law. Virtue is acting out of freedom from a sense of responsibility, recognizing the sacredness of one's belonging to the 'whole'. Fortunately in this regard the environmental and the genetic sciences are on our side. The former declares the inter-connectedness of all things in nature and the latter, tells us that all mankind has derived its existence from one mother. And contemporary physics tells us that the whole of material universe has emerged from the action of some primeaval energy. There can be no conflict between a spirituality, which assigns man ultimately to the very source of this primeaval energy and these sciences. It is the separative materialism that is the source of conflict within man and between man. It is the destruction of man's relationship with nature that is the source of the cultural destruction of love, trust and the ethics of sharing and caring between men. So again I return to a plea for a revision of the ends and purposes of the collective, which has led us to this decrepitude in our way of life.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

In the present cultural milieu each of us has begun to think of himself first. Each of us is busy in amassing power and wealth basically for himself alone. And in this process we have created a society in which, both rich and poor, weak and strong, feel insecure and from which they feel alienated. As long as the meaning of life remains 'more and more' one is bound to feel that way. And because man has lost the sense of belonging to the whole, he wants to own more and more, as if the 'owning' will give him the sense of belonging to the whole. It can never do that. It can only reinforce the wrong ethical attitudes in him. In this predicament, obviously, he can never love his neighbour; he can only envy him, be jealous of him. This social alienation is bound to beat the root of all kinds of conflicts and violence. In the contemporary situation where material success is the key to a fulfilling life, we seem to grow up with a huge conflict within our hearts. On the one hand the values of a capitalistic society tell us to be ambitious to be competitive, to tread over others if need be there on the other hand we are constantly bombarded with the values of an ethics which is largely a hangover of a religious consciousness which no longer exists. We are brought up to believe that all are children of God, that the whole mankind is one family, that caring and sharing are the highest ethical values. But when we go out in the world we are reminded of the wickedness that exists and we are compelled to confront the world with a ruthless pragmatism. Obviously self-centered ambition and caring for others do not go together. But we imbibe both the paradigms and live our lives in perpetual conflict. Desire for power seems to me to be more basic than desire for other things. People fought wars ever since the beginning of civilization. Today super powers want to dominate the whole world. The same is generally true with scientific and intellectual achievements. They give you power directly or indirectly. And artistic achievements give you power through authority and often with huge amounts of money. There will be very few people who pursue these things in a holistic perspective of life, for love of the goods internal to these activities, or, for the love of humanity or truth or beauty. But surely if action is based in the desire for personal power and security there is bound to be oppression in one form or another, and consequentiy conflict. Why does man live this way?

Desire for power is connected with the feeling of insecurity. Apart from the insecurity due to social and material causes which we have mentioned, there is another much deeper basis for it. This arises from the very nature of the human self as we experience it. We are brought up to believe that a human being has a permanent enduring self—a soul or a unique spiritual substance, one for each individual. This belief is encouraged by the fact that the 'I'

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

represents a unitary centre of consciousness and memories arising in the present connect the ownership of a personal past with the present T. Thus we take it for granted that inwardly we remain one and the same entity throughout our constantly changing biography. But when we look inwardly we are horrified to find that we encounter only shifting states of consciousness and the T arises only in apprehending those states as belonging to someone. In reality the I seems to have no separate existence. This creates great fear of uncertainty over the status of our own being. Though this uncertainty should provide for adventure in exploration of truth but we generally don't read the situation that way. The fear makes us run for security by identifying oneself with something concrete, namely the body. But the vulnerability of the body itself makes us seek the possession of power. We do Dot see that love is an adventure at the deepest level and the only security of the human soul, and power is the opposite of love. Since man is conscious of time his insecurity stretches across the spectrum of time. He wants to accumulate enough both materially and psychologically. The latter creats bonds of attachment to hold on to the past. Further his insecurity is compounded by the fact that man having been evolved from animals inherited the jungle fears. He has inherited the instincts for survival as well as the instinct for allaying insecurity through violence. But more is never enough for man, since inwardly, spiritually, he remains empty, and the struggle for power goes on. Today the sickness of man is that he does not live for the love of life or the joy of creativity but for the fear of not possessing enough and being left behind. His specialized education encourages his fragmentary existence and in this process at every step he finds himself in conflict with others.

With this background understanding of the socio-cultural situation, I now turn to the more practical side of the problem concerning what can be done individually and collectively to effect a cultural transformation which for the development of integrated beings and consequently a conflict-free social-existence. I am going to suggest that the goal of value education is to provide a holistic education which is the main instrument of realizing the relevant kind of change. But since education is to function within the framework of a larger set of institutions, we have to take into account the character of all the major social institutions.

In a holistic conception of education, knowledge necessarily includes self-knowledge. It seems to me obvious that knowledge without self-knowledge is blind to the value and significance of knowledge for life considered as a whole. Without self-knowledge not only we cannot attain an integrated view of

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

knowledge, we cannot even know what purpose it is to serve and therefore what direction it ought to take. In short, without self-knowledge we will be unable to make a creative use of knowledge. It is the possibility of self-knowledge that sets man apart from the rest of the universe. By self-knowledge however (it should be clear from what I have already said about the self) I do not mean the occult perception of some glorious spiritual substance within. What I mean is the understanding of what it means to be a human being. Education must impart this understanding and enable us to put specialized knowledge in its proper place in the total scheme of values. First we must realize that the human being exists at three different levels simultaneously—the biological, the mental and the spiritual. This is the peculiarity of man. At no level of his existence, however, he is an absolutely separate individual in an ontological sense. Physically he is made of the elements of his natural environment, and a constant exchange of energy with the elements must be assured. He is literally a part of the whole of nature considered as an interconnected self-sustaining system. Mentally too he is not a Cartesian solipsistic substance. His mind is a sub-system within the larger whole of the social mind and eventually the collective mind of the humanity. This is shown by the fact that indeed he will not come to possess a human mind in the first place if he were not constantly in a learning situation of communicative interaction with other minds for whom the same is true, thus signifying a constant run of mentality from the beginning of animal life. Each individual, is therefore, responsible for the whole within which he is inseparably constituted. Any radical change in him will naturally mark a change in the whole. Since he is an integral part of the whole, in a sense the individual and the world are not dualistically opposed to each other. And spiritually, there is no doubt that the individual is like a wave in the ocean of existence. This is shown by the fact that neither his creativity nor his transcendence of the 'given' are realizations of his individually located will. His spiritual consciousness is something that happens to him rather than something produced by his specific will. Only his ego separates him from the rest. But even if his ego is rightly perceived his act of constant self-transcendence will be reminding him that he necessarily belonged to the whole. Unfortunately our education in its analytical accretions emphasises the relative separateness of things and not their interconnectedness or the interdependence. Our culture of materialism does the same. Your success is acredited as your individual achievement, whereas in fact it is a success of humanity. Unfortunately our educational system today, under the pressure of specialization, does not only not include self-knowledge, it is mostly becoming

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

'informational'. But acquisition of knowledge proper is surely something more than gathering information. When I read a book, or attend a lecture and remember the contents, I am not necessarily acquiring knowledge. At the most I am acquiring beliefs which if hopefully true may prove useful in certain circumstances. Knowledge is something which belongs to the individual. It is assimilated in his total conceptual repertoir in such a way that enables him to make an original use of it. It happens when the truths embedded in the acquired piece of information are discovered by the learner himself. The act of discovering a truth by oneself has the effects of transforming the attitude of the individual towards all those facts that are significantly related to the discovery. For example, if a person discovers that some 'harm' done to him was unintentional and done in ignorance of the facts, his bitterness towards the wrong-doer is bound to melt away. In theoretical situations too the discovery of a truth is bound to bring about a reorganization of a whole scheme of truths relevant to the former. Here, it will be retorted that one cannot and needs not discover all the truths by one self. That is so, but for information to translate into knowledge the truth in question must be rediscovered by the agent. For this there has to be restructuring of the learning-situation. Apart from the experimental situations there has to be dialogical and interactive situations. Only then it will add to his creative potential and transform his outlook. It is the same with self-knowledge. If I knew who or what I am at all the levels of my existence, that is, if I knew that I am not an island to myself, then my feelings and relationship with everything around me is bound to change. The fact of inter-connectedness and inter-dependence at all levels of my being is bound to transform my outlook towards the whole. A complete spiritually informed self-knowledge will end our xenophobia and violence upon nature. Then there will be compassion, and a sense of responsibility for the whole will be natural to this enlightened human being.

In what we have said so far there are important implications for economics. Obviously, to assist in creating the kind of culture I have been suggesting, there has to be a radical transformation of our economic outlook side by side to other things. Existentially the economic system is an all-embracing phenomenon. In a fragmented way, we tend to think of the economic institutions as a separate department of social life like politics and religion etc. But in fact the economy is the entire vast field of human creativity involving all fields of knowledge in the arts, sciences and industry. For economic creativity, like all creativity, we require freedom of thought and actions. But economic freedom is only an aspect of human freedom as a whole, and the latter is a manifestation of self-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

knowledge. The economic system which is insensitive to human freedom cannot provide for true creativity. The economic exploiter is not a free man. He is impelled to act by his conditioned impulses built upon his psychology of insecurity. He is concerned only with his profit and his power in the society without any regard for a positive view of the progress of humanity from which his very being is derived. Now, in the last century all the extreme models of economic growth have failed mankind. Perhaps the good is some-where in the middle. It is a large issue and needs a great deal of expert thinking to settle. My point is simply that the freedom of economic enterprise has to be sensitive to the necessity of the development of the 'whole' and so it has to be concerned with justice for the development of all in terms of their human potentialities. This is not to say that we first get our economy right and then only address the question of cultural transformation. The freedom bestowed by self-knowledge includes the freedom of enterprise in general, not only in economy, but in all spheres of life. One who risks his life in climbing the Mount Everest is just as enterprising as the company which risks its funds for research in genetics. The point is that the rewards of any free enterprise must have significance for the growth of all mankind. To make this point is not moralizing. It is to bring into the open the necessities embedded in the very logic of existence which tells us that living is necessarily a living-together. Love and understanding of life delivered in self-knowledge comprises the very dynamics of existence.

We can now turn, to some other major social institutions of modernity which have made, positive contribution towards a culture of tolerance and human equality. Ever since the ending of the Second World War, the whole world has gradually got reorganized in national identities. Nationhood has been slowly loosened from its more troublesome moorings such as race, religion and ethnicity. Today it is generally accepted that a nation is a larger political entity over and above the ethnic and other socio-cultural differences it may contain among its people. A nation is a society of free and equal individuals whom history has put together in significantly closer economic and social ties as compared to other similar groups, and who through their collective will constitute an independant soveriegn state. Today we have an assembly of nations and failing nations can be pressurized into making such changes into their workings which tend towards a greater realization of human equality. The acceptance of soveriegnity of each other has greatly reduced the chances of war between them. The same effect has come about internally. In India for example there are no wars going on between states and though conflict between different groups abound, there is an overall mood of recon-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

ciliation and acceptance of the other. All the same we are all familiar with the dangers of a narrow self-centered kind of nationalism. If nationalism is to succeed as a universal ideology for peaceful coexistence it has to know its limitations. It has to know that it is not for dominating over other nations but on the contrary to carry others along with them on the path of peace and freedom. The same message applies internally. Nationalism has to truly rise above the ethno-cultural diversity. Democracy is the main instrument of realizing true nationhood. Democracy is good because it recognizes the moral equality of all men and recognizes debate and understanding of each other as the right approach to the resolution of conflicts between group. Further it recognizes the freedom of each to develop his human potentialities. Most importantly it recognizes the responsibility of each for the 'whole' and of the 'whole' for each that makes it. In a true democracy respect for human rights will be naturally present. Observance of human rights is a function of justice. A society is just when in it there is equality of opportunity in areal sense, that is, not only according to the existing law but in cognizance of the fact that people are already placed in an unequal starting points. So the basic resources of human development must be made available by the society to all, especially to all the children. Unfortunately in today's cultural ethos justice is immediately translated into obedience to the law which is already in favour of the socially stronger, both in words and in practice. The result is that often law itself prescribes revenge with vengeance. But given the existing fact of diverse cultural points of view, justice should be sought with great good will and compassion generally in the middle of the two opposing points of view.

In recent times the talk of secularism has gained prominence. In India it is basically invoked in political context and seen as an addendum to democracy. But secularism is surely a cultural attitude. Its use in politics is only an aspect of our democratic way of life. Its meaning in the arts and morality is far greater than in politics. In India two versions of secularism are afloat. The first is the Western dictum of the 'separation of the church from the state'. In this form it seems to have no relevance to India, since the majority Hindus have never had an organised 'church' as in the West. But it has been streched to the extreme that in doing politics, for example in asking for votes etc., people's religious identity should not be invoked. In practice, however, not only religious but all kinds of other group identities are frequently invoked. In fact in a democracy it is difficult to see how it could be otherwise. It depends upon the nature of the issues for which political action is needed. The real question concerns the standards of justice that are referred to in settling these issues.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Civil liberties should not be restricted by laws derived from religious recommendations. The very classification of majority/minority on the basis of religion should not exist. The second version recognize the fact of religious pluralism and the importance of their religious affiliations in their way of life. It preaches tolerance of all religions. The social attitudes implied in this version are also redundant in this country, where all, especially the Hindu group, are already constituted by a multiple view points, and a follower is deemed free to choose any of these while respecting the others. In this version, secularism also instructs the government to keep 'equi-distance' from all religions. In practice, however, this translates into government's equal involvement with every religious group prime ministers and presidents address important religious meetings and grant protective measures to encourage their flourishing. In a good democracy, surely, there should be no government patronage to any religious or non-religious sectarian group. So good democratic institutions are fundamental to a free andjust society. And having a good democracy is a matter of culture.

To conclude, I have suggested that a real resolution of conflict amounts to an actual dissolution of its causes. It requires a justice which is a function of love—a love which can function only in complete freedom from personal fear and insecurity. In the existential human situation it requires a radical transformation of the human psyche which, due to constant propaganda elevating materialistic values to the peak, has suffered great decay and depravity. But no amount of external institutional changes alone can remove the causes of conflict. There is no doubt that economic disparities become immediate reasons for social conflict. Some developed countries have succeeded in narrowing down the economic gaps in their own countries. But they have not succeeded in removing the conflict in question. On the contrary they have through their economic practices introduced a great deal of violence and other ills in their social systems. The extraordinary greed and avrice built into consumerism with all its inhumanity, exploitation of the poorer nations and callous blindness to the environmental degradation do not speak highly of their achievements. A large number of individuals feel alienated from the society and its achievements. Their participation in conflict-groups is a desparate attempt to connect themselves with larger wholes and recover a sense of security in belonging to them. Social institutions which provide for ending alienation can replace these conflict-groups. But social institutions are fleshed out by individuals who are doubly conflict-ridden within themselves. On the one hand, outwardly, they have internalized a conflicting set of values from the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

social interaction, on the other, inwardly, their self-consciousness as separate individuals has necessarily situated each against the others. Such individuals in their relationship with each other cannot create a conflict-free society. The conflict-resolution as we know it at the surface is only a re-organization of our greed according to the balance of power. In reality each individual is responsible for the misery and conflict that exist in society, because each of us in our own ways, in his daily life is cruel, oppressive, greedy and ambitious, and each of us lives with the fear and insecurity of tomorrow. Each of us wants to be secure separately, independently of how he is related to the world.

I have suggested that a real resolution of conflicts embedded in the existential human situation can be found only through a radical transformation of the human psyche. This is not a small matter but it is not an Utopia either. The responsibility of transforming ourselves rests with each individual. But he has to be assisted with an upbringing in an environment of love and understanding. For this right holistic education has to be the main instrument. In holistic education knowledge includes a self-knowledge at all the levels of our existence. Through such education our perception of ourselves and our relation to nature and humanity will change. We have to opt out of the model of' separate existence trying to achieve individual successes' and recognize our interconnectedness and interdependence, both in life and death with the whole of existence. We have to re-educate ourselves into a correct perception of the human situation and put our knowledge to a creative living-together in caring and sharing with the other. It will be objected that Buddhas have come and gone but man has basically remained the same—self-centered, aggressive and pleasure-seeking. What hope of success is there then in the progrmme of education and cultural reconstruction which I am suggesting? My answer is that today we are best placed for that, if only we can summon our scientific and spiritual knowledge for that purpose. The sense of individual responsibility is of prime importance today. Once we see that objective institutional and legal functions break down without a change in the minds and hearts of the individuals who run the show, we have already begun the psychological revolution within ourselves and thus in the society which we constitute. We have to introduce this understanding through education as well as through our own action upon ourselves into our culture. Our focus should be upon building the character and personality of the individual through self-knowledge. In contrast, at present the focus is on building the individual in a specialized way with an emphasis on personal success, as a separate individual entity. This introduces greater fragmentation in the individual. Poverty,

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

oppression and dissatisfaction with power are at the material root of conflict. But without the rise of integrated beings our well-intentioned institutions are helpless. The road to haven is indeed paved with good intentions, but intentions without selfless actions are not enough. That action has to begin with each of us upon ourselves.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2



A Report of the National Seminar-cum-Workshop

held on 24th May, 2001

Presented by



Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


Ministry of Human Resource Development and University Grants Commission proposes to offer a credit/non-credit programme on Education in Human Values and Life Skills to students in higher education. NIEPA was called upon to facilitate designing the proposed course.

A committee comprising Prof. Arun Nigavenkar (UGC), Prof. Amrik Singh (Eminent Educationist), Prof. Ramamurthy (Sri Satya Sai Institute of Higher Learning), Prof. VS. Prasad (IGNOU), Prof. Shyam. B. Menon (DU), Prof. Karuna Chanana (JNU), Prof. Talat Aziz (JMI), Prof. Jaya Indiresan (formerly with NIEPA), Prof. B.P. Khandelwal and Prof. Marmar Mukhopadhyay (both in NIEPA) deliberated on the theme. The Committee proposed a course comprising a module each on:

1.Understanding and Managing Self.

2.Family Life Education.

3.Learning to Live Together.

4.Indian Constitution and the Fundamental Duties.

5.Transition to Work.


It was also decided that a short descriptive note would be developed on each module and submitted before a larger group of academicians and decision makers in university education.

The enclosed note is a draft for discussion at the seminar-cum-workshop of the vice-chancellors, other academicians, and representatives of AIFUCTO, UGC and Ministry of Human Resource Development on 24th May, 2001.

The expected outcome of the day-long seminar-cum-workshop was documentation of collective view on the:

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

1.Need and rationale of the proposed programme.

2.Nature and Structure of the programme.

3.Tentative (indicative) course outline.

4.Indicative Methodology for transacting the course.

5.Approach to evaluation—credit-vs.-non-credit, marking-vs.-grading, etc., and

6.Approaches to programme evaluation including impact assessment methodologies.

The outcome was to be handed over to the UGC for further dissemination to the universities.

The Seminar-cum-Workshop

At the instance of the Ministry of Human Resource Development and the University Grants Commission, a one-day Seminar-cum-Workshop on Education in Human Values and Life Skills in Higher Education was organized by the Educational Administration Unit of NIEPA on 24th May, 2001.

Following were the Issues and Questions to be resolved in this Seminar-cum-workshop:

1.What should be the title of such a course?

2.Whether there should be one common curriculum for all universities, or there can be a model curriculum that can be adapted to suit the implementing university?

3.Whether Education in Human Values and Life Skills be a credit or a non-credit programme?

4.Should such a programme be for all students, or for those who opt for it?

5.Who should teach such a programme? How would the teachers be trained?

6.What kind of instructional material will be needed to support such a programme?

7.Since this is an applied course, what kind of methodologies are most suitable for implementing the programme? Would it be useful to develop a teachers' manual or guide?

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

8.What should be the method of student assessment? And, what kind of certification should be associated with such a course?

9.What are the financial and other resource requirements for starting such a course?

The Workshop was inaugurated by Shri M.K. Raw, Union Education Secretary (SE 8c HE), Ministry of Human Resource Development. Various sessions were chaired by Prof. B.P. Khandelwal, Director, NIEPA and Prof. Arun Nigavekar, Vice Chairman, UGC. The Programme was designed and directed by Prof. Marmar Mukhopadhyay.

The Programme was attended by 25 Vice Chancellors and their nominees and invited experts. It was also attended by the representative of colleges and university teachers' associations. The list of participants is enclosed.

Following are the major decisions and output of the Workshop:

1.Need—There was a complete consensus among the participants about the need for a programme on Education in Human Values and Life Skills for students of Higher Education. It should be introduced as early as possible.

2.Course Title—Several titles of such a course were suggested. These are

a.Education in Human Values and Life Skills.

b.Art of living.

c.Life Enrichment and Self-Development.

It was also decided that keeping the spirit of the Programme in mind, university should be free to title the course either from the above list or choose some other title.

3.Course Contents—The content of the programme has been proposed to comprise seven modules :

*Understanding and managing self.

*Family life.

*Learning to live together.

*Citizens and Indian constitution.

*Transition to work.


*Indian art and culture.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Participants also recommended that the Module 2 and Module 3 i.e. Family Life and Learning to Live Together could be combined. A small note on each of these modules are appended.

4.Packaging—Three alternatives were suggested. These are:

a.Integrating the content of the programme with existing course and curriculum;

b.Offering a separate paper under the title to be chosen by the concerned university; and

c.Offering this as optional course leading to certificate or diploma.

The universities should be free to decide the mechanism of packaging the course.

5.Course Delivery—So far as instructional design and delivery are concerned, besides conventional face to face learning mode, it was recommended to adopt multi-channel learning mode and on-line education.

6.Instructional Material—It was pointed out that the effectiveness of such a programme will depend heavily upon the quality of instructional material. It was recommended that instructional material be prepared in print, in video, and also in CD ROM. Although the master exemplar material can be prepared nationally in one language, preferably English, this should be rendered into regional languages and also adapted to local situations, cultures and ethos.

7.Teacher Orientation—It was pointed out that specific programme on Teacher Orientation and Capacity Building to deal with the course on Education in Human Values and Life Skills have to be developed. In this context, participants decided to develop a teachers' manual. Academic staff colleges were identified to offer such courses to the teachers.

8.Assessment—The course is unique. There is a need for designing a sophisticated assessment system using multiple testing tools like paper and pen test, practicals, observations, in-depth interviews, etc. The participants also debated whether such a programme should be a credit course or non-credit course. The consensus was in favour of a credit course lest students may opt out of it.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

9.Management—The participating vice chancellors and the representatives decided that each and every university should be free to design programme according to local conditions using the guideline developed in this Workshop.

10.Resources—Development of such a programme and its implementation will call for additional resources. Such resources have to be mobilized from Government of India and University Grants Commission. However, universities should make efforts for sponsorships and endowments from private sources to support such a programme.

11. Network—Participants decided to set-up, with the approval of the UGC, and financial suppoit from the Ministry of Human Resource Development and UGC, Regional Resource Centres for Education and Human Values and Life Skills. Following Universities volunteered to undertake the responsibilities:

* University of Madras for the Southern Region,

*Devi Ahilya Viswavidyalaya, Indore for the Western Region,

*Assam (Central) University for the Northern Eastern Region,

*Viswa Bharati Shantiniketan for the Eastern Region and,

*Kurukshetra University for the Northern Region,

To work as Regional Resource Centres, Jamia Millia Islamia also offered to host a nodal centre in Delhi.

As the first step, it was decided that each of these universities will organize a Seminar-cum-Workshop for the Vice Chancellors and their representatives in their respective region to develop a consensus and regionally implemen table programme on Education in Human Values. The proposal for such Seminar-cum-Workshop and subsequent workshops on Material Development, Teachers' Training, etc would be submitted to the Ministry of Human Resource Development and/or UGC for funding.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


The course, Education in Human values and Life Skills is proposed to comprise six modules, one each on:

Module IUnderstanding and Managing Self,

Module 2Family Life,

Module 3Learning to Live Together,

Module 4Citizens and Indian Constitution,

Module 5Transition to Work,

Module 6Leadership, and

Module 7Indian Art and Culture,

A brief note on each module is given below.

Module I: Understanding and Managing Self1 *

There are considerable amount of literature on the subject. There are assessment centres in the industrialized countries which offer services for psychographs of individuals that are given significant weightages in recruitment along with academic qualifications. Comprehensive understanding of an individual can be developed through academic and psychosocial profiles. This module will enable the students to understand their capabilities, potentials, interests and propensities.

There are several schools of thought that inform understanding of individuals. Transactional Analysis offers understanding through Ego-states, Life Positions, inter-personal transactions. Certain other schools offer understanding as personality attributes (Cattel'Smd 16PF), Eysenck's Introversion-Extraversion, Differential Aptitude, McClelland and Atkinson's Need-Achievement (alsoPrayagMehta's) paradigm, Transactional versus Transformational Leadership models, etc. Upanishad, in the Parable of Chariot offers through

1 Prof. Marmar Mukhopadhyay is Senior Fellow in National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA), New Delhi-110 016

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

inter-linkages and dependence of sense organs, mind, intelligence, body and soul. Upanishad and Gita also offer understanding of humans dirough Quality paradigm (Trigunatattva). Charaksamhita from the angle of medical-biology offers a comprehensive paradigm of physiology and psychological attributes. Similarly, there are several theorists on value development, most prominent among them is Kohlberg's model. In view of the above, the module is proposed to comprise:

*Elements of Physiology—structure of human body, sense organs, brain......

*Personality Attributes—intelligence, need-achievement, introversion-extraversion, creativity, skills and attitudes.

*Development of Values.

*Aptitudes—Differential Aptitudes.

*Development of Personality.

*Transactional Analysis.

*Triguna—Tamas, Rajas and Sattva.

*Managing Self—Methods of Behaviour Modification and Personality Development.

The programme will be a combination of theoretical and practical activities. Whereas elements of physiology, development of personality and Triguna will be theoretical inputs, students will go through a series of measurements, e.g. personality attributes aptitudes, etc. that can be used to develop individual profiles supplemented by discussion and interpretation of results. Yet in another set of units students will go through hands-on-experience in personality development and behaviour modification through transactional analysis, sensitivity training, etc.

Module 2: Family Life 2

Family in contemporary Indian society, as in other societies, has been at the centre of a lively and concerned debate in the context of a rapidly changing society. This change refers to the processes of industrialization, urbanization, development and now globalization and how they affect the family, its struc-

2 The note on Family Life has been contributed by prof. Karuna Chanana, Zakir Hussain centre for Educational studies, Jawaharlal Nehru university, New Delhi-110 016.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

ture of relationships and the values of its members. The pertinent point is whether the family is able to withstand the onslaught of societal change and to provide continuity in traditional values to its members.

Social scientists, especially psychologists and sociologists, have highlighted the role of the family in inculcating values through socialization. Educationists, on the other hand, look forward to the educational institutions for inculcating the values in students, which will help them adjust to the process of societal change. Thus, a synergy has to be established between the educational institutions and the family.

In this context, the role of formal education assumes significance in reinforcing the familial values. Social scientists have recognized the potential role of education in dealing with the pressing problems of national, human and social development. A recurring concern has been how can education be used for adaptation to change without disrupting the traditional values cherished by the culture? The main objectives will be to underscore the importance of the family within a dynamic perspective. Therefore, while the module will be inculcating the human values associated with familism, the human rights of all the members, such as children and women will be given equal weightage.

In this module on Family Life and Human Values, the importance of the family and familism needs to be viewed as a value that itself has undergone changes because the functions of the family have changed. Thus, this module will conceptualize the family in the processes of change. Change as a process involves the adoption of new elements and creative integration of the old and the new. This module will reflect some of the contemporary concerns relating to westernization, development and globalization, and their impact on familial values or familism, i.e. a move away from collective orientation to individualism, from spiritualism to materialism and consumerism. It will also highlight the contribution of formal educational institutions, which are secondary institutions, in reinforcing the significance of the family, primary institution, in the life of the students. It will focus on some of the functions of the family viz., reproduction, socialization, production, security, affection, social control, and recreation, besides others.

Module 3: Learning to Live Together 3

All over the world, increasing geographical mobility and globalization a bringing people together from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds

3 The note on Learning to Live Together has been contributed by prof. jaya Indiresan.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

resulting in a complex and diverse society. This demographic turbulence tends to get accentuated in educational institutions also posing a challenge to the management of the institutions. Unless the challenges of diversity are understood and managed with sensitivity, it is likely to lead to various types of oppression like exploitation, marginalization, powerlessness, cultural invasion and violence.

Diversity is a multifaceted concept in India, including aspects of caste, gender, religion, region (e.g. Rural vs. Urban), language (e.g. Regional vs. English). These different aspects of diversity influence campus life, and has resulted in growing intolerance and inter-group conflicts among students and faculty. However, these problems are symptoms of a larger and more complex challenges facing the nation.

Diversity makes essential contribution to the education of students. Some students find diversity confusing or threatening. For some students, college is often the first journey out of a homogeneous neighbourhood into a more diverse world. These people may find it difficult to relate to people from different caste, region or religion. Added to this are the enormous economic hardships and intense competition for a piece of the limited pie and this leads to frustration and intolerance.

In this context, as identified in the Delor's Report on Learning: The Treasure Within, one of the four pillars of education is Learning to Live Together: Learning to Live with others. This is a life skill that needs to be deliberately facilitated. Students need to be helped to understand diversity and value differences. We cannot wish away diversity nor do we want to. Life will be uninspiring without diversity. We have no choice but to live with diversity. What is important is we must learn to Live Effectively Amidst Diversity (LEAD).

Some illustrative challenges to the education system are:

*What dimensions of diversity are to be taken up for study?

*How to incorporate courses on understanding diversity, tolerance of diversity and celebration of diversity?

*At what level should these courses be introduced?

*What should be the duration of these courses?

*What will transact and facilitate these courses (subject teachers/special teachers)?

*What should be the strategies to be adopted (curricular/co-curricular/ extracurricular) ?

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

*Where are the teaching learning materials?

*What types of teaching learning materials are required?

*Who will develop these materials?

*How to assess the learning (credit/non-credit) ?

These are not simple questions but essential questions for which we need to find solutions.

Module 4: Citizens and Indian Constitution4

Just as a player cannot play unless he/she understands and practices the rule of the game, a citizen cannot perform his/her role in a society without understanding the basic framework of the country's Constitution; for, the Constitution provides the vision and basic framework of a society. Unfortunately, what should have been everybody's business—understanding basics of Indian Constitution and role of citizens—has remained almost nobody's business except a few constitutional experts and students of political science in universities.

Just as millions of citizens are oblivious of their constitutional rights, many more of them are unfamiliar of their fundamental duties as citizens. Rights and duties must go hand-in-hand. Following the famous PIL in the Supreme Court by Justice Ranganath Mishra on Education in Fundamental Duties, the Justice Verma Commission appointed by Government of India strongly recommended education in Fundamental Duties including higher education. Government of India has accepted the recommendations and in an inter-ministry meeting chaired by Education Secretary (SE&HE) it has been decided to implement the recommendations.

In view of the need for understanding basic tenets of Indian Constitution with focus on Education in Fundamental Duties, a module on Citizens and Indian Constitution is proposed to be included in this course. Major elements will be:

1.Objectives of the Constitution and Basic values for Citizens.

2.Values of Socialism and The Constitution.

3.Secular Citizenry and Freedom of Religion.

4 Drafted by Prof. Marmar Mukhopadhyay, National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, New Delhi-110 016

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

4.Citizenship values in Democratic Republican Polity.

5.Justice as a value—Social, Economic, and Political.

6.Liberty, Equality and Dignity of citizens.

7.Rulers, legislators and Judges—their Citizenship Obligations.

8.The Union, the State, the Panchayat and the Citizens.

9.Citizens as controller of State Finances and Right to Property.

10.Citizens and Freedom of Trade and Commerce.

11.Citizens in Public Service.

12.Adult Suffrage and Elections.

13.Citizenship Values during Emergencies.

14.Fundamental Citizenship Duties.

Module 5: Transition to Work

Higher education opens the threshold for transition to the world of work. Life in colleges and universities and at work is qualitatively different. Whereas life in college and university is often seen as preparatory to productive adult life, working life is seen as life itself. The knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that are adequate for a student may fall short for matching the expectations in working life, be it in the organized, semi-organized or unorganized sectors. It is necessary to plan transition carefully to be productive employee/entrepreneur. Such a transition will demand understanding and appreciation of self as a vocational—personality type, e.g. Holland's classification into conventional personality (receptionists, accountants), social type (teachers, counsellors, therapists, management consultants), investigative personality (researchers,), artistic type (painters, musicians, players, institution builders), realistic personality (pilots, engineers, defence personnels) and enterprising personality (leaders, businessman/woman), etc. and in their combinations, organizational structures and methods, organizational climate, ethos and culture, roles and role relations in organization, etc. Transition to Work is proposed as one of the six modules; and it may comprise:

1.Transitions in Life—school to college, college to world of work.

2.Occupational Personality and Self.

3.Career Options and Choices.

4.Organizational Types, Structures and Methods.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

5.Organizational Climate and Culture.

6.Roles in Organizations.

7. Success in Career.

This particular module will demand rich amount of counselling for understanding various career options in fast changing employment scenario, occupational personality types of each individual and matching the type with career choice.

Module 6: Leadership

Leadership is an important value and life skill. Leadership is necessary in day to day life—in social, religious, political and business organizations, educational institutions, etc. Leadership is necessary in crisis, e.g. floods, cyclone, earthquake, epidemics, etc. Inculcation of leadership qualities and values in the youth is an important component of education. This module has its focus on leadership development among college and university youth.

Lessons can be drawn from lives of notable religious, spiritual, political and social leaders; lessons can also be drawn from the lives of institution builders in education, industry, business enterprise and the like that can inspire and motivate the students to practice moral and ethical values of their own lives. Students should also study about the working of selected organizations known for adherence to ethical principles.

The module should offer key insights about the leadership traits and qualities like good character, valour, spirit of innovation and adventure, patience, perseverance, etc. The module should help students recognize their leadership potential and put on the path of optimal development. The module should enable the students to describe and explain important concepts and theories of leadership; and also analyze the traits of a successful leader, and attributes of selected leaders (belonging to different fields) reflecting those traits which are helping managing the dynamics of organizations and in the discharge of organizational responsibilities with special reference to



* Leadership—meaning, scope and functions.

* Leader Vs Manager.

* Leadership Theories.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

-Overview of Western Theories of Leadership.

-Indian Approach to Leadership.

-Leadership Effectiveness.

*Situational Leadership (case studies)

-leadership at home,

-leading community,

-leading organizations,

-leading people (country).

*Transactional and Transformational Leadership.

*Leadership for Ethical Organizations.

Module 7: Indian Art and Culture

Aesthetics is considered as a part of value systems of individuals. The element of aesthetics education must hence also form part of the curriculum in education in human values and life skills. Further, the art and culture are also considered as life skills because they enrich lives of individuals. In this course, an effort would be made to develop appreciation for various forms of Indian art and culture and also some practical skills in one or more forms of art and culture. The module is proposed to cover:

*Indian schools of painting.

*Indian schools of music.

*Indian schools of dance.

*Indian literature.

Practical aspect of the Module will comprise training in either music, painting, dance or literature.


Two problems have become prominent during recent years. The first one is the problem of the First generation learners. Since students come from a background wheije neither of the parents, or at least one, is literate, students find themselves out of tune with the situations as and when they arise from time

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

to time. The students are at a stage of development where they need to consult someone or at least interact with some people in a meaningful manner. Interaction with their parents is possible but interaction with the seniors is not

so easy.

The second category of students who feel lost and somewhat bewildered are those who are enrolled in colleges where the numbers are very large. Attendance in most classes is generally in the neighbourhood of one hundred, sometimes it is even more. In this situation, interaction with the teachers becomes almost impossible. Were the student-teacher ratio better, there would be opportunities for students to interact with the teachers. But when the numbers are large, this just does not happen.

In this difficult situation, only two things are possible. One is greater interaction with the family, seniors, parents, brothers, cousins and so on. Since it is not possible to interact with the seniors through the college, getting them to participate in Parent-Teacher organizations would help to some extent. But the other one perhaps more important would be to reinstate the system which prevailed more or less till the 70s of the last century.

Most of the colleges generally had tutorial groups. These groups generally meant something like 20 students being under the charge of a teacher. In theory, the groups were to meet at least once in a fortnight. In actual practice, the meetings were more or less once a month. The system of tutorials was beginning to break down in the 60s when student numbers began to increase. By the middle of the 70s, it had virtually broken down. Since nothing has taken its place during the last quarter of a century or so, the young people feel lost and are on the whole unable to talk to their teachers.

Despite various difficulties and obstacles, students do look upon their teachers as role models. Sad to say, these role models have over the years ceased to be models. A kind of apathy towards their students has grown with the result that teachers live in their own world, and students live in their on world. Interaction between the two is both remote and infrequent. This situation needs to be corrected.

During these very years, the number and proportion of girl students has been increasing. In the case of co-educational colleges, girls feel isolated by and large. In the case of girls' colleges, a sense of kinship does grow and that is helpful. This dimension of the problem also needs to be noted and taken care of.

The reading material which come to the notice of the students is generally indifferent to these problems. In fact, the problems of the young are seldom

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

attended to in these writings. Whatever the media does is so western in inspiration and so urban-oriented that a substantial number of students feel left out or unconcerned. Therefore, it would be of some significance if some of the abler and experienced teachers could be encouraged to write on issues which face the students. Apart from writing in popular magazines, even books can be written. It is all a question of somebody being innovative and enterprising.

In any case with families under pressures of various kinds, the needs of the young people need to be attended to. What is required is promotion of that kind of writing, which would include problems, and issues that face the young people. To the extent that some of the students acquired value of the right kind while growing up, the situation is within control. But whereversuch values have not been imparted or learnt, there is a real problem. Appointment of what are called counsellors or designation of certain teachers as counsellors would help. This is something to which hardly any attention has been paid so for. It is time to recognize that, even if professionally trained counsellors cannot be appointed for lack of funding, those teachers who have the right kind of social and psychological skills and are interested in the young people should be encouraged to reach out to them in an organized and professional manner.

* * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Annexure II



Education Secretary (SE & HE)


I am happy to be with you today in this seminar on Education in Human Values and Life Skills. Essentially, what we have gathered to discuss here is the formulation of a new course on Human Values and Life Skills that can be introduced at the undergraduate level in all colleges and universities.

What we are talking about is the art of living. To my mind this essentially consists of three elements:

*The first and the most important aspect is the relationship of the individual to the total. Each person should know the nature of the individual consciousness and the way it is related to the cosmic consciousness. This creates the understanding of the nature of consciousness, the evolutionary process, the need for taking a step forward towards super consciousness and other related matters. It gives a meaning and a purpose to human existence.

*The second is the relationship of the individual to other individuals in society. Inter-personal relationships can be based on understanding, love, empathy, compassion, tolerance, acceptance, patience, nonviolence and peace. Alternatively, they can be based on hate, antipathy, anger, intolerance, rejection, fundamentalism, violence and war. These relationships can be harmonious only if we regard others as aspects of ourselves, if we realize that service to others is service to self, and that by harming others we are only harming ourselves.

*The third is the relationship of the individual to his environment. This is determined by whether he looks upon nature as something given to him for exploitation or he looks upon himself as a child of nature with which he has to live the same way as a child lives with his mother.

If these three kinds of relationships are to be built, we have to teach the following to our children:

* Lecture delivered by Shri Maharaj Krishen Kaw, Secretary, Deptt. of Secondary & Hr. Education, Govt, of India in Workshop organized by NIEPA on May 24, 2001 at NIEPA.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

*The main tenets of all major religions, in order to demonstrate that their important principles are the same.

*Teaching how to accept other faiths and other points of view as equally relevant and true.

*How to live in society like a good citizen, performing one's duties and respecting the rights of others.

*How not to try to convert others to your own point of view by force, deceit, fraud or inducement.

*How to manage the environment for the good of all, without over straining it.

*How to manage one's emotions under all circumstances.

*How to conduct oneself in public.

*Public speaking.

*Personality development.

*How one should go about choosing a career.

*The importance of being an Indian and being proud of it.

*The knowledge of India's rich cultural, scientific and spiritual heritage.

*The conviction that India is great and will achieve even greater heights.


Such a course can be called anything. Some suggested names are human values, art of living, life coping skills, personality development and so on.

I feel that one course of six months' duration should be enough, to begin with. Once people get started on these ideas, principles and practices, these will become part of their character and they can start a life-long learning process. For example, if they are taught elementary yoga and meditation practices, I am sure they will buy books or cassettes orjoin a course somewhere, and continue the practice under the guidance of a guru. It is important that they realize the following important truths :

*That there is something in life besides the body and physical objects.

*That happiness is more a state of mind than the state of our bank balance.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

* That whether we are happy or unhappy is largely in our own hands.

* That life is a journey with a well-defined direction and goal.

* That nothing in life is an accident.

* That it is important for us to keep our cool under the gravest provocation.

* That we should treat others the way we would like to be treated by them.

*That love and respect beget love and respect.

*That nobody is born perfect, perfection can be achieved if we learn the know-how and practise it.

*That we should try to achieve goals. If we meet with success, good. If we don't, we should take it in a sportsmanlike spirit.

Friends, I know that I am speaking to experts. So, I would like to conclude by wishing you well in your deliberations. I hope that you will be able to achieve a consensus, which can then form the basis for a new initiative in higher education.

* * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Annexure III




Value education, rather value inculcation, is as old as human civilization. It is an integral part of civilized human society; a parental culture in the early childhood days, school culture during adolescence and part of the university ethos during late adolescence and early adulthood in human development.

Whenever, irrespective of political, religious and socio-cultural convictions, a parent or a teacher differentiates between what 'should' and what 'should not be' done or between 'desirable' and 'undesirable' behaviours of children, adolescents and early adults, he/she is imparting value education. Even without articulation, parents, teachers and other elders communicate and transfer values to young children through their own behaviour. There is no escape from value education. The choice and the debate are between organized efforts in value education and 'let it happen'.

Any organized efforts in value education can be construed as regimentation of mind; education itself has been equated with 'shaping of mind' by almost all schools of thought. This is also reflected in the report to UNESCO by International Commission on Education for the 21st Century. The post-Marxian philosopher Herbert Marcuse's famous book, 'One Dimensional Man' propounds the same thesis, be it in socialist or a capitalist society mind is shaped to become one-dimensional although Marcusian thesis has larger ramification of the concept of' shaping of mind', though he paints the issue on a much larger socio-economic canvas.

Values are the hidden determinants of human behaviour—in a way a behavioural decision support system. There are variations among societies and cultures in the expressed forms of behaviour around the common core of values. For example, whenever people meet each other, exchanging greetings is an accepted and appreciated social value. It take a variety of shapes like pronouncing 'Namaskar' with folded hands and a smile, bending and bowing with right hand on the stomach, rubbing nose, shaking hands with 'good morning', offering pecks, etc. Similarly, student behaviours in classrooms visà-vis

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

the teacher are also guided by values. Indian classrooms receive teachers with 'standing' ovation (!) indicating respect and some kind of difference in status between students and teachers on the grounds of knowledge, age and relationship equivalent of parent and child, irrespective of the fact that students pay for their learning. Such behaviours are unusual in western world classrooms. Importantly, hence, values that determine the overt behaviour of people of a society characterize the society itself; it gives the society an identity by which it is recognized in the comity of societies.

Issue is, do we need an identity for our Indian society? Is it relevant at a time when information and communication technology are sweeping cultures out of their feet to globalize the culture itself?

India has been a land of many cultures and people for several centuries. The Saks, Huns, Mughals, Pathans and Europeans invaded India through several centuries and finally settled down here itself. In poet-philosopher, Rabindranath's view, they all merged into one body and that is India. Is that vision still valid?

Even in the age of globalization, a country is not worth her existence without an identity characterized simultaneously by its heritage and resilience to absorb and subsume variations and newer developments. Beyond and besides this macro concern for cultural identity of nations and role of values therein, there are several implications of values for life and living at individual, inter-personal, organizational, community and larger socio-economic and political levels. Compatible and responsive behaviour is necessary for meaningful living in all areas of human living. Values being the determining factor for behaviour-options is most significant factor in individual, inter-personal, organizational and social efficiency, effectiveness and total well-being. But why value education?

Value development pass through four stages:

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

The human behaviour is determined by the consolidated values. It is the consolidated values that provides predictability of human behaviour; and indeed, the very foundation of the personality that has been described as the style of the man/woman. Value education is necessary to support the value consolidation from value conflicts. Let us take just one example. Article 51A of Indian Constitution charges every citizen to "renounce practices derogatory to dignity of women (Article 51A (e)"; in other words, upholding dignity of women is a fundamental duty of every Indian citizen. If we use Kurt Lewin's theory of Force-Field analysis, education offers a weak supportive force to this value compared to the powerful contra-force exerted by printed and electronic media depicting women as unequal and an object of greed and lust. Such examples can be multiplied, but may not be necessary. Value education purports to strengthen positive forces for directing social change to desirable direction and also strengthen the social fabric that holds the people in a society together.

Value Education is universal; it is necessary in all societies, irrespective of religious and political hues of the society. Under different titles value education is imparted in the industrialized capitalist economies in the west, in communist China, as well as in Islamic countries. In some countries, value education is based on religious theology. As Cheng-Kai Ming, the Chinese scholar-Vice-chancellor puts it, "in the western world, moral education is needed for individual development whereas in China we need value education for the development of our society". Indian thesis creates a meeting ground for both the goals when it states, for large hearted people, the whole world is a family (Udaracaritanantu vasudhaiva kutumbakam). It sees world as a family, but not unqualified; word is a family only to the large hearted people. First goal of value education is to create large-hearted people who are not self-centered, selfish and exploitative, emancipated and magnanimous. With them, create a family-like-society where people are emotionally inter-related, interdependent, concerned for one another expressed through affection, respect, love, and contributions towards mutual well being.

Thus, what can vary is the content of value education. The value education can be based on behavioural model with certain theoretical underpinnings. The theoretical or philosophical underpinnings anchor the behavioural model.

The raging controversy has largely emanated from the search for the source of theoretical underpinnings of value education that must be derived from the heritage of the society—cultural or religious. India being a multi-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

cultural and multi-religious society task is far more complicated. There are, however, certain artificialities built into the controversy. It largely emanates from the understanding of the nature and propensities of human being against the backdrop of the larger cosmos and cosmic realities. We will come back to this issue in a little while.

First division is between the atheists and the non-atheists, existence and concept of God as an anchoring point for determining nature of humans. Those who believe in existence of God are far too large compared to those who do not; even those who subscribe to political philosophies that profess 'religion as opium of the masses'—continue to be practicing Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Buddhists, and the like.

Second division arises with respect to schools of religious thoughts—from which religion to derive the inspiration from. Religions have two facets—the philosophical elements and practice elements. Inter-faith research indicates that all religious philosophies converge on to the point that humans are either incarnations of God or Her representatives on earth; hence human propensities are as high as God Herself or as good as one whom God trusts as Her representative on earth. Hence, at philosophical level, all religions are equal so far as this aspect is concerned. In the UN Convention on World Religion in 2000, Sri Sri Ravishankar, eminent Indian religious leader called upon people to 'love other religion', tolerance is not enough. Purpose of education is exacting the full potential within each human—'the best already in man' (woman). The theoretical underpinning of value education is informed not by religious practices but by religious philosophy and the understanding of human potential and realization of the potential (self-realization).

At an open analytical level, even the first division is resolvable. The ultimate goal of Marx's (and Engels') thesis is socialism where all are equal; from the standpoint of behaviourism, it is the highest form of civility in humans. Purpose of education is reaching that highest form of civility. In the religious philosophy too, Self-realization is the goal that leads to the same highest form of civility. Hence, in the ultimate analysis, the atheists and the non-atheists can find their meeting ground at the goals of education in general and value education in particular.

Nevertheless, keeping the theoretical underpinnings at the backburner for deriving inspiration, value education holds the potential of moving the society towards the goals it has set for itself through the Constitution, and the unwritten socio-cultural constitution that creates the identity of the society.

Given the steady deterioration in human values as indicated by financial corruption in all walks of life, unconcerned economic exploitation of poor and

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

children, degradation of women (rape, dowry deaths, unequal wages, discriminatory educational opportunities, etc.), poor work ethics in organization and accountability, poor public behaviour (littering roads and public places, road rages, unauthorized occupation of public land, honking horns and blaring loud speakers, etc.) and many others, education in human values has become all the more necessary now than ever before. It is necessary at all stages of education. Its importance in school education is because that is where first and most significant shaping of mind takes place; higher education contributes the leaders and higher level workers to the organizations; they create organizational values and hence work culture and productivity.

The programme of Education in Human Values and Life Skills for Students in Higher Education can be designed around some practical live issues and must expand stepwise from self to larger global living. It must begin with an effort in understanding and managing self to learning to live together in the globalized world through family and community living, transition to work and organizational values, and responding to the fundamental duties as a citizen of an independent democratic nation, and leadership.

* * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Annexure IV



Sri M.K. Raw

Education Secretary (SE & HE)

Government of India

Ministry of Human Resource Development

Sashtri Bhavan

New Delhi


Prof. Arun Nigavekar

Vice Chairman

University Grants Commission

Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg

New Delhi


Prof. S.P. Thyagarajan


Madras University


Tamil Nadu


Dr. N.S. Rame Gowda


Karnataka State Open University




Prof. P. Sandeep


Prof. C. Ram Reddy Center for Distance Education

Osmania University

Administrative Building

Hyderabad-500007 Andhra Pradesh

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Prof. (Ms) K.S. Lyngdoh

Pro Vice-Chancellor

North Eastern Hill University

Shillong 793022




Prof. Anil Bhattacharya





Prof. Subhas Saha


Assam University




Prof. Nityananda Saha

Vice Chancellor

University of Kalyani

P.O. Kalyani -741235

Dr. Nadia, West Bengal


Dr. Anil S. Kane


MS University of Baroda

Shastri Bridge Road

Vadodara-390002 Gujarat


Dr. A.M. Pathan


Karnataka University

Pavate Nagar

Dharwad-580003 Karnataka

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Prof. D. L. Sharma


Jawaharlal Nehru University

New Mehrauli Road

New Delhi-110067


Shri Syed Shahid Mahdi


Jamia Millia Islamia

Jamia Nagar, New Delhi-110025


Dr. Dilip K. Sinha


Viswa Bharati


Dist. Birbhum


Dr. Vijay Khole


University of Mumbai




Prof Hoshiar Singh


Kurukshetra University Kurukshetra-136119



Dr. Bharat C. Chhaparwal


Devi Afiilya Vishwavidyalaya

R.N. Tagore Marg



Dr. S. M. Sajid

Department of Social Sciences

Jamia Millia Islamia

New Delhi-110 025

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Prof Talat Aziz


Faculty of Education

Jamia Millia Islamia

New Delhi-110 025

Prof Amrik Singh

Sarvodaya Enclave

New Delhi

Prof. Jaya Indiresan

B-57 Hill View Apartment

New Delhi

Prof. Karuna Chanana

Zakir Hussain Center for Educational Studies

Jawaharlal Nehru University

New Delhi

Prof. B. P. Khandelwal



New Delhi

Prof. Marmar Mukhopadhyay


New Delhi

Dr. Madhumita Bandopadhyay


New Delhi

Dr. Neeru Snehi


New Delhi

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


Dr. R. S. Tyagi


New Delhi

* * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2



I take pleasure in having an opportunity to acquaint you with one of the activities of Sri Aurobindo International Institute of Educational Research, located in Auroville. The researchers who have developed it call it Awareness through the Body. This is a programme of exercises and activities and reflections which have been developed with the specific intention of awakening the consciousness of the child and of giving him or her especially the body, emotions, and mind. The ultimate aim of this activity is to indicate to the child how the inner being, and even the inmost being may be contacted so that it may take charge of the child's life and development.

There are many skills and qualities that are touched in the Awareness through the Body programme such as attention, observation, relaxation, use of the senses and breathing, collaboration with others, trust, responsibility for one's life and actions—but probably the key concept with which the work is done is the cultivation of the Witness attitude. This concept will be familiar to most of you as it originally emerged in Indian philosophy and is best known to the common man as saksibhava. The Witness is not directly defined for the students, but through carefully constructed, developmentally appropriate exercises and activities, accompanied by thought-provoking question, the students are led to discover their own awareness behind every activity and to take responsibility for the use of this awareness as it expresses itself in the outer personality (mind, life, body.)

To give a concrete example let us take the activities which are done using a simple tin plate and stick. Please refer to page six in the accompanying brochure where this activity is illustrated in a photograph. Probably many of you have played the game of balancing a plate on a stick. It can be played in many ways: while standing still or moving around the room, while lying on the floor—even while crossing a structured landscape that involves ups and downs and crossing objects at different levels. Normally such an exercise is conceived as purely a balancing activity—keep the plate on the stick at any cost. Using the Witness attitude, however, it becomes a field for self-exploration and self-discovery. The students are led to examine how they keep the plate balanced, to see what state of mind or heart influences the activity. In the course of the activity they will naturally explore the roles of breathing and concentration

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

and relaxation; they will become acquainted with their own physical structure and its inter-relation with gravity, and they may become aware of tensions or fears in themselves that affect them. This process of self-examination becomes more important than actually balancing-even dropping the plate can be an opportunity to see why and how the disequilibrium occurred and how it can be prevented in the future if the child so desires. The activity can be varied according to the age and capacities of the children and can focus on the individual or his interaction in the group. Through such seemingly simple activities the child cultivates an awareness of himself, and his/her relation to others and to the world around him. He/she is helped to understand that there are tools which can be used to facilitate his inner development and the application of that development to his own life, in his/her own field of activities.

Through this kind of integrated programme children can be introduced at a very early age to the joy of exploring one's own being and of developing its many powers and capacities. The thirst for progress once awakened can be an invaluable aid in any search for life's deeper meanings.

An aluminium plate on top of a stick becomes a field of exploration for balance, concentration, relaxation, breathing, awareness of the physical structure and its inter-relation with gravity, perception of unnecessary tensions, awareness of the use of oneself, interaction between mind, emotion and body, and the interaction between the group and the individual.

Expansion of consciousness

'Awareness through the Body' aims to provide tools for children to expand their consciousness, discover their inner self, and eventually their psychic being, so that they can figure out by themselves how to steer their life, make out their own navigation charts, and create their own 'owner's manual'.

We want to give individuals the possibility of refitting and internalising the senses and using them in a more complete way, detached from judgment and preconceived ideas so that each individual becomes aware of his/her own perceptions with as little outside interference as possible.

"We think that the way to achieve this large goal is to discover and explore the body, and through the body awaken the consciousness of the entire being and all the parts that form it.

Exploring parts of the being

We address the physical body by working with the senses and through exercises that promote fluidity, space and expansion in joints and tissues of the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

body. By helping the children to internalise the senses we open access to all the richness of the child's inner world and to their subtle body.

We work the vital being through games and exercises that help to differentiate and control energy, and, with older groups, through exploration of emotions and attitudes.

We approach the mental being through attention, concentration, relaxation exercises, and debriefings on the exercises that have been done, although attention, concentration and relaxation are always part of whatever activity we do.

Witness attitude

Normally we live on the surface of our feelings, thoughts and emotions without being aware of the depths of our being. To become aware of the inner self we need to separate ourselves from the surface and become an impartial observer or witness who looks at all that happens as a spectator without active interest or preference, being neither pleased nor repulsed. By developing an awareness of the inner being in all parts and actions of our personality, our consciousness begins to become an instrument of our soul rather than remaining primarily in the domain of our physical body, mind and emotions.

Developing an awareness of the witness attitude—the observer within— stands central in all our work with Awareness through the Body. It is a never-ending process, a theme that resurfaces and grows. It is this witness attitude along with a deep sincerity that opens access to the psychic being.


The key aim of Awareness through the Body is to help children discover themselves as described above. In the course of our work, we have identified objectives that serve as indicators so that both the teachers and the children can assess our progress. It is our aim that children will:

* Become aware of the witness attitude and begin to cultivate it.

* Understand the use of oneself, and develop acceptance of one's own limits and those of others.

* Develop children's awareness of their physical structure, so individuals will be able to more effectively use themselves.

* Enhance their concentration and focus, and their capacity for being present.

* Learn how to explore, understand, and manage their emotions.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

*Refine their senses, internalize them, and develop the kinesthetic sense.

*Develop subjective sensorial landmarks.

*Develop a heightened sense of respect, responsibility, trust, self-confidence, patience, concern and awareness for one's own and others' timing or pace.

*Develop an awareness of the inner and outer space.

*Become aware of breathing patterns, their affect on the various bodies, and how the breath can be used to effect change within the self.

*Improve the children's capacity to adapt and be flexible.

*Develop a sense of how to better collaborate with others.

Themes and activities

We have found through trial and error many themes and activities that are particularly useful in reaching our goal. By theme we mean: a set of interrelated exercises that help to explore an aspect of life or an aspect of the being; by activities we mean sets of interrelated exercises that open fields of exploration to several aspects of life, or several aspects of the being simultaneously. Examples of themes are: breathing, balance, relaxation, physical structure, subtle body, concentration, and sensory awareness. Examples of activities are Structures setting, Plates, Sticks, Flying clothes, Games, Form and Space. There is a constant flow and interaction between all.

* * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2



DRAG : NGO focuses on education, development, environment and more.

The Development Research and Action Group (DRAG) has been focusing on development, environment and heritage issues. 'Action' is the leitmotif of the group—action not from the top but side by side, and even a step behind the people so that its role is that of a catalyst. It is left to the people, the main actors, to develop their own strategies once they become aware of the root cause of their problems. 'Research' is initiated to formalize the field experience, which can be used by others—government organizations, NGOs, etc.

DRAG, which was registered in 1988 in Bombay, first began working among the Katkari and Thakkar adivasis in Pen tahsil, Maharashtra. The objective was to enable the adivasis to have greater control over their lives.

In 1992, DRAG established a base in Delhi, where it has been working on environment and heritage related issues. It has joined hands with other NGOs to protect the Delhi Ridge. It has also identified monuments in south-central Delhi which are lying in a state of abandon and neglect.

As a member of the Paani Morcha, DRAG has been active on the issue of the pollution of the Yamuna and the Ganga. A Ganga-Yamuna Yatra was organized in April 1994 which collected samples from the two rivers at various points to measure pollution levels. Since then the focus has been promoting and strengthening the use of traditional/alternative sources of water.

DRAG has set up a field base in Haryana from where it intends to launch the DRAG green campaign by distributing samplings from its nursery, and setting up demonstration plots of natural and organic farming to promote these and hence strengthen the sustainable agriculture movement.

In Delhi, DRAG's focus has been the urban poor, again with the objective of empowering them. Education has been the main area of its work, whether Adult Education in Trilokpuri or Mohan Garden or Non Formal Education (NFE) for children in Kusumpur Pahari. The Adult Education in Mohan Garden has led to the creation of mahila solidarity and the women have had plans of pressuring the civic authorities to provide their colony with basic amenities. In Kusumpur Pahari, the NFE led to DRAG's involvement with the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

mothers of the children who wanted a preventive health programme which among other things led to the waste management exercise.

In Mohan Garden, West Delhi, DRAG has purchased a 250 sq. yard plot to build a school cum community centre. It is essentially a colony of migrants, in the main from Haryana, Punjab, UP and Bihar. There are some from Himachal, and even from the southern states. In the adjoining colony are people who have fled the North-eastern states because of the unrest there. DRAG's survey revealed that a number of old time migrants to Delhi who have lived and worked here as gardeners, carpenters, petty traders for the last 30 odd years have also settled down in Mohan Garden since plots were being sold here.

The above residents are relatively well off and can afford the fees of the private schools in the areas, of which there are quite a few. DRAG will provide schooling to the children of the labouring class, those that get jobs for not more than 15 days a month. They can't pay the Rs. 200-300 that the private schools charge. For instance, there is a Kumbhar settlement near DRAG's plot and the children from it will attend DRAG's school since there is no free municipal or government school in the vicinity. The casual labour and other poor, who cannot pay the fees of private schools, comprise as much as 40-50 per cent of the population of Mohan Garden. DRAG has sought to secure a better deal for the deprived, whether they are in a rural area or urban. The strategy has been to conscientize them so that they can stand up for their rights. The method adopted is to set up people's groups so as to ascertain the needs of the marginalized and through the process of action-reflection-action strengthen the people's groups. The entry point in such an approach is often education (NFE, AE), which leads to the generation of awareness and thus the empowerment of the group.

* * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2





Values are normative standards, by which human beings are influenced in the choice among alternative courses of action. Values form an important element of the personality of individuals, which influences their thoughts and behaviour in an unconscious manner. Value-oriented education is of immense importance in the present day world amidst the chaos and turbulence, which has become a rule than an exception. Sri Sathya Sai Educational institutions are operationalising the value-oriented education through integral system of education, and the present paper is a case study of the system of Value-Oriented education that is in vogue in Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning. The purpose of the whole process is to produce students with knowledge, skills, abilities, character, commitment, and nationalism, who will prove assets for any organisation. Sri Sathya Sai Baba, the founder and Chancellor of the Institute has created the right organisational culture which makes value-orientation a way of life.


Values are similar to attitudes but are more ingrained, permanent and stable in nature and influence attitudes. At a more concrete level, values are principles, which guide a person's desires, feelings, and action. Values mean different things to different people. It may be regarded as normative standards, by which human beings are influenced in the choice among alternative courses of action. A value can also be a general belief about some way of behaving or some end state that is applicable to the individual. Character applies to one's personal standards of behaviour. It encompasses an individual's honour, integrity, veracity, constancy, and moral fibre. It is based on an individual's internal values and the resulting judgements about what is right and wrong.


Values guide actions andjudgements in many different situations and beyond people's immediate goals or more ultimate end states of existence. A value is an endearing belief that a specific mode of conducts or end states of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

or end state of existence. (Wiener, Y., 1988). A value may be viewed as a conception, explicit or implicit, of what an individual, group or organisation regards as desirable and in terms of which a selection of the means and ends of actions is made from the available alternative modes. Throughout one's life the basic values may not change, but you may rearrange them in some sort of order or priority. Your priorities change as you mature and your needs and goals change. Some values—such as security, family relationships, and spiritual growth—will continue to have high priority all through a person's life, which are known as terminal values, representing goals you will strive to accomplish before you die. Other values will reflect the way you prefer to behave, which are known as instrumental values. (Rokeach, M., 1973). Instrumental values include those values that encourage work attitudes of renewal, optimism, growth, effective coping, perceptual restructuring, and change, which will increase the meaning of one's job. In Astariga Yoga, Patahjali elaborated various values in Yama: love, non-covetousness, harmlessness, continence, etc. and Niyama: purity, contentment, mortification, study of good literature, and devotion to God. (Prabhavananda, 1985) The sages and saints of India in the bygone ages suggested the significance of the five universal values, i.e. Truth, Righteous Conduct, Peace, Love, and Non-violence. NCERT in its publication entitled 'Documents on Social, Moral and Spiritual Values in Education' published in 1979 (Goyal, B.R., 1979) identified about eighty three values: Anti-untouchability, cooperation, courtesy, curiosity, justice, socialism, team work, tolerance, universal love, etc. Gokak (1982) classified and grouped these eighty-three values under the five basic human values: Satya (Truth), Dharma (Righteous Conduct), Santi(Peace), Prema (Love), and Ahirhsa(non-violence).

(See Table 1)


We are not born with an internal set of values. We learn to measure the worth of things and ideas by observation and testing. Individual values are formed early in life and are acquired from a variety of sources: educational system, mass media, social economic class, religious upbringing, prejudices and stereotypes, beliefs and opinions, home influence, and peer group. Values are so deep-seated in our personality that they are never actually "seen". What we "see" is the way in which values manifest themselves through our attitudes, opinions, and behaviours. (Warren H. Schmidt, and Barry Z. Posner, 1982). Personality, which contains the values of an individual, influences his/her behaviour. Personality usually refers to the distinctive patterns of behaviour (including thoughts and emotions) that characterize each individual's adapta

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


Truthfulness Cleanliness Abstinence Sincerity Kindness
Curiosity Hygienic living Freedom from Kindness to Courtesy
Quest for Dignity of the six sins animals Good manners
knowledge Labour Cultivation of sympathy Helpfulness
Spirit of Proper six virtues Friendships Fellow-feeling
enquiry utilisation Discipline patriotism Gentlemanliness
Study of of time Purity Devotion to hurt
oneself Regularity Endurance Tolerance Consideration
Discrimination Punctuality Integrity Humanism for others
Secularism Self-help Self-discipline   Readiness to
Respect for all Self-support Self-respect   cooperate
religions Obedience Awareness of   Appreciation of
Universal, self Duty and dignity of   other's culture
existent truth loyalty individual   Compassion
  to duty Consideration   Universal love
  Simple living Meditation   Awareness of
  Honesty Peace   responsibility of
  Prudence     citizenship
  Respect for     Common good
  others     National
  Reverence     awareness
  Service to     National unity
  others     National
  Self-confidence     Integrity
  Self-reliance     Away from
  Initiative     untouchability
  Resourcefulness     and national
  Courage     property
  Leadership     Social service
  Faithfulness     Social justice
  Justice     Socialism
  Teamwork     Solidarity
  Team Spirit      

Source : Gokak, V.K, Teacher's Handbook for the Course in the Human Values.

tion to the situations of his or her life. Two primary sources shape personality differences: heredity and environment, or nature and nurture. Some studies of twins suggest that as much as 50 to 55 percent of personality traits may be

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

inherited, which has some interesting implications. Some personality traits seem to have a strong genetic component, whereas other traits seem to be largely learned from various sources: culture, family, group membership, and life experiences. Self-concept or self-image: a person's perceptions/feelings about himself or herself, which includes self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-worthlessness. It is a part of the sub-conscious mind of an individual, which continues to have a significant influence on human behaviour.


Freud constructed a model of personality with three parts: the id (unconscious) , the ego (conscious) and the super-ego (conscience). The instinctive drive (id) can be thought of as a sort of storehouse of biologically based motives and instinctual reactions for satisfying motives. Left to itself, the id would satisfy fundamental wants as they arose, without regard to the realities of life devoid of morals of any kind. The id, however, is usually bridled and managed by the ego. The ego consists of elaborate ways of behaving and thinking which constitute the executive function of the person. It keeps a person working for a living, getting along with people, and generally adjusting to the realities of life. The super-ego corresponds closely with what we commonly call conscience. It consists mainly of prohibitions learned from parents and parent-substitutes: teachers, neighbourhood, electronic media, films, and religion. The superego may condemn as wrong certain things, which the ego would otherwise do to satisfy the id. It also keeps a person striving toward the ideals-called the "ego ideals" which are usually acquired in childhood. (Morgan, C.T., 1979). Values predominantly lie in the superego. dimension, even though certain positive and negative recordings relating to self E-Library/-03 Disciples/Kireet Joshi/-01 English/Philosophy of Value-Oriented Education/-image/self-concept also lie in the id dimension.


In addition to the Personality Structure approach, it will also be useful to understand the role of Transactional Analysis (TA) in the formation of values of an individual. TAmaintains that everyone's personality is composed of three distinct ego states: PARENT, CHILD, AND ADULT—a consistent combination of thought-feelings and related behaviour. The Parent is a huge collection of recordings in the brain of unquestioned or imposed external events perceived by a person in his/her early years, a period which is designated roughly as the first five years of life. The most significant recordings are those

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

provided by the example and pronouncements of his own real parents or parent substitutes. Everything the child saw his parents do and everything he heard them say is recorded in the Parent The data in the Parent was taken in and recorded straight without editing. The situation of the child, his dependency, and his inability to construct meanings with words made it impossible for him/her to modify, correct, or explain. Therefore, if the parents/parent substitutes set a good example, good things will be recorded in the Parent and if the parents/parent substitutes set a bad example, bad things will be recorded in the Parent. Another characteristic of the Parent is the fidelity of the recordings of inconsistency. Parents say one thing and another. It is not safe for the little child to question this inconsistency, and so he is confused. There are sources of Parent data other than the physical parents. A small boy/girl who sits before a TV set many hours is recording what he/she sees. The programmes he/she watches are all thus a 'taught' concept of life. Whether the Parent data is a burden or a boon depends on how appropriate it is to the present, on whether or not the Adult has updated it. Thus Parent Ego state is the storehouse of an individual's values and the parents and parent substitutes play a very important role in the formation of values of an individual. The family, the church, the school, television, and the peer group are identified as the five elements of moral crisis in the advanced countries (Yassin Shankar, 1992). The second ego state is Child, which is the recording of internal events, the responses of the little person to what he sees and hears. The Child is the major source of one's emotional responses in later years. It records joy, happiness, excitement associated with many childhood events. It also records terror, agony, and all the fearful emotions you have experienced as a child. At about ten months of age a remarkable thing begins to happen to the child. The ten month old has found he is able to do something, which grows from his own awareness and original thought. This self-actualisation is the beginning of the Adult. The Adult ego state is free from personal feelings and opinions. It functions like a computer, collecting and processing information from both the Child and the Parent. Adult data accumulates as result of the child's ability to find out for himself what is different about life from the 'taught concept' of life in his/her Parent and the 'felt concept' of life in his/her Child. Thus the Adult develops a 'thought concept' of life based on data gathering and data processing. (Thomas A. Harris, 1970).



Adopting Systems and general Systems engineering approach, the various

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2






S1 Students N l Well-rounded Personality
S2 Teachers N2 Good Qualification (Degree)
S3 Parents N3 Efficient & Good Human Resources
S4 Educational Administrators N4 Good Leaders
S5 Employing Organisations N5 Law and Order
S6 Society/Community/Nation N6 Ethical and Moral Citizens
S7 Government N7 Good Managers/Executives
S8 Political Parties N8 Responsible Family Person
S9 Family N9 Statesmen and Visionaries
S10 Law Enforcing Agencies N10 Career Prospects



CI Politicisation Al NGOs' Participation
C2 Westernisation A2 Informal Method
C3 Resistance to Change A3 Social Organisations
C4 Extreme Materialism in Society A4 Scout, NCC, NSS, etc
C5 Poverty A5 Autonomous Institutions
C6 Excessive Careerism A6 Corporate Participation
C7 Misplaced Secularism A7 Employer Patronisation
C8 Lack of Respect for Culture    
C9 Want of Committed/Role-model Teachers    
C 10 Commercialisation of Education    
C11 Lack of Committed Leadership in Educational Institutions    


Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2




1.To help the students cultivate self-knowledge and self-confidence, so that each one can learn self-sacrifice and self-realisation.

2.To make spiritual uplift, self-discovery, and social service the end of education through love and detachment.

3.To emphasize on giving and forgiving and not on getting and forgetting.

4.To encourage service, especially among the illiterate and the needy in the villages around.

5.To highlight the responsibilities of youth, rather than rights: for, the right is earned only by the proper discharge of the responsibility.

6.To inculcate detachment, loving service, fraternity, humility, sincerity, fortitude, self-reliance, independence, and fearlessness.

7.To inculcate in the students respect for their culture and gratitude to their parents, villages, nation and all those who strive for their welfare.

8.To develop in the students: Love All—Serve All and Hurt Never—Help Ever mentality.

9.To make the students internalise the mental outlook, that education is for life and not for living wherein the end of education is character.

10.To shape the students into responsible citizens and impel/motivate them to subordinate their individual interests before the national interests.


Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

person. Westernisation, extreme materialism, excessive careerism, poverty, and lack of respect for culture in Indian society would lead to resistance to change in the educational system towards value-orientation, for it would be construed as revivalism. Misplaced secularism may also stand in the way of value-orientation, as political parties too do not have consensus with regard to value-oriented education. Commercialisation of education, lack of committed leadership in educational institutions, and lack of committed and role model teachers in good number may offer a constraint to value-oriented education. However, there are alterables to overcome the constraints to fulfil the needs of the stakeholders with respect to value-oriented education. Non-Governmental Organisations, which do not have any such limitations, could take the lead and operationalise value-oriented education. Social organisations like Lions, Rotary, J C, etc. may also take active part in this regard. If there is any resistance for certain traditional approaches, informal approaches (silent sitting in lieu of meditation) could be adopted to impart values through such bodies as Scout, NCC, NSS, etc. Corporate bodies also could sponsor programmes in the form of workshops and they could also patronise people with such background. Figure. 2 shows the list of objectives of Value-oriented education at Sri Sathya Sai Educational Institutions in general with particular reference to Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning. These objectives are ten in number and they are not mutually exclusive but are interdependent.




The formal inauguration of the Institute, which is a Deemed University, took place on November 22, 1981. The institute comprises three campuses: the University campus is located at Prasanthinilayam, Anantapur District; the girls' campus at Anantapur, the district head quarters of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh; and the exclusive under-graduate boys' campus at Bangalore, Karnataka. Before the university came into existence the three campuses were under-graduate colleges affiliated to Sri Venkateswara University, and Bangalore University respectively. The campuses and hostels have spacious, beautiful and artistically designed buildings. The institutions stand out for their simplicity and elegance. Hostels provide reasonable amenities to the students. The institute is a non-profit autonomous institution. The campuses at

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Prasanthinilayam and Anantapur house several post-graduate programmes viz. MBA, MFM, M.Tech. (Computer Sciences), M.Sc. (Physics, Chemistry, Biosciences, Mathematics, and Home-Science), M.A. (English Literature, Economics) besides the regular under-graduate programmes. The institute offers Honours programmes at the under-graduate level. The students come from all over India and even from other countries. More than two thirds of the student population hail from states other than Andhra Pradesh where the institute is located. In Prasanthi Nilayam, there is a full-fledged residential Primary and Secondary School from Class I to Class XII (+2 stage), affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi. These schools and other institutions, in different states, also act as a feeder points for the three campuses of the Institute. Sri Sathya Sai organisation has full-fledged undergraduate colleges of Arts, Science and Commerce in Jaipur (Rajasthan), Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh) and Bhubaneswar (Orissa) affiliated to the local universities. (SSSIHL, 2000).

Every Institute/University has an emblem of its own which is a symbolic presentation—in its quintessential form—of its aspirations, ideals and philosophy. Our Institute emblem, designed by our Revered Chancellor, presents beautifully and in a comprehensive manner, the basics of human values, the illumination of our intellect, the essential unity of all faiths and religions, the pursuit of the eightfold path (Astahgayoga). The emblem also contains the motto of the institute, a commandment from the convocation advice of the ancient Vedic gurus in the Gurukulas: "Satyam Vada, Dharmam Cara"—"Speak the Truth, Act in Dharma-dharmically/righteously". It outlines the emphasis of the primary and the secondary human values that decide the code of conduct of the Institute. (SSSIHL, 2000). In Baba's words, the students will have the right environment, training, and opportunities to mould themselves into integrated personalities, a unique combination of 'The Head of Sarikara, the Heart of Buddha, and the Hands of Janaka".


The Institute has several distinctive features. The more important among these are: (SSSIHL, 2000)

* Residential character of the institute with students and faculty staying in the campuses;

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

* An open admission policy enabling students from all over the country to seek admission to various courses, irrespective of income, class, creed, religion or region, making it truly national in character;

* Free education for all, who are selected on the basis of merit, through a very comprehensive testing and interviewing procedures, giving adequate weightage to intellectual attainments and intuitive insight;

* Integrated courses of five years duration in order to promote talent;

* A very favourable average teacher-pupil ratio for closer rapport between students and faculty;

* Maximum number of working days, fuller utilisation of vacation, national holidays and important festivals for educational purposes and extension work; and

* Sri Sathya Sai Schools and other institutions belonging to the Sai organisation functioning as major feeder points to the Institute which enables the Institute to have inputs with the conducive attitude towards learning and discipline at higher education.


There are various approaches to value-oriented education: 1. Critical Inquiry Approach, 2. Total-Atmosphere Approach, and 3. The Integrated Approach. (Bharadwaj, T.R., 2001). Critical Inquiry Approach helps people discover what is right through constant critical inquiry and thus harness their inherent energies for the pursuit of sound values. The Total Atmospheric Approach imparts values through the use of activities, exercises that habituate children in the right modes of conduct thus strengthening their character. The Integrated Approach combines 1 and 2. Integrated approach aims at inculcation of values through all academic programme and activities. The teacher integrates the relevant values in the daily lessons or in other activities outside the classroom. Thus the integrated approach should be practised both through curricular activities and co-curricular activities. (Madhu Kapani, 2000). The Institute adopts the Integrated Approach of Value-oriented Education. Value-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

oriented education cannot take place in an artificial environment. The institute provides the right physical and non-physical setting that is required for education in general and in particular value-oriented education. All the following components together and individually have important role to play in the formation of Super-ego or the Parent-ego state. The following are the various components that form part of the physical and non-physical setting of value-oriented education.


Baba as the founder and Chancellor of the institute is the sole goal and motivation of all those engaged in the institute: students, administrators, teachers, and non-teaching staff. All are highly devoted to Baba and they do everything as an offering to him and please him. They all have faith that Baba does everything for human welfare and they implicitly follow his orders of their volition either observed or unobserved. They all have experienced the all-compassing love of Baba in their personal lives or with respect to their families/ friends. Therefore every one of them will think of his/her duties/responsibilities rather than rights. They are internally motivated and as such needs, and consequences which otherwise determine the behaviour of people elsewhere will only have a marginal influence on them. They have experienced Baba rewarding them and protecting them in a paternalistic way, which is not possible in case of a normal human organisational boss/superior/employer. This kind of devoted mental outlook makes them regard every responsibility given to them as an opportunity and every constraint as a challenge and they put in their best effort to overcome hurdles to accomplish tasks in the best possible manner. Baba exhorts teachers that "if you take care of my children, I will take care of your children". Therefore teachers regard the students as their 'Karma-Putras'. Baba says, "My life is my Message". Baba demonstrates HIS respect for Sanatan Dharma: Ancient Indian Values and Culture, through HIS behaviour. Therefore, people at all other levels in the institute and Baba's other institutions are motivated/inspired to have similar attitude towards the same. Thus the students and the teachers have a unique opportunity to have an intimate interaction with Baba (Chancellor) and the benefit of HIS constant guidance, which takes care of the heart of the people.

5.3.2Ashram and Activities

The students, teachers, administrators, and non-teaching staff of the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

institute visit Ashram everyday to have darshan of Baba and do bhajans in HIS presence. The darshan of Baba and bhajans purify the people and recharge their batteries on daily basis. This contributes to the emotional intelligence of people. (Daniel Goleman, 1996). Baba interacts with them individually and collectively and discusses personal issues and also answers ethical, moral, and spiritual queries. This interaction elevates the consciousness of the people making them more socially responsive. Baba celebrates all prominent festivals viz. Gurupaurnima, Dasara, Krishnashtami, Ramanavami, Shiva Rathri, Sarikranti, Ugadi, Onam, Christmas, Chinese New Year, etc. besides Ladies Day on November 20th. These festivals are celebrated in their true traditional fervour to connote its real significance. Baba gives discourse on almost all the festival days either in the morning or evening. Before HIS Divine discourse, selected students, faculty, and other prominent people of eminence will give a short speech. This speech gives them not only a good opportunity to talk in the presence of Baba, but also serve as a training ground to gain experience in public speaking by talking before a large congregation of well-informed people. Thus Baba and the Ashram activities take care of the heart of the students, teachers, administrators, and support staff.

5.3.3 Residential Hostel

The Gurukulas of ancient India realised the importance of character building and hence designed the entire educational system around this crucial need. The Sri Sathya Sai System of Integral Education mirrors, to a large extent, this tried and tested Gurukula system of Education. The Sri Sathya Sai Hostel forms a critical cog in this system. Presented below are some of the important aspects of the Hostel. The stay in the hostel takes care of the hands (meaning the activities of Ego dimension of personality structure of people) of the students and teachers, which transforms the work into worship. The hostel building looks like a temple and the inmates thus get an opportunity to live an ideal life. The philosophy of education of the Institute is based on the appreciation of the need to provide full scope for the development of body, mind and heart. Discipline, duty and adherence to basic human values are deeply appreciated as the best qualities of students in the Institute. These are being observed in various situations in the hostel life of a student.

It is precisely because of the importance of these activities for the

overall development of personality, that the Institute, attaches g

reat importance to integral items of education like Yogasanas,

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

games and sports, attendance in morning prayers and meditation, attendance in universal prayers and participation in morning prayers and participation in morning assembly talks, attendance in classes and social work/self-reliance programmes. These are incorporated in the total system of education in the Institute and also figure on their Grade Cards. (SSSIHL, 2000). The following are the elements of residential hostel life, which institutionalises the concept of "Simple Living and High Thinking". Style Accommodation—Community Living

All the Sri Sathya Sai Educational Institutions have dormitory style of accommodation: as this is in keeping with one of the avowed elements of Integral education, namely character building. In each dormitory of the size of 15 feet x 30 feet, about fifteen students live. All the students irrespective of their financial status and class sleep on the floor. The benefits of such pattern of living hardly need any elaboration. It is a miniature model of the world outside, with people of different habits, temperaments, living style, language and outlook staying together and working. Living in dormitories helps the students to adjust not only physically, but also with the different viewpoints of others. Once a broad-minded understanding develops, adjustment is automatically taken care of. Dormitory style of living helps the students to make themselves live in the society not as fish out of water, but as important and responsible citizens with noble and civilised qualities like adaptability, tolerance and sacrifice. Hostel Schedule

The life starts at 05:00 a.m. when the bell goes followed by devotional music. The students arise from bed and after ablutions assemble in the prayer hall at 05:15 am. and up to 05:45 a.m. there will be prayer and meditation. Thereafter they will go for yoga/physical exercises: 06:00 a.m.-07:00 a.m. They will then have bath and breakfast and go to the institute at 08:00 a.m. They come back for lunch at 11:20 a.m. and again return to the institute at 12:20 p.m. They return to hostel after 02:15 p.m. and after light refreshments, go to Ashram/mandir for darshan and bhajan at 03:00 p.m. They return to hostel at 06:00 p.m. They go to library/computer laboratory and between 07:00 p.m. — 08:00 p.m. have the dinner. They have study hours between 08:00 p.m.—10:00

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

p.m. They will have milk and after night prayer (when all the lights in the hostel are switched off) go to bed.

Food influences the mind (SSSIHL, 1999). The students have satwic-vegetarian-nutritious food, prepared by service-oriented people. Students also go and assist the cooks in the kitchen: cutting vegetables, rolling chapattis, etc. They also serve the food. Students take their plates and tumbler and stand in a queue. When the food is served in their plates, they go and sit on the mats spread on the floor in rows, and after group-prayer take their food in silence. Food that has favourable influence on the mind only is given. They have fruit stall, which sells fruits at moderate prices, which they may purchase depending on their requirements. This balanced-food gives rise to balanced-mind and finally balanced personality. A ctivities

The hostel is run with skeletal staff. A warden (who also may have teaching responsibilities) administers the hostel assisted by a few faculty members residing in the hostel. Therefore, it is also the responsibility of the students to look after hostel maintenance. Many of the works in the hostel viz., electrical, plumbing, telephone, computers, photocopying, library, fruit stall, general and stationery store, dispensary, bakery, automobile repairing, etc. are managed by students under the overall supervision of the hostel resident teachers. The day-scholar teachers also assist in certain aspects of the hostel affairs. Thus they learn to become independent and manage things in a self-reliant manner, which also contributes to leadership and entrepreneurial development. Succession planning that is very much absent in formal organisations is conspicuously prevalent in the institute. A senior Bhajan student leader, and likewise the students in-charge of maintenance, fruit-stall, general stores, dispensary, etc. will train a successor before he leaves the campus so that there will be no dislocation in the work. Chanting

One unique feature of the institute is that all people belonging to all castes, races, nations, and religions learn Veda. The learning methodology is also very

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

unique: the senior students and resident hostel teachers train students in Veda, Bhagavad-Gita, Stotras, and Christmas Carols. The students chant Veda everyday in the morning in the hostel, before the commencement of meetings conducted in the presence of Baba, on festival days, Baba's Birth Day Celebrations, and during Dasahra Celebrations for nine days. There will be Veda chanting competitions during the Annual Sports and Cultural Meet. Besides, on every festival day the students sing the concerned stotras relevant to the festival.

5.3.4 Institute

The institute takes care of the head (Disciplined Thinking and Intellect) of the people. It updates the data storehouse of the Adult ego state of the students and teachers by continuously exposing them to a variety of learning experiences. Value-oriented education fructifies only teachers have faith in it. As the teacher, so the taught. It is to be recognised that in all educational activities, and particularly in the area of value promotion and dissemination, what counts most, is the Guru—the Teacher. Faith can move mountains and more so when it is the faith of committed teachers who can be the best guides, friends and philosophers to students. (Somnath Saraf, 1999). The institute has a team of dedicated teachers who consider taking care of the children as their sacred responsibility. Teacher—student ratio is very favourable and the relations between the students and teachers are very cordial and warm as the teachers can pay personal attention to the problems of each and every student. Teachers work for Baba and they treat work (teaching) as worship. They are all well qualified in their respective fields and update their knowledge and skills through research in their chosen fields. The students who join the institute are prepared to undergo the strict academic schedule and rigour and shoulder the entire responsibilities of the institute with devotion and dedication. Daily Institute Schedule

The students put on their institute uniform dress (white trouser and shirt for boys and designated sarees/half-sarees for girls) and assemble class-wise in the hostel front yard and form lines of three in each row. They walk silently to the campus of the institute and leave their footwear in neat rows before entering the prayer hall at 08:00, a.m. On arrival in the campus, the students and Faculty members are greeted and warmly welcomed with "Thought for The Day "written on a black board in'good handwriting. This is a regular feature.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Quotations from the sayings, books and talks of Revered Chancellor, other sages, saints, seers, scientists and leaders relevant to the occasion are written. These thoughts are deeply inspiring and create the appropriate atmosphere. Quotations are designed to develop memory to promote analytical thinking, to establish high ideals and enable the students and the faculty to relate to the highest in them(SSSIHL, 2000). There will be Bhajan or a talk on spiritual, moral, ethical issues by students/teachers from 08:15 a.m.—08:30 a.m. They go to the classes after the prayer. From 08:30 a.m.—11:20 a.m. there will be three classes. They will break for lunch from 11:20 a.m. —12:25 p.m. and come back to the institute in lines. There will be two classes/ laboratory sessions/ workshop sessions from 12:25 p.m.—02:15 p.m. They will go back to hostel class-wise and will have light refreshments and after brief rest prepare to go to Ashram/mandir for darshan of Baba. Thus the institute works for six days (Monday-Saturday) and there will be thirty hours per week. Moral and Awareness Classes

There will be a moral class on every Thursday during the first hour: 08:15 A.M.—09:30 AM. Eminent persons will give a talk on spiritual topics, Biographies of Great persons, their experiences with Baba, etc. One of the unique features of this Institute is the Awareness Course. Students in the Institute come from different places and different regional, cultural and social backgrounds. The Awareness Programme serves as an equalising and blending process that brings them all to an Institute known for its highest and noblest philosophy. Awareness Course constitutes an essential component of integrated curricula against a background of comprehensive and general education. This programme is based on the true needs of the students, exposing them to great spiritual, inspirational, cultural and scientific ideas and developments. Of mankind and also acquainting them with the realities of this global village we all live in. The Awareness Programme tries to highlight the importance of five basic human values and their relationship with the development and blossoming of the human personality. The Awareness Courses cover the first semesters, i.e. the undergraduate programme and all the four semesters of the postgraduate programme. The Course introduces the students to the broad sweep of general knowledge in the most important fields of human learning and then helps him to integrate this knowledge with the basic human values and the spiritual philosophy. The students are exposed to great literature, fine arts, social sciences and the cultural history of the world from the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

human and value-oriented perspective. It is a non-credit course but there is continuous internal evaluation (CIE). Bulk of the programme evaluation is done through debates, symposia, discussions, simulation exercises, quizzes and free-essay, spontaneous creative expressions. Two periods in a week are allotted to this work. The course work is handled on an inter-disciplinary basis and subjects are taken by various staff members with relevant background. Audio-visual aids are frequently used. Philosophy of Education, Unity of Religions and Faiths, Ethos and Values and their Relevance in the Current Milieu, Life and its Quest, Study of Classics: Ramayana and Bhagavata form the course content of the Awareness Course at the undergraduate programme. Bhagavad-Gita forms the course content of the Awareness Programme at the postgraduate level. (SSSIHL, 2000). Inputs

Academic inputs relating to several courses in various disciplines are imparted through faculty lectures, seminar presentations by students on peripheral topics, guest lectures by subject experts, laboratory practicals in case of physical and natural science disciplines and practical workshop classes in case of Social Science disciplines. While teaching the regular subjects the faculty integrates the values, which remains the undercurrent of all courses. Audio-visual aids are adopted during the lecture sessions. Value-Oriented teaching system is adopted not only in case of those subjects that are amenable i.e. history, politics, management, etc., but also those subjects belonging to disciplines such as physical and natural sciences. Teaching of subjects in science and other disciplines is done to demonstrate that scientific skills should always be towards the benefit of the society but not to manufacture the atomic detonators or the unethical business practices such as hawala transactions or the biological weapons for warfare such as Mustard Gas, which is in tune with Baba's saying that "Science should serve the society but not swallow the society." and Cultural Meet

The institute organises the "Annual Sports and Cultural Meet" during December—-January. There will be various cultural events, i.e. Elocution, Debates, General Knowledge Quiz, Vocal and Instrumental music, Painting & pencil sketches, Cartooning, Poster making, Mono-action, Miming, Veda-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

chanting, etc., and the various sports and games: Cricket, Table-tennis, Lawn tennis, Shuttle badminton, Volley-ball, Basket-ball, track events, etc. Besides this, there will be an exhibition programme on 11th January of every year, in which all the three campuses of the Institute along with Primary and Higher Secondary School will participate. Faculty members and the students together will conceive the theme and draw the detailed plans, which will be finalised campus-wise, in consultation with the administrators of the institute with the final approval of the Chancellor. The students and faculty members of the schools and institute will now structure the items, which form part of the Exhibition Programme. The programme is divided into various items, and each item will be assigned to a group consisting of a Senior Faculty Coordinator assisted by a hostel residential teacher, a senior student coordinator and the students (the number of students depends on the nature of the item). The senior students of the institute/the faculty members mostly train the students in the various items. There will be various departments working for the exhibition programme viz. Fabrication group, Art 8c Settings group, Music group, Choreography group, Costumes/make-up group, March past group, Refreshment group, Cultural Committee group, Stage decoration group, Security and Seating arrangement group, Logo group, Individual event group, etc. The faculty and students will be utilising all the locally available materials using the appropriate technology on self-reliant basis. The exhibition programme will be very colourful and spectacular, comparable to international standards. The most interesting feature is that all the spectacular events of the exhibition programme (horse jumping, dare devil motor cycle/jeep/car/ truck stunts, judo, karate, toykondo, para-sailing, paragliding, para-jumping, mono-cycling, aerobics, yoga-feats, lion-dance, bangi-jump, regional cultural and folk dances, gymnastics, etc.) will be performed without much of the involvement of outside professional specialist trainers. The specialists from police and army who train performers in dare devil stunts certified that the feats performed by the students are very difficult and risky, the quality of which can be compared to international level. The students of the Primary School, Higher Secondary School, and all the three campuses of the Institute do the march past to the tunes of the Institute Band at the beginning of the exhibition programme after which each campus will present its own programme in the morning and evening. The students and faculty members of the school and institute while preparing and performing the programme, learn to work under pressure, utilise the waste/scrap materials, recycle the old materials, work in

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

various groups, work as a team and perform everything in the Exhibition programme as an offering to Baba. Village Social Work

Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust has given drinking water to the residents of Anantapur District of which Prasanthinilayam is a constituent mandal. Water in Anantapur district has high fluoride content, due to which the residents used to suffer from many health hazards. The Bio-science Department carried out research on this problem and subsequently community De-floursis plants were set-up to supply fluoride free water to people. The students and faculty undertook social afforestation programme, which transformed the wastelands and balded-hills, in and around Prasanthinilayam into a green belt. The students and faculty also undertook planting of coconut, mango, drumstick, curry-leaf, and papaya saplings in selected villages around Prasanthinilayam, and a free medical camp. The students and the faculty went round several villages (about 500 villages each year) in Anantapur district during the years 2000 and 2001, and gave food, and clothes to poor and deserving people. The village social work activity, which involves a great deal of planning, has given very good experience to the students and teachers. The teachers and research scholars go for advance survey of the villages and collect the census data and the road maps of the selected villages. They will then be divided into several groups; each group will go round a selected group of villages in each mandal. They prepare the detailed road maps, meet the local village-heads and collect the data regarding the number of households, population figures, number of schools and other educational institutions along with their strength, etc. The Central Planning Committee in consultation with Baba will divide the whole institute and the school into a number of groups (say about six): viz. Group-I, Group-II, etc., each group comprising a Teacher Coordinator, assisted by some more teachers and students (belonging to Institute and School). Each group is further subdivided into sub-groups: consisting of a Teacher-in-charge, assisted by some more teachers, wireless-set in-charge, and students. Each group is given about four trucks (one to each sub-group), each fitted with a wire-less set. Another group prepares the food early in the morning in large sheds. The teachers and the girl students of Anantapur campus and girls section of the High School pack the food thus prepared into small packets. The food packets and the Clothes (Saris, Dhotis, stationery material, etc.) are counted and loaded into each truck by another group in-charge of loading,

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

depending on the village Data given to them by the Central Planning Committee. Each day, about thirty vehicles (trucks) will go in a convoy to a group of villages early in the morning. Each group will go to the assigned villages, go round the village on nagar-sankirtan (mobile group-Bhajan) after which they will distribute food and clothes to the inmates of each house at their doorstep with love and care. The stationery material will be distributed to the school children of each village in their respective schools. Each vehicle will be in constant touch with the home base through the wireless, and whenever there is any need for food, clothes, etc. or any other problem, will be attended to by the crisis-management group on instructions from the Home base. The students and teachers of each sub-group will have the same food in the afternoon as their lunch. They will finish their lunch and assemble back at a particular point in a convoy and return to Prasanthinilayam by evening. The Central Planning Committee and the concerned groups will plan the next day's work. This will go on for about fifteen days, wherein the students and teachers get an exposure to the pattern of life of rural people and sensitised to their problems.

5 3 4 6 Social Service

Other activities relating to self-reliance and co-curricular programmes which are undertaken, once a week, in the Institute Campus are: maintenance of Hill View Stadium, lawns, quadrangle, gardens, auditorium, prayer hall, plants and fences, electric instillation and plumbing, audio-visual equipment and development of horticulture around library building, organisation of dramatics, photography and painting, video films, slides of educational, cultural and inspiring topics. The students extend considerable logistic support to various cultural activities that take place all through the year in the Ashram premises. During festivals and other functions, the management of stage, including electric installation, audio-visual equipment and other aspects of dramas are looked after by the students themselves. The Institute thus seeks to shape students who are sensitive to and aware of the problems of the people living around them in society. Through the social work and extension programmes, students learn to help the poor, the unfortunate, the disabled and the sick. (SSSIHI, 2000). Baba's Darshan (Witnessing), Sparshan (Physical touch), and Sambhashan (Conversation), Morning prayers, meditation, yoga sessions, moral classes, awareness courses and absence of distractions/harmful influences, will not only cleanse/purify but also strengthen the Id of all people

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

(students, teachers, etc.). Baba's discourses, reading of good literature, participation in festivals, etc. and constant exposure to good things right from the formative period in case of majority of students will help in wholesome recordings in Super-ego/Parent ego state of people. The Seva ctivities, sports and cultural meet work, and self-reliance work also help people to engage in healthy activities, which will enable Ego dimension of the personality to subdue Id in an non-confrontational manner.



The foremost of all the factors for the success of value-oriented education in the institute is Baba. Baba's infinite love is responsible for every one in the system to play his/her part carefully to the best of his/her capacity and be on the toes always. Nobody can take anything for granted for he/she may encounter surprises, if relaxes a little. Baba gives unique and unforgettable experiences to each and every person, which will leave indelible impressions in the minds of the people. Baba with his paternalistic love moulds the teachers, students, support staff and the administrators into committed people with dedication, discipline, and devotion. Baba has located the campuses of the institute in congenial setting and has established the most conducive organisational culture, which motivates people to develop respect for Indian culture, love for the Nation, parents, teachers, organisation, work, and elders, and a mental outlook to subordinate individual interest to general interest and place Nation above self. This organisational culture, which puts premium on discipline, character, simplicity, hard work, commitment, sacrifice, humility, all-round excellence, etc., impels the administrators and teachers to inculcate these values. So the avowed values of the Institute become operational through admission procedure of students, faculty recruitment & promotion, teaching & learning methods, and the examination system. As Baba says, "Whatever is there in the Tank (Teachers), get through the Tap (Students). Students, who recognise the significance of the value system and the priorities of the institute, strive hard to cultivate the same in a sublime way, wherein the individual values are integrated with the organisational values through a natural process in a smooth manner.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


The Integral Education of Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher learning goes to prove the feasibility of a viable model for a total reorientation to university level education. (SSSIH1, 2000). At the operational level, the following are the salient features, which could have great relevance in the larger context of formal educational systems. Firstly, an up-to-date and well-balanced curriculum, meant to avoid stuffing of the brain with information, but promoting a spirit of enquiry based on current levels of knowledge; secondly, teaching methods imparting the right values aimed at promoting the learning capabilities and facilitating total awareness; thirdly, an examination system, which brings out the best in the students and makes a continuous assessment of his comprehension instead of making it a stressful one-shot operation; fourthly, co-curricular and extra-curricular activities like yoga, music, sports and group activities, which promote a team and community spirit instead of merely stressing individual excellence; fifthly, fully residential nature of the courses that ensures a holistic approach to the content and methods of imparting education; and finally the five-year integrated course and the wholistic environment brings in a relatively permanent change in the behaviour of students for better by integrating the head, heart, and hand. This change which gets into their roots, influences their behaviour in a consistent manner, even after they complete their studies and go out of the portals of the institute. The Alumni Association, which is very active, gives them an opportunity to do solid service at their respective places all over the world and also in and around Prasanthinilayam during designated periods, and thus be in touch with the institutions and re-charge their batteries on a continuous basis from time-to-time. Above all the infinite love of Baba towards HIS students (His motherly love is not mere indulgence but love in its larger sense combined with strict discipline) makes education at all levels meaningful, useful, and purposeful. Thus Value-oriented education in Sri Sathya Sai Institutions is not hotchpotch affair, but a truly integrated process.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


1.Wiender, Y. Forms of Value System: A Focus on Organisational Effectiveness and Cultural Change and Maintenance,The Academy of Management Review,Volume 13,No.4, October, 1988, p.535.

2.Rokeach, M. The Nature of Human Values,The Free press,New York, 1973.

3.Morgan.C.T., Introduction to Psychology,Tata McGraw-Hill publishing company Ltd., New Delhi, 1981,p.519.

4.Harris, Thomas A. I AM OK, you're OK, Pan Book London and sydney,1970,pp.1829.

5.Warren H. Schmidt, and Barry Z. Posner, Managerial Values and Expectations, AMACOM, New York, 1982,pp.12-14.

6. - , Sri Sathya Sai System of Integral EducationSri sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam, Andhra Pradesh, India, 2000, pp. 15-16

7.Goleman, D. Emotional Intelligence,Batnam Publication,USA, 1996

8. - , Man Management,School of Business Management Accounting and Finance, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning , Prasanthinilayam, Andhra Pradesh, 1999, p.266.

9.Swami Prabhavananda, Patanjali Yoga Sutras, Sri Ramakrishna Math, Madras, 1985,pp.89-92.

10.Mahatma Gandhi, My Experiments with Truth, Navajivan Publishing House, Abmedabad, 1956.

11.Yassin Shankar, Education, Human Values and Ethics: Imperatives for the Information Society, Canadian Scholars' Press, Toronto, 1992, p.19.

12.Bharadwaj, T.B. Education of Human Values, Mittal Publication, New Delhi, 2001, p.141.

13.Goyal, B.R., Documents on Social, Moral and Spiritual Values in Education, NCERT, New Delhi, 1979.

14.Madhu Kapani, Education in Human Values, Sterling publishers private limited, New Delhi, 2000,p.28

15.Gokak, V.K., and Rohedikar, Teacher's Hand-book for the Course in Human Values,

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

16. Somnath Saraf, Educational in Human Values, Vikas, Publishing House Private Limited, New Delhi, 1999.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2



Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

The Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Delhi Branch, has been attempting to provide value education for several decades now. This institution was established with the specific purpose of disseminating the vision and teachings of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother.

The Ashram has seven educational institutions on its campus—Mirambika Free Progress School, the Matri Karuna Vidyalaya, the Mira Nursery School, the Mother's International School, a Vocational Training School, the Matri Kala Mandir, (a school for the performing and fine arts) and the Mirambika Teacher Training Institute. There are over 2500 students from all these institutions on the campus. Any value education programme would therefore have an impact on quite a wide scale.


Sri Aurobindo and Mother offered to humanity a way of life based on the deepest understanding of human values. What is popularly known as Sri Aurobindo's Integral Yoga is really a way of living based on a deeper, wider and more enlightened consciousness. The practitioner of this "Yoga" is not exhorted to renounce the world and its field

Such an objective would necessitate a new look at both, education and the values of education because education is surely one of the principal instruments of effectuating any deep and sustained change in the life of the world.

Historically, several attempts have been made at "changing" ways of life— of transforming and reforming systems and institutions—social, political, and spiritual. While some of these attempts have succeeded for a while, most have

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

passed into the oblivion history. One of the important reasons for this has been the general failure to address the very roots of our various crises. Once we do so, we discover that all our crises are actually interrelated and have a common radical cause. We cannot, for instance, speak of a political crisis without addressing the social or economic forces determining and directing political processes. In the same way, we cannot address a social crisis without simultaneously addressing a host of socio-political realities behind a so-called social crisis.

The more we see human and civilizational processes interrelated at causal levels, the more do we appreciate the fact that nothing can be truly changed if everything is not changed. Which immediately brings us to a deeper issue: how does one change everything? What would be the level for such a change? What would be the key?

In the Aurobindonian perspective, such a global change is indeed possible; and notjust possible but, in the course of human evolution, inevitable. And education, in the widest and deepest sense, would be the necessary lever for such a change.

But what kind of education? Our existing educational system has obviously not worked, except for a very limited and specific objective of training students to earn a livelihood. Though the education system has imposed on most schools and syllabi a mandatory element of values or moral and so-called spiritual- education, it does not seem that any of us can seriously or honestly claim that we have, on the whole, produced morally or spiritually evolved beings over the last so many generations. If anything, each succeeding generation has become more self-centered, self-righteous and hypocritical in the realm of moral and social values.

The problem is not in the intention. All of us, parents, teachers and educators, are sincere in our intention to teach values. The problem is in the implementation. There is a clear need to address the deeper levels of this issue so that inappropriate and counter-productive ways of value education can be avoided.

One way in which value education fails—or even becomes counterproductive—is to "preach" one set of values and practice another, often contrary, set of values. In fact, preaching or moralising is a sure way of putting children off values! One of our first objectives was to set up a system which would, as far as possible, avoid the "pious moralising and preaching" which comes so naturally in matters of values. We wanted to set an example, and inspire instead of setting up difficult or impossible to reach ideals.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


The Mirambika Free Progress School and Centre for Research in Human Values was the direct outcome of this objective. The Mirambika School is an attempt at practically realising Sri Aurobindo and Mother's vision of integral education—an education that would systematically and simultaneously develop the body and its inherent capacities; the vital or the emotional being and its inherent powers; the mind and its cognitive faculties; the psychic and the spiritual capacities inherent in every child.

Such a system would therefore consider the learning process to be an integral one, not only as an objective but even in its methodology. It would not break up learning and teaching as separate processes; it would not divide the ideal from the practical; it would not teach a system of values and not be able to implement the same in detail; it would not even divide the school from home and the play field. And only such integrality would be able to resolve the crisis of values our society confronts today.

The Mirambika School does not follow any Board syllabus or prescribed textbooks. It does not conduct classes according to subjects and periods and uses the methodology of project work for all teaching and learning. The children are taught the necessary academic, psychological and social skills and are trained to access and process information on their own, following their own fields of interest and their pace of learning. The children are encouraged to work individually and in small groups. There is no strict scheduling but every child is given a deadline for his or her project.

This School does not take in more than twenty children in a single group; and each group has two to three teachers. This gives the school the unique advantage of a teacher-student ratio that is conducive to genuine learning. Personal attention becomes imperative if education has to be truly value oriented.

There is no insistence on formal discipline but children are encouraged to question and to understand. There is a healthy level of mutual respect between the teachers and the children and amongst the children themselves. The absence of formal discipline makes it easier for the teachers to be more transparently themselves without being forced to play the role of the all-knowing and infallible adult. This, in turn, makes it easier for the children to trust their teachers and consider them friends instead of taskmasters.

There is also no insistence on formal information based teaching. Children are encouraged to understand themselves and their interests, to choose their own field and pace of learning, and to educate themselves through their

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

own research. The teachers are there only to guide and intervene only when intervention is demanded.

In Sri Aurobindo'swords, "Nothing can be taught." All real knowledge and wisdom lie within the child and all we can do is to draw out that which is within. In fact, the very word education (educare in the Latin) implies the act of drawing out.

Consider the effect this kind of a system would have on the development of values. A system that respects the child and his or her uniqueness fosters in the child a sense of self worth early in life. She does not need to do things only because others expect him or her to do so. She does only what she loves doing, wants to do and is good at doing. As a consequence, she develops a love and respect for work and learning. Such an attitude to learning forms the very basis of all values in future life.

A system that does not enforce a formal discipline and encourages inquiry, dialogue and debate inevitably fosters honesty and trust in the children. When a child is not compelled to respect or fear, she does not need to pretend or be diplomatic. She develops truthfulness only because she grows up in an environment of honesty and transparence; an environment that does not force hypocrisy and pretension. This is another fundamental basis of values in life.

Consider further: any system that does not impose examinations and does not encourage marking and certificates will only cultivate a healthy love for learning. As long as the focus is on marks, there will have to be competitiveness and rivalry. As long as children feel that "getting good marks" is the measure of self worth, so long will there be the stress of studying for examinations and doing well at any cost and its contingent anxieties, fears, frustration and apprehension—factors that would always detract from the true purpose of learning and a true development of values.

Consider also the pedagogy of the School: children learn at their own pace and in small groups, choose their own projects and do their own research. They make their own schedules and have to meet deadlines. As a direct consequence of this, the children learn early the values of cooperation, coordination, organization, respect for others' time and pace, responsibility for their own work and time, and the spirit of working towards a common goal in harmony. Since this learning happens through the very process of schooling, and over the years, the values get deeply internalised and are very difficult to be shaken even when confronted by trying circumstances in life.

Mirambika does not conduct assemblies or moral education classes, and although a part of the Sri Aurobindo Ashram, does not even "teach" children

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

about Sri Aurobindo's philosophy. Indoctrination, in any form, is avoided. As a result, children grow up in the freedom to find and develop their own inner system of values. More than a "value system," they begin to develop a sense of values—an internal sense of the Tightness

The child in Mirambika does not therefore hear about values. No teacher reads out textbooks to him to teach values in life. He grows up in an environment that fosters in him some of the fundamental values of being: the sense of self worth, respect, responsibility, integrity; and fearlessness.


The Mirambika experiment was too radical to be sustained on a larger scale. But much is also possible even in the context of conventional schooling. The Mother's International School is a conventional school affiliated to the CBSE Board and has more than 2100 students.

This School is working under the constraints of a conventional system: there are thirty-five students to a classroom, the pedagogy is syllabus and subject based. Yet, in spite of these constraints, there have been constant efforts to bring about meaningful changes in the schooling system. The School makes a genuine attempt to blend the vision of Sri Aurobindo's education to conventional schooling and provide students with a valuable experience.

The inculcation of values begins at the time of admissions itself. A suggested list of books is given to all prospective parents to acquaint them with Sri Aurobindo and the Mother's philosophy of education. This itself brings about a change in the worldview of the parents. In addition to this, the parents are expected to spend at least five hours exploring the Ashram and its educational institutes before they decide on the School for their children. This exercise enables them to appreciate the value system of the School better.

Once the children are admitted into the School, the parents are encouraged to contribute to the School and the Ashram by giving at least a couple of hours of voluntary service. Several parents do this over the years, and many become part of the Ashram. This is a very important step toward the inculcation of values—the sharing of a common value, system between the School and the home helps the children to assimilate the values better and deeper.

The children, from the earliest years, grow up in an environment free from the stresses of competition. Though competitive activities do take place, there

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

is a conscious effort on the parts of all teachers to stress always the aspect of achieving excellence over competitiveness. For many students, this works.

As a continuation of this, students in this school are also encouraged to develop other aspects of their personality so that an exclusive focus on academics is avoided. A student may not be too good at studies or games but may be a very giving or caring or compassionate person. It has been observed that students know their peers better than the teachers.

Thus students are encouraged to observe their friends and classmates and are entrusted with the responsibility of choosing which of their friends best embody qualities like compassion, responsibility, discipline, sharing, cooperativeness etc. This very successfully widens the focus to include personal human qualities, which is a potent tool for developing values.

The School actively encourages value-oriented education by providing them a range of skills and service based activities as apart of the School's curriculum. This not only fulfils their requirements for Work Experience but also broadens the scope of extra-curricular activities and the students' general awareness. The children are given complete freedom to choose their activity.

The School has also introduced a novel activity for Class XII students: before they pass out of the School, it is mandatory for all students to spend a minimum of thirty hours working with the under-privileged. Many students end up spending more hours.

The School has systematically avoided a hierarchical structure and encourages a free association of teachers with the students. The students are encouraged to approach teachers in a spirit of enquiry and healthy debate in encouraged in various forums.

There is a concerted effort to create a spiritual culture in the School. Each day begins with an assembly where children and teachers sit together and concentrate, learning meditation, singing devotional songs, reciting and reading inspirational passages from various texts and listening to several distinguished speakers discussing subjects related to culture, social and spiritual values. Some of the children carry back deep memories of these assemblies and what they learn fructifies much later in their lives. The atmosphere in the School is strikingly different. Even though the School is situated almost in the heart of New Delhi, its ambience is the least "Delhi-like."

Students are encouraged to learn deeper values and not just social and professional skills that would help them become successful in the conventional sense.

Several students who have passed out of this School carry with them the subtle atmosphere of the Ashram. Many cannot articulate it, but almost

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

everyone feels the "difference. "The students are more sensitive and caring and several of them, though academically very successful, do want to try newer and more meaningful ways of living and working in the world.


The Matri Karuna Vidyalay is already three years old. It was initiated by the Delhi Ashram Trust to disseminate values and education to the underprivileged of society. The inspiration was to teach these children from the underprivileged and deprived classes "to fish" instead of "giving them fish" as an act of charity!

These children come to the school in the afternoon and stay till evening. During these hours, the children get to use all the facilities that the children of the Mira Nursery School use. This instills in them a sense of confidence and trust in their own capacities and they respond very deeply to what is offered to them.

Whatever they develop in themselves also gets transmitted to the parents-most of whom are day labourers. The parents willingly cooperate with the school to help the children develop a genuine sense of values. It has lead to serious changes in their attitudes, which is evident from the fact that the parents are getting themselves sterilized so that they can devote their attention and money to maintain a small family.

Apart from imparting academic education to the children, the school enables the children to imbibe personal, social and national values. This, in fact, becomes the singularly most important contribution the school makes to their lives. In the absence of such education, these children tend to become delinquents early in life.

The children come to the school promptly at one O' clock in the afternoon, well-scrubbed and entirely conscious of hygiene and neatness. This is itself is an education in values for these children who are accustomed to widespread filth and disease from their earliest years.

The assembly sessions are planned to teach the children appreciation of our cultural and national diversity as well as the importance of tolerance, justice, compassion, concern and the ability to resolve conflicts peacefully and harmoniously.

Regular Physical education, music, art and craft, drama, Yoga and relaxation have facilitated the respect in the children for self-discipline. Moreover, the happy and stress free environment has played a critical role in helping them become children with a sense of values.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


The Mira Nursery School is dealing with pre-school children between the ages of three and a half and six years. Our belief is that values cannot be taught but can be imbibed by constant experience and reinforcement through examples.

The adult in charge of the children needs to be sensitive to this fact before she can start caring for them. So, every teacher who joins the school goes through an orientation programme highlighting this aspect.

The children are given freedom and the space to grow as individuals. Adults are discouraged from putting children into predetermined moulds. Whenever the adult identifies a problem (aggression, lying, dishonesty, distraction etc.) in a child, she starts a dialogue with the child. The child is not scolded, threatened, or punished. The dialogue continues even with the parents.

No child is thought of as "bad" or "wrong." He behaves in a particular manner only because of certain circumstances and influences. The teacher's work is to listen to what the child has to say and to help him overcome his difficulties. We find that once the child learns to reflect for himself and able to identify the difficulty in him, most of the negativity in his behaviour disappears. This also builds a bond of trust, honesty, respect, and helpfulness between the child and the adult, which we feel builds a basis of a human being with deep values.

The day at Mira Nursery starts with prayers where devotional songs are sung. Rhymes and other meaningful songs are also sung with a great deal of enthusiasm. Children are often taken on native walks around the Ashram campus with trips to the Ashram meditation hall. This makes the child quiet and cultivates consciousness of the environment.

Most of the academic work is done through the Montessori method. This method helps the children to internalise cognitive concepts and values like independence, confidence and responsibility. As the child learns to work independently with the apparatus, he also develops beauty, calm and sensitivity through his actions.

The school also gives a lot of importance to story telling from the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Pancatantra, and the Jataka. These are a great source of inspiration and help the children understand and internalise deeper life values.

To further facilitate our endeavour in "making the learning environment a happier place for the child" we have workshops for parents so that the "beautiful" environment of Mira Nursery extends to the child's home as well.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


The Ashram, as an institution, encourages ecological and environmental values very consciously and conscientiously. Wastage is avoided wherever possible. Every scrap of paper is recycled and used, even for official purposes. This has a lasting impact on the students in the campus. There are students who have reported that they cannot waste paper any longer even at home!

But the environmental consciousness encompasses even other aspects: energy, water, electricity, and food. The Ashram is increasingly using alternative forms of energy and has already equipped most of its residential buildings with solar energy. Students not only learn about conservation of energy, they directly see the working of such a system.

Every member of the Ashram is actively encouraged to conserve water and electricity. This is not done merely as a ritual but is part of the daily living in the Ashram. The Mother used to insist that true "spirituality" must manifest in the field of real life—in the smallest acts of our daily life. Thus saving paper, water or electricity becomes an act of consciousness and not just an act of social or environmental concern. In fact, environmental and social concern becomes, in a deeper way, an act of consciousness itself.

Developing consciousness, making every act of life a conscious act, is the very ground of values in life. So long as values are divorced from the fabric of our daily actions, values can never take root in human society. This is the premise on which life in the Ashram is based—that values have to be lived, and the environment itself must be designed towards the "living of values."


Work is an essential aspect of life in the Ashram. The Mother and Sri Aurobindo both gave tremendous significance to work. The Mother often used to say that one could manifest one's true spiritual values only in the field of work. Therefore, in the Ashram, work is used as a field for manifesting one's inner values and understanding. Every individual working and living in the Ashram, student, or teacher, is expected to take up some work according to his or her interest and use the work as a means of his progress. This directly leads to the breaking down of social, cultural, communal, professional and academic differences between all workers and inculcates a healthy respect for, and dignity of, work.

Each person in the Ashram is expected and encouraged to devote at least a couple of hours to community service. In fact, community service supports

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

and sustains all work in the Ashram. Spread out over an area of more than ten acres, the Ashram has gardens, farms, buildings, educational, health and semi-commercial units and all of these are being maintained and run by volunteers from the Ashram. This aspect of community service is quite unique and enables the inculcation of deeper values of life and work.

Thus work becomes a potent instrument for developing real and deep values in life. What is of interest to value education is the fact that students in the Ashram get to live and work with individuals who are themselves in the process of defining and living deeper values of life by the very fact of their being and working in the Ashram.



The Ashram conducts regular camps and workshops in .Delhi and Nainital on values and value education. Students and teachers from all over the country attend these camps and workshops. These camps and workshops engage the participants in intense dialogue and introspection on values and education. The whole meaning and purpose of value oriented education is critically examined, and its outcome in the personal experience of the teachers and students is highlighted so that meaningful introspection can take place. This results in serious changes in attitudes to life and values. The participants go back with serious questions that initiate deeper processes leading to a real sense of values.

Several come back for follow up workshops where they wish to go still deeper into the intricacies of value-oriented education. Only by pursuing a process of this kind can we hope to generate a genuine interest and motivation in imparting sustained value-oriented education.


In conclusion, for effective and long lasting value education, a context is very necessary. Any attempt at imparting values to children and young adults in academic isolation, divorced from practical life, cannot succeed.

The educational process, the pedagogy, the learning environment and the dynamics—involving the entire community of students, teachers, school management and parents—must necessarily be involved in the education of values. Values are truly defined and developed only in dynamics, in relationships, and never in theoretical isolation. It is not enough to tell students that one must be truthful—it is infinitely more important for students to learn and

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

grow up in an environment that respects and encourages transparence, trust and authenticity. Wherever people are forced to play roles and pretend to be other than what they are, honesty and truthfulness cannot possibly grow.

This is a simple and obvious fact but, strangely enough, it escapes the attention of most of us involved in the processes of education and schooling. Value education is not an issue of teaching values or inspiring students with stories and anecdotes; or even of teaching students to pray and meditate. A real development of values demands that we create an environment first which is free of fear and coercion, even in their subtlest forms.

This itself will demand an almost entire rethinking on the questions of schooling, curriculum and examination-oriented pedagogy. It will demand a serious rethinking on the crucial issue of competitiveness and the all pervasive reward and punishment mindset. As long as rewards and punishments are the primary motives for performance, we cannot hope for a genuine growth of values.

The system itself will have to be re-examined, its premises and assumptions challenged. A collective soul-searching is inevitable if we want a value oriented education in its truest and deepest sense. We cannot any longer continue to believe that values can be imparted in a system that is by itself stifling to the growth of any spiritual quality in the child or the adult. We will have to acknowledge the fact that our existing system can, at best, encourage and develop specifically social, professional or intellectual values and at worst, encourage lip service, superficiality, cynicism and hypocrisy—amongst both, teachers and students.

* Prepared by Partho for the Seminar on Value-oriented Education conducted by the Indian Council of Philosophical Research, January 2002

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2




Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


The Indira Gandhi National Open University has launched a programme of study on 'HIV and Family Education' since January this year. This programme is the first of its kind in India and has been prepared in collaboration with eminent experts from premier institutions spread across the country. The whole process involved three years of intense exercise and the outcome is seven courses comprising twenty-one books and twelve video programmes. In all there are eighty-five chapters covering topics on HIV/AIDS, sex and sexuality, family like education, substance abuse, and communication and counselling. We have tried to provide an academically sound and socially acceptable programme of study keeping in view the socio-cultural and religious diversity of this great nation.

The challenges facing the new millennium include various problems such as teenage pregnancies, mental and emotional disorders among adolescents, sexual violence, substance abuse including injecting drug use, suicides, rape, eve-teasing, family disorganization, divorce, single parenthood, child abuse including incest, spouse-abuse, wife-swapping, unabated spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the HIV/AIDS pandemic. It is precisely these challenges which have motivated the IGNOU to embark on a mission to plan, design, develop and launch a value-based programme of study on 'HIV and Family Education' with accurate and complete information on sensitive issues.

The Concerns

The silence or negative attitude of adults do cause some youth to believe that there is something wrong, bad and sinful about sex. They develop negative emotions about it, leading to deeply rooted guilt feelings and loss of self -esteem. How many young people are growing up with a poor self image, a wrong notion about relationships and an eroded value system is anyone's guess.

Among the many issues our young people face, making wise choices about sexuality is one of the most critical. The pluri-cultural and pluri-religious society we live in is teeming with sexual images, inappropriate messages and

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

dangerous advice about sexuality. More than ever before, adolescents need their parents to help steer them through the sea of mixed messages that surrounds them. They also want reassurance that their parents understand what they are going through. It is therefore important for parents to communicate their values and standards for behavior.

No one knows your child like you do, and no 'expert' can communicate your values better than you. When it comes to your child, you are the expert.

Appropriate Initiative

There is therefore, an urgent need for a kind of 'family life education' that is holistic. One that helps the parents, teachers, family counsellors, and adolescents. One that puts sex in perspective, that discusses sex within the total context of the meaning and purpose of life. We are in search of a programme that is not hurried or merely biological in approach. A programme that has a positive approach to healthy human life and interaction, not one that is merely a last minute, life-saving device to salvage young people from the unabated spread of HIV/AIDS.

'HIV and Family Education' programme designed by IGNOU is a value-based curriculum that specifically promotes abstinence and helps adolescents identify the problems and consequences associated with premarital sexual activity. It is a resource package to answer the urgent need for a holistic, value-affirming 'HIV and sex-education'. Its primary goal is to communicate the what, why and how of HIV/AIDS; sex and sexuality; moral, social and family-values and the need for preventing and controlling problems associated with high risk behaviours.

For generations, educational institutions and families have shared the goal of teaching values and character development to the next generation. Values which have been upheld as the norm for children and adolescents include honesty, respect, kindness, humility, justice, self-discipline, responsibility and courage. It has long been assumed that such efforts would improve the human condition, add deeper meaning to life and affirm the dignity of individuals. Couple of decades ago, modesty and sexual morality were also included among values widely taught to youth and abstinence until marriage was the expected standard of bevaiour. But the significant social and cultural upheaval in the recent years have led to widespread public questioning, if not outright abandonment of their values. Films, music, television, magazines, internet and other popular media openly promoted the notion that sex with whomever— with or without commitment—is both normal and desirable, as long as there

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

is mutual consent and no one becomes pregnant or infected with a sexually transmitted disease.

Some Challenges

The fallout from this dramatic shift in values has been profoundly negative, both for individuals and the society as a whole. Escalating rates of abortion (some estimates put the figure at 150,000 a day) the ever increasing gap in male-female ratio (National Census: 2001), single parent households, and increase in divorce rates have become a matter of public record. The rising tide of STDs (fourteen million new cases in India alone every per Govt, figures) including some that were unknown to previous generation, has reached epidemic proportions—often with permanent or even fatal consequences.

Many educators and organizations have ignored or soft-pedaled the idea of remaining sexually abstinent until marriage because they feel that it is unrealistic. Another common objection to promoting abstinence is that it is too 'directive'. Some go so far as to advice students to 'wait until you are ready'—a vague and ultimately meaningless guideline for such an important decision. These same programmes are, in fact, extremely directive when it comes to promoting 'safer' sex with contraceptive and condom use.

Premises of Core Ethical Values

Value-education is the deliberate effort to help young people understand, care about and act on core ethical values. It is based on the following premises:

*Destructive behaviours such a violence, dishonesty, drug abuse and sexual promiscuity arise from a common core—the absence of good character.

*People do not automatically develop good character. Families, schools, religious communities, youth organisation, Government and media must make intentional, collaborative and focused efforts to foster good values.

*Good character consists of moral knowing, moral feeling and moral action: understanding, caring about and acting upon core ethical values. These values include respect, responsibility, honesty, fairness, integrity, kindness, self-discipline and courage.

*These core ethical values are not mere subjective preference. They

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

have objective worth, universal validity and a claim on our personal and collective conscience. There validity derive from the fact that they affirm our human dignity, promote the well being of the individual and the common good and define our right and responsibilities. They meet the classical ethical tests of responsibility (Would you want to be treated this way?), and universal generalization. (Would you want all people to act this way in a similar situation?). Such values transcend cultural and religious difference and express our common humanity.

* Not to teach good character based on these core ethical values would be a grave moral failure for any society.

Parents and Home

One of the objectives of the programme of study on 'HIV and Family Education' is to provide accurate and complete information to parents of young people so that the parents are enabled to pass on the right information and guidance to their children at the appropriate time. The ideal environment for sex and family education is the home and any such education that is value based cannot by pass the difficult area of morality.

Value-based sex education should teach the learners the moral principle that it is never appropriate to risk with one's own or another person's physical, emotional or spiritual welfare.

Human life and Spiritual Values

Human life is no chance happening. It is a gift given once and given gratuitously. It is therefore of absolute value. Thus life, and everything given to enhance it is of absolute value. Creation and the environment, science and technology, research and development, commerce and trade all have importance to the extent that the dignity of Human life is respected.

The human person is a complex reality of body, mind and spirit. We also know that a love relationship between a man and a woman by its very nature demands the integration of these three principles. In most cultures and religions, this relationship, both at the stage of preparation for marriage and at the stage of its fulfilment in marriage is regulated by spiritual values, religious rules and traditions.

True religion is a matter of the heart and it is in one's family that the religion of the heart develops. Hence we need to consider 'preparation for a life of family love' one of primary concern. In our human search for spiritual

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

values to guide our lives and relationships, we turn our eyes, first of all, to God, the source of love, the source of all life, the greatest value.

Thus caught up in the dynamism of God's love, human beings are called to love their fellow humans with a love which is, in turn, faithful, forgiving, pure and always leading to create a world of peace, justice and love. Thus, in loving our neighbour we are loving God. If anyone says, 'I love God' and hates his brother, he is a liar, for he who does not love his brother whom he has seen, cannot love God whom he has not seen.


The Programme of study on 'HIV and Family Education' in question is clearly and purposefully directive, pointing learners to a standard of behaviour, which is not only achievable but also leads to the healthiest outcomes. While culture, emerging social circumstances and peers may extent more influence today than ever before, our young people are still capable of developing the values and skills necessary to resist high risk behaviours. If adults-parents, teachers and others who interact with young people every day-are willing to set the standard, the next generation can and will meet the challenges ahead of them.


1.Basic facts of HIV/AIDS, IGNOU

2.HIV Transmission and Testing, IGNOU

3.HIV/AIDS prevention : Socio-ethical issues, IGNOU

4.HIV/AIDS And Vulnerable Population, IGNOU

5.HIV/AIDS Education And Care, IGNOU

6.AIDS, Law And Human Rights, IGNOU






Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2










Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2







National Curriculum Framework (2000) has emphasised development of core universal values like truth, righteous conduct, peace, love and nonviolence as foundation for building value based education programme. NCERT has developed exemplar/prototype instructional materials/resource support materials in the area of value-oriented education for students, teachers, teacher educators, curriculum planners and text book writers. It has developed biographies of national leaders like Dr. Ambedkar, Mahatma Gandhi, Pt. Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose and Pt. G.B. Pant. The supplementary reading materials for school children entitled 'Nai Nai Kahaniya' contains value based stories—highlighting values like cooperation, courage, character development, brotherhood, patriotism, sacrifice and national integration. It has developed recently (in Press) a supplementary reading materials for school children containing twenty-two value based stories based on thoughts and themes drawn from Jain religion, life ofjain Saints and Lords highlighting values like love, cooperation, character development, sacrifice and nonviolence. It has also developed reading material for children of classes VI-VII based on the stories and parables drawn from Sikhism (in Press). These stories and parables are powerful pedagogical tools for inter-religious dialogue. NCERT has produced recorded cassettes of fifteen community songs in twelve different languages to instil in children the spirit of unity and love for the country. NCERT has produced films, video and audio cassettes highlighting a number of value themes. It has developed source book/guide book for teachers, teacher educators, curriculum planners and text book writers on value issues. It has conducted a number of seminars, workshops, and sensitization programmes at national and state levels on value education. It has also funded a number of research projects.

National Programmes for Strengthening Value Education

National Programme for Strengthening Value Education in the country approved under the Grants-in-Aid Scheme in Values Education of Deptt. of

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Education, MHRD, Govt, of India will be launched during 2002-2003 by National Resource Centre for Value Education, NCERT. Help of both governmental and non-Governmental organisations (NGO's) will be taken up for implementation of the programme throughout the country. The important dimensions of the programme follows:


Development of a broad based Decentralized Management Structure with Networking and Linkages for implementation of the programme at state, district and grass root levels and its monitoring.


a)Setting up of nodal centres at regional level—delineation of roles and responsibilites.

b)Setting up of consultative groups on massive awareness generation, material development, teachers training, and commissioning of research.

c)Evolving mechanism of involvement of regional, state and district and sub-district level resource institutions like RIEs, SCERTs, SIEs, CTEs, IASEs, DIETs, BRCs, CRCs.

d)To prepare action plans at state/district and school level.

e)Organisation of seminars/workshops and training programmes at state/district levels.

Development of Strategies for Massive Awareness Generation/Sensitization Programme.

Strategies finalised through National Seminar/Workshop will be disseminated through state and district level seminars and sensitization programmes to be organized for following clientels:

*Teacher educators.

*School principals.

*BRCICRC coordinators.

*Parents-teacher organisation.

*Panchayat/VEC/Community members.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Media mobilisation activities with specific focus on multimedia packages on value education and use of information technology in sharing and dissemination of value education strategies will also be taken up.

Development of Strategies for Material Development relevant to school system and teacher educator system:


*Development of supplementary reading materials based on stories and parables taken from different religions highlighting universal core values.

*Development of prototype materials including print, audio, video and multi media.

*Development of orientation/instructional materials for training and orientation of school teachers, headmasters and teacher educators.

*Development of group learning materials for students.

*Sensitization materials for parents.

Development of Strategies/Design for Teachers Training for incorporation into pre-service and in-service models:

For strategy development the following aspects needs to be considered:

*Process of value education should highlight how to make right choice of values after judging the consequences of each alternative, how to share and publicity affirm values, how to act on values repeatedly and constantly and how to resolve value dilemma/conflicts.

*Teacher as a role model.

*The inculcation mode of universal core values needs to culture specific and indigenous. The influence of culture on schooling is very deep. The instructional tools, teachers motivation, students style of learning and motivation of the children are deeply rooted in local culture. The methodology and procedure should be contextual, indigenous and culturally relevant. The value inculcation strategies should be derived from socio-economic and cultural conditions, practices, beliefs, tradition and assumptions.

*University marks should not be the only criteria for selection of students into pre-service teacher education courses. The value level of

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

the candidates, his commitment and dedication to teaching profession should also be taken into consideration. Screening test should be basically based on value component. There is a need to develop value tests to measure the value climate of the school and for screening of students for admission into pre-service education of teachers at all levels.

*Mere knowledge competency of the teacher is not adequate. Performance competency related to value education needs to be defined and highlighted more.

*Every teacher is a value teacher.

*Value themes needs to be integrated to all units/subjects.

*Value themes are to be integrated to all activities of the school.

*Value inculcation for allround development of the child to be emphasised.

Promotion and funding for Research in the area of Value Education

Organisations working in the area of value education have been basically preoccupied with Pre-service Teachers Training (for example Ramakrishna Mission Institute of moral and Spiritual Education, Mysore and Sri Aurobindo Ashram), development and extension aspect of values. Little efforts have been made on research, innovations and experimentation in this area. Research issues will be conteptualized, promoted and funded.

To evolve Minimum Standard in Education of Human

Value development of a framework of value education

Standards are powerful constructs in contemporary educational debate. Achievement of minimum standard is a process, which is achievable over a period of time, through combined and sustained effort of all shareholders. It is likely that changes will occur locally and differences in individual child and school level exhibit multiple pathways and different rate of progress in achieving minimum standard in values.

Mode :Seminar and Workshops

Documentation and disseminations of strategies/innovations for nurturing of human values will include modes like: (1) Print Materials (2) Audio-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

video programmes (3) CD/multimedia (4) Creation of a separate value education website.

Networking/Linkage with State Level Resource Institutions/NGO's

A directory of about 300 NGO's working in the area of value education has been prepared by National Resource Centre for Value Education (NRCVE) NCERT. The directory contains information about the aims, activities and publications of these organizations. This database could be accessed on the website of NCERT and has been made available to MHRD, NCERT constituents and others.

Coordination of Activities of NGO related to Teachers Training in the area of Value Education

On recommendation of NCERT, Department of Education, MHRD, Government of India has declared a number of prominent NGO's as Regional Resource Centres in Value Education. These are Rama Krishna Mission Institute of Moral and Spiritual Education, Mysore (RIMSE), Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Prajapita Brahma Kumaris lshwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Satya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, National Spiritual Assembly of Bahai's of India, Chinmaya Mission and Kendriya Jeevan Vigyan Academy. NCERT will coordinate the activities of the Regional Resource Centres in the area of in-service education of teachers at all levels, material development and promotion of researches related to value education.

Capacity Building of state/district level Resource Institutions

NCERT has a major role in capacity building of state/district level resource institutions like SCERT, SIE, SIET, CTE's, IASE's and DIET's. At the state and district levels due to administrative bottlenecks and lack of faculty and physical facilities, these institutions were not been able to fully perform their roles for which they have been set up. For example, it has been felt in many states that it is not adequate that SCERT, DIET's are performing only traditional teacher training roles even if these organisations have been set up with multiple functions. In many states, state and district level resource institutions like SCERT, SIET's and DIET's are not fully functional. SCERT and DIET should support multiple activities related to implementation of value-oriented education. NCERT will initiate steps to build capacities of state level resource organisation by adopting multiple strategies of training including new com-

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

munication technologies and in decentralized adaptation of approaches and material in relation to local needs. Collaborative research and development of materials could be another mechanism for promoting capacities of state level resource institutions in the area of value education.

* * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2





Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Children's books are valuable for the conscious promotion of a value system and for developing a more humane society. Literature for children is the most important segment of literature as it moulds the character of the future citizens.

A writer is the central actor in the field of Children's book development. He has to know , what children like, what they don't like and what should be given to them. There is a need for developing the talent for writing, providing guidance and evaluation of their work.

The workshops for writers organized by the Association of Writers and Illustrators for Children (AWIC) is an excellent example of how an aspirant writer can be trained to develop a good manuscript. There is also need for finding artists, publishers and developing good distribution network so that good books reach children. The role of parents and teachers in promoting a reading habit and a network libraries is also very important.

There is also an important role for the media to bring to attention what is being published. Due recognition should be given to creators of children's literature.

* * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2







I have been invited to present here the work that we have done in Auroville in the field of learning-teaching material for value-oriented education. But while you are listening, and before you get tired of my French pronunciation, I would like to make a few personal remarks. I take this opportunity to ask for your kind indulgence. I still hope that you might be able to comprehend something of what I will be saying. India has taught me many immensely valuable things, but in spite of my living here for the past twenty-eight years, I have not been able to discard my French way of speaking.

As I said, I have been a resident of India for the last twenty-eight years. By now I don't think I could live happily anywhere else. Such is the spell that India has cast upon me. Sometimes I see that some Indians have difficulty to understand this, but I can only say that this is the truth of my being. I will not try to list out any reasons, they would fall short of any essential truth. I may only venture to say that India is pre-eminently the country of the soul, of the spirit, way beyond any external appearance. And some of us who have come to this blessed country are just humble servants of Mother India, whatever the colour of their skin.

I passionately follow the evolution of India, its torturous but undeniable progress and I do believe that India will achieve greatness despite so many formidable difficulties. But there are different types of greatness for a country and even though I am certain that India in due course will also become a superpower in her own right, I believe that India's greatness is destined for much higher goals. It is why it was so comforting for me that no less a person than the Prime Minister of India, Shri Vajpayee, explicitly and emphatically made this point by quoting Sri Aurobindo in his reflections for the new year. The quote is an extract of Sri Aurobindo's message for India's Independence on August 15, 1947. It says:

"I have always held and said that India was arising, not to serve her own material interests only, to achieve expansion, greatness, power, and prosperity—though these too she must not neglect,—and certainly not

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

like others to acquire domination of other peoples, but to live also for God and the world as a helper and leader of the whole human race."

And the Prime Minister further says, "This, I believe, is the quintessence of India's work, now and in the future." I must say that I felt extremely moved by this comment by the Prime Minister. He dares say that which no other world leader would dare say, that which no other leader could even conceive of. Now, this is India. India's magic. The Prime Minister of the country, in the middle of a grim baffle on so many fronts, with untold pressure from all sides and innumerable problems clamouring for his attention, is able to calmly present to a battered nation the highest possible goal. This is education of the highest order.

Given what we know of today's reality, with its long trail of acute problems like poverty, corruption, pollution, we may feel that such lofty goals belong to the realm of dreams, that they have no bearing on real life. But there is a tremendous force of visionary dreams. It has been proved time and again in the history of mankind. There is even a saying that dreamers are the ultimate realists.

So is a dream the idea of establishing Value-Oriented Education at the core of the educational system in India. Realists would and will say that there are more pressing things, there are more urgent tasks to do before that, like building more schools, having more teachers, etc. Yet I believe that vision must come first.

This is something that we know very well in Auroville. When The Mother founded Auroville, she gave us the loftiest ideal of creating a society which would be manifesting a concrete human unity, where people of all races and nations would live together harmoniously. In order to achieve this, The Mother expected each resident of Auroville to become aware of his or her inner self, so that it may become the guide of his or her day-to-day life.

We are, of course, very far from all this, very far from this lofty, yet concrete, ideal. Yes, there are many nice things happening in Auroville, I am not ignoring them. But we are very far from achieving the ideals given by The Mother. So far indeed, that sometimes visitors, when told about Mother's vision, wonder as to how all this can be realized. And yet, let me tell you that Mother's solution is the only realist solution to the riddle of achieving true human unity. Nothing short of the inner discovery will ever be able to foster true and lasting harmony. It is our hope—I should rather say our faith—that a growing number of Aurovillians will indeed make that momentous discovery

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

and that, in proportion of this fundamental inner change, the outer manifestation of Auroville will come closer to what The Mother wanted.

So similarly I do believe that the dream of value-oriented education being at the core of the educational system in India is the only true and right goal, however remote it may seem today. Only the largest and highest vision will have the power of lifting the heavy legacy of utilitarian and Macaulist education. It is why in Auroville we are very happy and proud to participate in this great effort.

We are grateful too because it gives us one more opportunity to work closely with Dr Kireetjoshi, who is also a great dreamer and has been a driving force behind the master idea of value-oriented education. I have had the privilege to be associated in work with Kireetbhai for nearly twenty years and therefore I have had many occasions to witness often the miraculous effect of the power of great visions, as well as the power of utter dedication to the highest goals; these two supreme powers that move the world, Kireetbhai is able to manifest them time and again.

I would like now to say a few words about some specific aspects of the research being conducted in Auroville.

l) We have researchers from different backgrounds.

As you may know, people living in Auroville, the city named after Sri Aurobindo and dedicated to human unity, are from many different nationalities. In consequence it is obvious that on many subjects, like history for instance or social sciences, we have to go beyond the angle adopted by a particular country or a particular culture. We have to approach the subject from the wider angle of the overall evolution of mankind, its constant search for God, Light, Freedom and Immortality, and appreciate all contributions to the progress of humanity towards this goal. In this study, we benefit from the tremendous light that Sri Aurobindo has shed on all the endeavours of the human being, whether in the field of art, education, polity, poetry, etc.

2)We have researchers from various educational backgrounds.

Some of them may have academic diplomas, some of them may not. But we don't consider it important because all researchers and teachers are actually students of evolution. We have to study everything afresh in the light of this quest. As a matter of fact, it is our experience that a number of those who are conducting/leading experiments in Auroville are self-taught, with the passionate freshness that often comes with the discovery of their real interest in life. As Sri Aurobindo said, "When knowledge is fresh in us, it is invincible."

3)We have researchers whose main area of research is outside the academic field.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Most of the researchers whose name you can read in the first pages of the books I am going to speak about are engaged in non-academic activities. If I go through the list, I will find somebody who has been milking cows for the last twenty years in an Auroville farm, somebody who is a retired general and now looks after the archives of Auroville, a person who is an expert in the art of massage and is actively engaged in practical research on alternate methods of healing, somebody who has been managing the collective finances of Auroville, etc. and this leads us to the next characteristic.

4) Our research is not separated from life. All life is yoga, said Sri Aurobindo and similarly, in Auroville all life is research. Auroville is meant to be a living laboratory. Whether we are busy trying to invent a new economy, whether we are engaged in discussions to attempt to organize the collective life of the community, whether we teach or we build houses, in fact we make a practical research in the ways by which we could create a new society, a society that will be governed by the soul.

And it is why our work in the field of learning-teaching material is necessarily intertwined with and coloured by our day-to-day endeavour. It is necessarily connected with our deeper quest.

Let me come now more specifically to the premises of this work.

The concepts we are developing are that the most essential question in the study of values, is not to prescribe but explore. It is by exploration that the free choice for the pursuit of values can be effected. This exploration as we have conceived is first to be centered around what is life, what is the aim of life.

The second is the question of values which are involved in the activities of the teacher and in the activities of the pupil. These values are more pervasive and fundamental.

Then we have been concerned with five aspects of education corresponding to the five aspects of human personality, physical, vital, mental, psychic and spiritual. We have therefore thought of preparing a book on "Mystery and Excellence of Human Body". Next are the values involved in what is called vital aspect of human personality and we have identified three values that uplift the vital. The impulses of vital life can be transmuted and fundamentally it is the transmutation that can be called culture of the human personality, and the three values are illumination, heroism and harmony.

We are presently working on this. We have a further programme of exploring values that are central to the mental aspect of human personality,— clarity, subtlety, synthesis, calm of the mind. Then we want to concentrate on the psychic which will emphasize the value of mutuality and co-operation and

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

brotherhood as also the value of obedience to the Supreme Will. Then a book on spiritual values that will concentrate on the search on universality and oneness.

We have already produced two books 'The Aim of life' and 'The Good Teacher' and 'the Good Pupil' and they can already be made a good vehicle of Teachers' Training in value education and they can also be recommended for tertiary education. We have there already a book not yet published, 'Mystry and Excellence of the Human Body'. It only awaits publication.

If you examine 'The Aim of Life', we have studied the problem in some depth and we have come to the conclusion that there are historically speaking fore aims which humanity has pursued at different epochs more or less exclusively.

Some have pursued what may be called the Cosmic terrestrial aim of life the others the supraterrestrial aim of life, and some the supracosmic aim of life, and finally there is also a long tradition of pursuit of integral aim of life.

Our aim in the book is to illustrate these fore aims and we have selected appropriate texts from some original writings, and we have prepared introduction and explanatory notes and other additional literature which will explain the text.

For example, to illustrate the integral aim of life, we have taken the text of the Isa Upanisad and also the text of a drama written by The Mother called the Ascent to Truth.

For the Cosmic-terrestrial we have taken a text from Jawaharlal Nehru, his essay on Philosophy of Life in his Discovery of India. It is what may be called idealistic terrestrial aim of life. Then, we have Bertrand Russel, his text of A free Man's Worship (materialistic terrestrial aim of life). We have a scientific terrestrial aim of life and we have a text from Einstein called The World as I see it. As far as the Supra-terrestrial is concerned, we have taken a text from the Bible, the text from the' Sermon on the Mount' and also from the Koran. And then for Supracosmic, we have taken a text from the Dhammapada and a text from Shankaracharya, his Vivekacudamani. We have written all the introductions so that each one is sympathetically understood and expounded and how each one can ultimately be synthesised in the most integral exploration and pursuit of the highest possible aim of life.

During our research for this book, we had the opportunity to interact with Professor D. P. Chattopadhyaya and other eminent personalities and we had the great benefit of the general editorship of Dr Kireet Joshi, the present Chairman of ICPR who is well-known as an educationist and a scholar.

The second book we have authored is The Good Teacher and the Good Pupil where we have emphasized the qualities of a good teacher and the qualities of

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

different cultural backgrounds is that the best educational output is possible only through a natural, creative, free and mutually respecting interaction between the teacher and the pupil. The prime concern of this quality pupil-teacher interaction is to ensure developement of a fully blossomed individual who can become a precious human resource.

"The book is based not only on the educational and cultural heritage of India but it includes profuse illustrations of ideas culled out from the work of educational thinkers from all over the world. There are drawings, sketches, paintings, diagrams and photographs, which have been appropriately incorporated to provide support to many philosophical and psychological ideas contained in the book.

"This volume is a very valuable exploration into the various dimensions which characterize good teacher and good pupil and should be an important reading material for teachers, teachers-educators, educational personnel and even parents."

We are also happy to mention that it has been translated into Hindi and will soon be published in Hindi.

I would like to mention also that the book Mystery and Excellence of the Human Body has been prepared following the same pattern of introduction, text and notes and we do hope that it may be published soon if funds can be available. The aim of this book is to bring about an increased awareness about the human body, a sense of wonder about its mystery and excellence and help the reader to a deeper understanding of the values of physical education.

I would like now to give a more detailed presentation of the themes which are central to the two books, The Aim of Life and The Good Teacher and the Good Pupil.

There are states and states of consciousness; there are profundities and widenesses; there are heights over heights. To discover them one has to enlarge and explore ever-widening possibilities of psychological experience. In the depths of the being we may begin to integrate the threads and complexities of what we are and can become. It is there, perhaps, rather than in books or preachings, that we may begin to perceive and live what precisely is our aim of life. Free from dogmas and fixed beliefs, in the purity of experience, we may hope to discover the answer to the all-important questions: What am I to do? What role do I have to play in the vast and mysterious universe? What is the best and highest goal that I should aim to realize?

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

But from no human endeavour—particularly when at a collective and general level—is it easy or desirable to eliminate intellectual inquiry. On the contrary, such an inquiry can be an excellent aid in the ultimate search for the aim of life—a direct search that is based on disciplined practice and experience. But the inquiry must be unfettered by narrow or exclusive assumptions, and carried out in the spirit of sincere exploration. Throughout the history of awakened thought, there has been a persistent questioning as to what is the aim of human life. Answers have been sought at various levels of reflection and critical thought. Answers derived from morality, religion or spiritual experience have also often been expressed in ways which are accessible to our rational understanding. The inquiring mind needs to reflect on these answers and arrive at its own conclusions.

We speak today of value-oriented education and of integral education. It is not necessary to define these two terms here, nor is it easy to do so. But it is clear that certain precautions must be taken if value-oriented education is not to degenerate into something narrow, rigid, and dogmatic. Firstly, each individual must be given the freedom to explore the full realm of values as comprehensively as possible. Secondly, this exploration must not be limited to the realm of morality alone, but must cover as well the values inherent in the physical, intellectual, aesthetic and spiritual realms. Similarly, an unreflecting insistence on integral education can degenerate into a hodgepodge of disciplines in all their innumerable aspects and details, unless we are able to discover some unifying direction in which the various disciplines of knowledge and experience can find an ever-progressive synthesis and harmonization. A free pursuit of the theme of the aim of life could prove a salutary beginning, and even, in a sense, provide a fulfilling climax.

All those who have the responsibility of educating children and youth will have to think out the implications of value-oriented and integral education. They will also have to undergo the training required for them progressively to embody, in their lives and personalities, the experiences gained in their pursuit of values and of integrated development of the being. This book is especially addressed to all those who have this responsibility. The material presented here is meant to encourage a free exploration into the theme of the aim of life. The texts have been selected from many important works related to the aim of life, in the spirit of collecting at random some flowers from a beautiful garden.

For the last two hundred years or more there has been a growing realization that the teacher should be child-centred and should help the

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

child's innate potential to blossom fully. Learner-centred teaching is being advanced in progressive schools all over the world.

Indeed, if we examine the examples of good teachers of the past or of the present, we shall find'that they have always been learner-oriented; and good pupils have blossomed like lovely flowers when tended with care, love and understanding or even when left to themselves with interventions from teachers when necessary.

A good teacher is always a help in the pupil's pursuit of accomplishment and perfection. For the pupil, the important things are his own enthusiasm and personal effort that can sustain patient and persistent work towards growth and progress. The teacher comes in to uplift the pupil's effort, his growing knowledge, his skills, his orientation. When a good teacher and a good pupil come together, astonishing results follow for both of them and under ideal conditions incredible transmutations of the personality and its power take place, as we can witness in some of the selections in this book.

Instruction, example and influence are the three instruments of a good teacher. A good teacher does not instruct merely by words. In fact, he makes a sparing use of them. He utilizes his communicative skills to invent illuminating phrases and expressions, to initiate meaningful devices and projects, and to create a stimulating atmosphere and environment.

The art of instruction is extremely subtle and delicate, but a good teacher practises this art effortlessly. He harmoniously blends formal with informal instruction. He varies his methods according to circumstances and organizes his teaching to suit the varying demands and needs of his pupils; A good teacher is a keen observer and tries to understand each of his pupils by a kind of identity. He strives untiringly to make his programmes or lessons interesting and to awaken in his pupils a power of concentration and an irresistible will for progress. Finally, he instructs even without instructing, and allows his inner mastery of his own knowledge to shine out through actions rather than through words.

A good teacher knows that example is more important than instruction, and he strives not only to keep his ideals in front of him, but also to progressively embody them. He is scrupulously scientific in detecting his own errors and defects, knowing very well that he cannot demand from his students what he himself cannot practise. The example expected from the teacher is not merely his outward behaviour, but his inner life, his aims and the sincerity with which he pursues those aims.

It is sometimes argued that what should be expected from the teacher is professional competence and a power of communication, and nothing more.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

But this contention ignores the fact that the example set by the teacher's inner and outer life is automatically communicated to the pupils, whether this is intended or not. Giving a good example is an inherent part of the teacher's task.

But this is not all. Even more powerful than example is the direct influence the teacher exercises upon his students. Influence is the power of contact and the nearness of the teacher's presence. Knowingly or unknowingly, teachers tend to exercise authority over their students, and sometimes this authority smacks of arrogance. Not infrequently, the act of teaching itself becomes a battery of suggestions of more or less hypnotic intensity. A good teacher must be intent upon cultivating healthy attitudes and traits which have salutary effects on students.

A good teacher accepts his work as a trust given to him by his station and its duties. He recognizes his own importance while acknowledging its relativity. He suggests but does not impose, he is a friend and a philosopher and guide; he does not arrogate to himself vain masterhood. Inspired by humility, he looks upon himself as a child leading children.

A good teacher is a constant learner. He not only renews his knowledge in the field of his specialization, but he also continues to enrich his personality and strives to achieve deeper and higher realizations. Even as he rises higher and higher, he feels a greater and greater need to share his knowledge, skill, experience and illumination with others, particularly with younger generations. In doing so, he may encounter resistance and conflict.

Let us now turn to the pupil. Every child has an inner desire to learn and to grow, but the most important characteristic of the good pupil is his zeal or enthusiasm. This zeal is what determines the persistence of his effort, and such persistence is indispensable to achieve higher and higher levels of excellence. A good pupil is a seeker of knowledge and, motivated by curiosity and a growing sense of wonder, seeks knowledge for its own sake. He travels from the known to the unknown, and in this travel does not limit himself to thought and imagination alone, but sets out to come in direct contact with Nature and Man, in order to gain access to wider, deeper and higher realms of experience.

A good pupil tends to organize his life and to find time for as many activities as possible. In due course, he discovers that concentration holds the key to development, and that he can compress a long programme of work into a much shorter period by applying the art and science of concentration to it. In his natural process of flowering, he comes to combine work and play, and whether in his more formal studies or in the fine arts and crafts, he aims at cultivating and refining his actual and potential faculties.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

A good pupil realizes that both body and mind should be developed vigorously and rigorously. He discovers that the qualities needed in physical education contribute a great deal to the development of an integrated personality. For example, the sporting spirit, valued most in physical education, includes good humour and tolerance and consideration for all, a right attitude and friendliness to both teammates and rivals, self-control and a scrupulous observance of the laws of the game, fair play, an equal acceptance of victory or defeat without bad humour, resentment or ill-will towards successful competitors, and the loyal acceptance of the decisions of the appointed judge, umpire or referee. These qualities have their value for life in general and the help that sports can give to an integral development is direct and invaluable.

One of the best lessons of the sporting spirit is that one should strive not to stand first but to do one's best. And a good pupil should put this lesson into practice in every domain of activity.

In the realm of studies, a good pupil tries to develop different aspects of his mind. The search for truth in a scientific and philosophic spirit is his basic motivation, and he seeks to develop a right discrimination between appearance and reality. He loves books but is not a bookworm. He may or may not read voraciously—his main concern is to cultivate subtlety of intelligence and the capacity to develop complex systems of thought. He learns the skills of analysis and strives to master the dialectic of thesis, antithesis and synthesis.

A harmonious development of the rational mind, the ethical sense and the aesthetic sensibility is the highest aim of normal manhood, and a good pupil strives to integrate the triple powers of reason, will and imagination in harmony with his own unique turn of temperament and the natural law of his inner growth. Indeed, he avoids a hotch-potch of activities but rather seeks to organize them into a kind of unity emerging from the inner core of his soul's integral aspiration.

At an important stage of the pupil's life there comes a choice, and the quality of the pupil will be judged by and will depend upon the choice he makes. This is the choice between the good and the pleasant, shreyaszndpreyas, to use the terms of the Katha Upanisad. Not that pleasure or enjoyment has no place in an ideal life, but there is a distinction between seeking pleasure for the sake of pleasure and taking pleasure in whatever worthwhile action one does or undertakes to do. A good pupil makes this distinction and finds that, not in seeking pleasure, but in seeking good and finding pleasure in it, lies the secret of self-discipline. Indeed this is also the secret of the integrated personality.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

The choice between the good and the pleasant is not merely a matter of ethical life; it is, in a sense, a matter that pervades all aspects of life and in all circumstances the pupil is confronted with this choice. He can sustain this continuous encounter with choice only if he has in him that sublimest of qualities, sincerity. Indeed, it can be said that sincerity is the golden key to continuous and integral learning. And no pupil can continue to remain a good pupil unless he has an ever-fresh sincerity which grows continuously and so becomes a burning fire of integral sincerity, that is, sincerity in all parts of the being.

It is this burning fire of sincerity that imparts to the pupil the right thrust and direction, as well as that concentrated and tranquil state of consciousness required to experience the reality which is the object of all knowledge. And it is this burning fire that breaks the limitations of the human mind and leads the seeker into higher domains of psychic and spiritual experience. A good pupil does not refuse to transgress the normal limitations of consciousness, but has the requisite courage to take the staff in his hands and set out on a newjourney. For a good pupil is not deterred by dogmatism. He is free to test on the anvil of reason and experience all affirmations and all negations. Henceforth, he is no more a seeker of shadows, appearances, names or forms, but a seeker of the real, the boundless, the infinite.

The journey of the good pupil is difficult and there are tests on the way that he must pass in order to enter new gates of progress. In this journey, sooner rather than later, he comes to learn how to learn, and he employs the principles of learning to educate himself. Sooner rather than later, he comes to learn how to control himself and he employs the principles of discipline to achieve self-possession and self-mastery. Sooner rather than later, he comes to know his own nature, his psychological make-up, his inclinations, his own strengths and weaknesses, and he employs the principles of self-enlargement to discover his wider self and ultimately his highest unegoistic psychic and spiritual self and the means by which the light and power of the self can be made manifest in the physical world.

But, like any pupil, the good pupil too needs help and guidance from the teacher. The distinguishing mark of a good pupil is the attitude with which he seeks help and the degree and quality of the help he seeks. Since he puts in a good deal of personal effort, he does not demand much of the teacher's time. Yet, since his eagerness to learn is great, he learns faster, and this demands greater attention and time from the teacher. There are seasons of learning when a pupil can need and demand almost exclusive attention. There are

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

instances when a good pupil needs very litde help from the teacher and at a certain stage can dispense with it. Frequenly this happens when the pupil has found within himself the teacher's living guidance or when he has learned the art of discovering the inner teacher in every circumstance and in every encounter. It may be said that the need for external help diminishes as the pupil advances in the discovery of the inner teacher, or when the inner relationship between the pupil and the teacher is so intimate and intense that the pupil constantly feels an ever increasing and morejoyful inner contact with him.

In a sense, the relationship between a good pupil and a good teacher is indescribable. It tends to be profound and irrevocable, and the pupil feels a natural urge to emulate and obey his teacher. The tradition in which the pupil is enjoined to obey the teacher unquestioningly is rooted in the natural sacredness of the living relationship between the good pupil and the good teacher, and this tradition has its uses. But we find that a good teacher appreciates repeated questioning by the pupil, and he even allows a mutual testing.

To foster an increasing number of good teachers and good pupils is a special responsibility of any educational system and of those in charge of designing that system. It is true that good teachers and good pupils have flourished even in the most deficient circumstances, but it is certain that they would have proved to be better teachers and better pupils had the system of education itself been better; and it is also certain that a good system of education tends to promote the rapid multiplication of good teachers and good pupils.

Today, educational systems almost everywhere are utilitarian in character, promoting an examination-oriented education that imprisons teachers and students alike. Their goals are limited and have no intrinsic relationship with the ideal processes and ends of genuine teaching-learning. This point is very well illustrated in some of the passages included here.

Do we have any idea as to what system of education would encourage the flowering of good teachers and good pupils? This is a difficult question to answer. But if we study various innovative experiments conducted in this context, it seems that an ideal system is yet to be invented and can come about only if three things are assured. First, there must be a great change in the lecture system. Lectures should have a much more modest place than they have today. A greater role should be assigned to self-learning and to work on individual and collective projects. Second, the present syllabus system must

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

undergo a major modification. Programmes of study should be much more flexible. Pupils and teachers should have the possibility of changing the programmes according to the pupils' evolving needs. In fact, syllabi should be evolutionary in character, developing and emerging out of the interests of the pupils and their goals. Finally, the examination system must be thoroughly revised. Tests should be designed to stimulate the pupils to make further progress. They should be impromptu and should vary according to the varying situations of individuals and groups.

An ideal system of education would provide an environment and a framework that facilitates a harmonious blending of freedom and discipline. This harmonious blending presupposes, mainly on the part of teachers and educational administrators, the fulfilment of two conditions: the pursuit of truth and the pursuit of harmony. Neither of these pursuits can be meaningful or fruitful unless they are voluntary. The spirit of liberty is a necessary condition for the search for truth and for securing cooperation, mutual goodwill and fellow feeling. In brief, it may be said that Truth, Harmony and Liberty will be the underlying principles of an ideal system of education.

* * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2




I wish to introduce to you the foundational elements of the syllabus we propose to construct at Auroville. The proposed syllabus is meant to cover K to 12th standard. We recognize that the heart of education is not merely the basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic, but much more importantly to the future of India and the world is Value-Oriented Education. To put it succinctly, through V-OE, the sense of responsibility that one should not do to others what one does not wish to be done to oneself must be instilled into our future citizens. As an initial step in conceiving the curricula for V-OE, "An Exploratory Draft Programme" was written in the form of a K-12 syllabus. The title given to the programme indicates the quality of the citizen that hopefully will result after twelve years. To know oneself and to control oneself. This draft could form the backbone of our future efforts. But let me summarise our intentions.

Without any doubt Value-Oriented Education must develop aspiration for Truth, Beauty and Goodness in the hearts and minds of the students. Throughout the twelve years of the syllabus, these three ideas are, therefore, to be presented to the students by blending Truth, Beauty and Goodness into the curricula of the various subjects the students conventionally take. The media used would be all that both traditional and modern technology could provide.

However, to only present material to be learned passively would not do. There must also be many sorts of exercises to practice introspection. For as we all know, Truth, Beauty and Goodness come from within each human. How is introspection to be accomplished? Well, certainly asking the student to reflect on an idea, an action of a legendary character, or the role of certain natural phenomenon in human life, etc. could become a series of worthwhile exercises. Even to ask reflection on a simple sentence could cause the student to explore the inner self for attitude, prejudice and even a question that can't be answered. For example, how about "Have no ambition, but do your very best"?

As for the other side of the coin, there must be opportunities to express these three ideas. So exercises in aesthetic expression including poetry, graphic arts, the stage, music and so on would be interwoven throughout the twelve years. In fact, aesthetic expression will be treated as a core subject, and not merely an embellishment.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

In order to realize Truth, Beauty and Goodness through the academic approach, stories, historical biographies, phenomena of science, and phenomena of consciousness need to be carefully chosen and employed throughout the twelve-year curriculum. As a follow-up to academic study and aesthetic expression, the students would be directed to opportunities where life as it actually occurs around them would be observed. Given these opportunities, they would encounter and discover reflections in the real world of what had been found during study, so that the words and images read, viewed and discussed in the classroom would become a living reality for the students. Thus, allowing them to become as witnesses to the existence of Truth, Beauty and Goodness.

Constructing such a syllabus is an experiment and requires research. In this light, Auroville is most fortunate. Here we have education that encompasses all levels of the K-12 standards. In addition there is also alternative education as educational programmes within AV have to be made to suit the various situations such as village children who must work and can only attend evening schools. Furthermore, there are various educational philosophies with educators and a student body for each one. However, all the schools share in common The Mother's Dream and cooperate where and when necessary. And so as research and proposals are made to give flesh to this draft programme, Auroville will provide a living laboratory so that success will not be theoretical but actual.

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Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2



The Gnostic Centre is a research centre for the growth of consciousness, set up as a non-profit public charitable trust, in 1996 at New Delhi. The Gnostic Centre is consecrated to the vision and work of The Mother and Sri Aurobindo, and aims to make Integral Education and Yoga a dynamic reality in the larger social context. The International Centre for Integral Studies (ICIS), the educational wing of the Centre, is a pioneering effort towards the university of tomorrow.

The Gnostic Centre has worked with over a 100 mainstream schools and teacher education institutes (in and around Delhi) in the last five years, to introduce practical ways of implementing value education and training of mental faculties both for the teacher and the student. It is on the panel of Delhi University for teacher education and conducts self-development and integral education workshops with B.El.Ed. teacher students.

The Gnostic Centre has recently established a pre-school based on these same ideas, called 'L'avenir (the future)' where work is going on based on integral education, with emphasis on physical culture, value education and mental training.

Over the last five years through its various short courses on self-development and subject based intensives, The Gnostic Centre has built up a sound academic and applied research base to now begin a College of Education, to offer courses at the higher education level, in disciplines such as Integral Education, Integral Psychology, Integral Philosophy, with a major emphasis on value education and attitudinal change, self-knowledge. The Gnostic Centre is currently exploringpossibilities of accreditation and affiliation for these courses (to be offered at graduate/post-graduate levels).

Aims of the Gnostic Centre

*To make Integral Education a dynamic reality in the larger social context, through working with mainstream schools, colleges, professionals;

*To offer courses, study programmes, workshops and research facilities in various subjects and

*To create a space for those who are looking for a deeper consciousness and a new spirit and forms of knowledge to express it;

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

*To develop a rich cultural, aesthetic, social and spiritual fabric of life which uplifts and nurtures.

*To offer consultancy in Business Management, Law, Education, etc.

*To facilitate the understanding and practice of the Integral Yoga of The Mother and Sri Aurobindo.

*To create a bridge between matter and spirit.

Actimties of The Gnostic Centre

The Centre has four major activities:

1.Teacher Education

2.Applied Research

3.Integral Education for Children, Students, Youth

4.Resource Creation and Generation

1. Teacher Education : Pre-Service and In-Service

*Teacher-students (B.El.Ed. colleges)

*School teachers, counsellors and principals

*College lecturers and principals


The Centre is on the panel of Delhi University and provides training in Self-development to the teacher-students of B.El.Ed. course. The Centre has worked with teachers of over a hundred schools, colleges and teacher education institutions, in the field of Integral Education.

'A New Education for a New India: Integral Education' was a four-day conference organized by The Gnostic Centre in Nov.'2000, for 500 participants from over a 100 schools, teacher education colleges and educational institutes. The Honourable Minister for Human Resource Development, Shri Murli Manohar Joshi gave the inaugural message and address, presented by Dr. Kireet Joshi.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Applied Research

*Self-development (attitudinal change)

*Integral Education (physical, vital, mental, psychic)

A series of courses, workshops and study programmes are regularly held at the Centre. Some of them include:

*Power of Attitude

* Dynamics of Consciousness in

*The Science of Living * The Art of Healthy Living
*Foundation Course for Facilitation * How to Bring Up a Child?
*Meditation for Inner Growth * The Brain of India
*Fear : Its Cause and Cure * Integral Yoga

At the end of the course, the students submit their dissertations (monographs) based on their study and application in daily life, on topics such as Sincerity, Self-justification, Anger, Awakening the Consciousness, Work as a Means of Inner Growth, Positive Thinking (a detailed list is given at the end).

Each year a series of talks, audio-visuals and interactive sessions is organized at schools, colleges, academic training and management institutes, under the title: 'In Search of the Soul of India' (the Spiritual and Cultural Heritage of India Talks Series).

Integral Education for Children, Students, Youth

Including Value Education, Training of the Mental Faculties, Training of the Senses, Meditation:

*L'avenir (the future) is a learning centre for ages 2-4 years, started in April 2001

*Children's Workshops and Classes (4yrs-16yrs)

*Talks and Workshops for College Youth

The Centre carries out activities for young children and adolescents, to develop their sensorial skills, mental faculties, attitudes and qualities—through science based projects, games and creative work involving art and craft, workshops as well as residential camps, on topics such as :

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2
*Widening the Mind

* Beauty

*Discovering Your Hidden Treasures * Courage
*My Master Mind * The Young Explorer
*My Body Miraculous * Concentration: The Key to
*Our Secret Friends (on senses) * I Spy (on Observation)
*Be Like a Flower * Tell Me Why (on Reasoning)

Resource Creation and Generation

The Centre has developed comprehensive resources in all the above areas and these are available in the form of journal, books, booklets, audio-cassettes and multi-media presentations.

*Bi-monthly Journal, 'The Awakening Ray' on Self-development and Education, is a practical and valuable resource for teachers and parents, as it offers activities and insights into attitudinal change for oneself as well as faculty development and value education for children/students (available on sale or subscription)

*Books, 'Interactive Self-discovery Series' comprises of four beautifully produced books that provide practical tools for self-discovery and self-mastery, with passages, worksheets and exercises, presented in an interactive style, (available on sale)

*Dhyana: Meditation for Inner Growth: An invitation to read, understand and practise techniques and forms of concentration and meditation to make our life harmonious, effective and complete.

*Abhaya: Fear—Its Cause and Cure: A brilliant and insightful understanding on the causes of Fear and ways to combat and cure it.

*Karmayoga: Perfection in Work: Comprehensive guide on how to work with the right attitude to achieve perfection in works and life.

*Sadhana: A Guide to Self-Mastery: Ajourney into self-observation, self-organization, self-development and self-mastery.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

*CD-Rom: 'A New Education for a New India: Integral Education' (available on sale)

*Audio-cassettes: (available on sale)

*Meditation for Inner Growth (guided meditation with music)

*How to Think (talk)

*Why Bad Things Happen to Good People (talk)

*Five Elements of Education (talk)

*The Golden Gift (talk)

*Attitudes of a True Teacher (talk)

*Power of Attitude (talk)

*The Science or Living (talk)

* Booklets, on topics such as Mental Education, Vital Education, Physical Education, Psychic Education, The Art of Healthy Living, Hathayoga-Pranayama-Mudra-Bandha, How to Bring up a Child,

Education and Self-development, Power of Attitude, The Science of Living, Meditation for Inner Growth, Dynamics of Consciousness in Work, Widening the Mind

*Research Monographs, on the following topics:

*Anger—its cause and cure

*Awakening the Consciousness—the power of will and effort in progress

*Conquering the Major Lower Vital Movements

*Consciousness—Search for the Psychic Being

*Dealing with Conflict and Violence—the power of attitude

*Detachment and Harmony in Human Relationships

*Emotional Security

*Faith—a tool to conquer fear

*From Darkness to Light—ajourney into facilitation

*Growing in the Inner Consciousness

*How to Bring up a Child

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

*Overcoming the Attitude of Self-Justification

*Physical, Vital, Mental and Psychic Clarity—a blueprint for the future

*Positive Thinking—a tool for inner and outer harmony

*Power of Attitude in Shaping Fictional Characters

*Preparing the Body for a Higher Purpose in Life

*Rejection as a Tool for Self Purification

*Reposing in the Calm

*Searching for Good Habits

*Sincerity—a key to progress

*Surrender and its Importance in the Emergence of True Self

*Swadharma—the aim of your life

*The Aim of Higher Education—an Aurobindonian paradigm

*The Aim of My Life

*The Journey to Love

*The Modes of Nature and Mental Tamas

*The Self and Self-Realization as the Base for Social Change

*The Spirit in Management

*Training the Mental Faculties—a resource guide on the Mind

*Understanding Ego—a process towards its dissolution

*Understanding Tamas—a personal experience

*Vital Education—its role in self development

*Vital Education for Children of 4 to 8 years

*Working Consciously—the right spirit in work.

The Gnostic Centre comprises a library and a meditation hall, as well as a study centre. Its library is an intellectual sanctuary where one comes to find 'light and progress.' It provides personalised attention—should you need guidance. (Timings: 10am-6pm, Tuesdays to Sundays; situated at Bijwasan)

For further information, please write or e-mail to the following:

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Mailing add: The Gnostic Centre, H-401, Som Vihar Apts., New Delhi-110022, India

Phones: (011)5063060and70,6179129, (0124)6360351,6368942


Web site:

* * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2




Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


1.BUDDHA-BANYAN DEER—early Buddhist



4.CRACKED VASE—Rachael Naomi Remen







11.THE BRAVE PARROT—Early Buddhist

12.WHAT DO THEY NEED—Father Theophane




16.CABMAN ALWAYS THERE—Governor Foster Furcolo




2.ON SELF-RIGHTEOUSNESS—Traditional Christian

3.TWO MONKS AND A WOMAN—Tibetan Buddhist

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2





8.THE GREAT SILENCE—Father Theophane


10.WAY TO NIRVANA—Early Buddhist

11.ENJOY NO LIFE—Contemporary wisdom

12.ALL ARE RIGHT—Chassid





4.I AM AWAKE—Buddhist




1.RAIKWA, THE CART-DRIVER—Chhandogya Upanishad

2.SATYAKAMA, THE TRUTH-SEEKER—Chhandogya Upanishad

3.THE BOLD BEGGAR—Upanishads

4.THUS SPAKE YAJNAVALKYA—Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

5.THUS SPAKE UDDALAKA ARUNI—Chhandogya Upanishad

6.THE FIVE SHEATHS—Taittriya Upanishad

7.THE BLISS OF BRAHMAN—Taittriya Upanishad



Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2





























Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2




3.JANATA PYASI PYAR KJ—Dharampal Shastri

4.SHASAK KA ATMATYAGA—Dharampal Shastri



2.THE PRINCE WONDERFUL—the tale of a prince who taught the law


4.THE POOL OF ENCHANTMENT—a tale of triumph of wisdom over death





9.CASABLANCA—Felicia Hemans


11.REMINISCENCES—Rabindra Nath Tagore




Bella Koral








Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2



24.ANIMALS IN PRISON—Jawaharlal Nehru


26.KAZAKI- Prem Chand





















46.THE MAN WITH AN AXE TO GRIND—from Benjamin Franklin's



Fakir Mohan Senapati



Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2









58.NO TIME FOR FEAR—Philip Yancey


60.THE POSTMASTER—Rabindra Nath Tagore


















* * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2




In this presentation, Dr. Rudolph provides a concrete initiative undertaken by Jiva Institute for the creation of a novel school curriculum that incorporates the theme of global peace throughout the entire curriculum. Paper Brief

Now more than ever is a time for us to take action for providing novel educational methods that promote world peace. Far too much has been said, and way too little has been done practically to provide students and teachers with tangible experiences that promote global peace and harmony. The antiquated syllabi followed by most schools and the limited benefit afforded by talk-and-chalk methodologies must give way to a new type of education that is less instructive and more constructive in its orientation.

The very nature of learning itself is construction. It is not merely a process of listening and memorizing, for such "learning" cannot be considered learning at all. It is no different than pumping plants full of steroids to make them artificially grow. And what can one expect from such plants bred of unnatural chemicals, than fruits that are poisonous and which only lead to contaminating the bodies and minds of those who eat such. The actions of those who eat contaminated food can only be contaminated themselves and lead to undesirable ends.

Students today imbibe so much information to pass their exams and resort to cheating and unfair means to get the highest marks possible—all at the expense of learning what it means to be human. Is it any wonder why there is so much corruption and social unrest in our society? The education system today has actually become the basis for the cheating, hatred, distrust and discord that so gravely affects us on a day-to-day basis. Let us not be so blind as the smoker who has gotten lung cancer, who continues to smoke, and cannot understand why he is coughing and terminally diseased.

A peaceful person is one who is realized. And this realization comes about through learning. Learning occurs through a building process, where each individual constructs his or her unique understanding of the world based upon informations-input in connection with one's environment and experiences. If

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

provided with the proper environment and experiences (as expert gardeners provide to their plants), learners will maximize their full potential towards becoming rational, pious, and peace-loving individuals.

But how to go about providing a peace-enhanced curriculum. We have to answer the question of the going last mile, where all of our eloquent words are converted into hardcore, tangible artifacts for students and teachers. We have to ask the hard questions such as: Whose job is it to undertake this work? The social Studies Teacher's? The English Teacher's? Where does it fit into the curriculum as a whole? Who is responsible for enhancing the curriculum? The school? The NCERT?

Jiva Institute is a non-profit research and development organization founded in 1992, which is working to create a healthy, wealthy, and fearless society. As per NCERT's National Curriculum Framework (2001), the NCERT has called on such non-government organizations (NGOs) to come forward with solutions to the educational dilemma that India faces today.

Jiva has tackled this challenge in three ways: (1) Enhancing the existing NCERT Curriculum, (2) Creating teaching and learning materials and methodologies for teaching value- and peace-based curriculum, and (3) Developing a teacher training programme that helps teachers and school administrators create environments conducive to value and peace-based learning.

Enhancing the Syllabus

Our first step was to create an enhanced curriculum, based on the NCERT Curriculum Framework Guidelines that incorporated elements of a peace-based syllabus. (We have labelled this new curriculum as ICOT—India's Curriculum of Tomorrow.) This was done through a detailed process of creating educational standards (statements of what students should be able to know and do) for each year. These standards were then organized across the curriculum for all subjects. In other words, the concepts of values and peace were not just allocated to a class like Moral Science or Social Studies, Languages, and even Art. As adults, humane and peaceful dealings are not behaviours that we limit to a portion of our day (hopefully)—they pervade our entire lives. As such, these topics must not be relegated to small portion of the syllabus, but must pervade the syllabus in its entirety.

Creating Materials and Methodologies

Our second step was to create a new set of learning materials and methodologies that teachers could use in their classrooms to produce the right

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

kind of environments—ones that encourage teamwork, respect, and so on. The textbooks we created deal extensively with a vast array of values in all subjects. For example, in computers, children learn how technology can also be used destructively, and are asked to consider the responsibility invertors have in creating new technologies. In Science, students learn not only about where clean water comes from, but how people are affected by the lack of it, and what they can do to help their fellow country men in attaining their basic needs. In Maths and Geography, students learn about statistics of human rights abuse in India and throughout the world.

Jiva has also introduced a methodology of teaching called "cooperative learning", a means of having students spend much of their class time interacting in groups rather than sitting in rows listening to the teacher's lecture. Students gain tremendously from this practice because not only does it provide them with a greater exposure to the content, but it also helps them gain badly needed social skills such as discussion, debate, conflict resolution, turn-taking, teamwork and so on. Students become better disciplined and more responsible while working in their groups, as their responsibility extends beyond the mere individual scoring on exams. They now have a duty to perform well for the benefit of their peers, too.

Value- and Peace-Based Teacher Training

Our third step was to create a teacher-training programme that teaches teachers how to teach values and peace in all subjects. This training programme is available now through seminar format, and has already been successfully run under a programme conducted and organized by the NCERT in July 2001. Teachers learn how to incorporate the topics of values and peace into their subject, no matter which subject it may be. They learn how to create a constructive-based lesson plans using resources available to them locally, how to localize it for their specific purposes, how to review and critique these lessons, and how to make them available on the Internet for other teachers to access and use. The course will shortly be available via the Internet through an e-learning course.


In short, Jiva has taken definitive steps towards inculcating values and peace among the students and teachers of India through a three-pronged approach: curriculum enhancement, creation of materials and methodologies, and the development of a teacher-training programme. This work, under

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

the banner of ICOT, is based on the principle of constructive education, which facilitates the creation of environments that are conducive to realized learning.

The corollary to Jiva's approach with ICOT of constructive learning as an instructive practice is social constructivism, or rather, a general sentiment that leads toward the positive development of the society. In other words, learners who undergo an education in constructive learning environments will naturally and automatically extend their minds and energy in positive ways into their society. This might be in the form of art, journalism, environmental practices, driving practices, architecture, social help, uncorrupt political practices, and so on.

Therefore if we hope to see a more civil and peaceful society and world, we must start at a local level. Erudite lectures may provide a sense of light, however, not even the most common of common people need not be convinced that honesty is superior to dishonesty, that justice surpasses injustice, that values stand above corruption, and that peace is preferable to war. What we need are practical models in action that go the last mile, that transform the wisdom and scholarly vision espoused by great social and spiritual leaders into real material that students and teachers can use immediately. Through ICOT, Jiva has made a humble step in achieving this vision, so that our generation, and the ones after, might live in a world that is more peaceful than the one we live in today.


Jiva Institute is a non-profit, non-government organization that aims to create a healthy, wealthy and fearless society by synergizing modern technology and sciences with traditional Indian knowledge systems. To achieve its objectives, the Institute carries out various initiatives that enhance education, health, culture, and sustainable development (outreach) among all spheres of the society.


Jiva's education division is dedicated to establishing a 'Learning Society' by generating effective learning environments in a wide range of contexts. To this aim, it conducts research, and develops innovative learning materials for schools, learning institutions and professional organizations.

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


Jiva's health division promotes the ancient science of Ayurveda throughout the world. Jiva Ayurveda runs its own Panchkarma clinic and pharmacy, besides offering consultancy courses, personalized health solutions and other services through its website. It conducts residential courses, organizes international seminars and videoconferences, and also publishes books and articles related to health and Ayurveda.


The culture wing, in Vrindavan (UP, India) is committed to researching traditional Indian knowledge systems, and finding ways in which these systems can benefit the modern society. Scholars from around the world are engaged in distilling the wisdom of ancient and rare Sanskrit works and applying it to contemporary contexts.


Jiva Outreach works towards sustainable development of under-served communities in urban and rural India. It carries out projects that provide technology and information access of the countries neediest populations, and which generate opportunities for education, employment, and entrepreneur-ship.

* * *


Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2





Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

A)1. Truth, Good, Beauty

2.Head, Heart, Hand

3.Cognitive, Affective, Psycho-motor

4.Thinking, Feeling, Doing

5.Being, Becoming, Living

6. (a) Yama = Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya and Aparigraha

(b) Niyama = Shaucha, Santosha, Tapas, Svadhyaya and Ishvarapranidhana.

B)Total Development of the Child

1.Person—Physical, Vital, Mental, Intellectual and Spiritual)

2.Family—Adjustment, Love and Respect

3.Society—Utility, Help, Harmony, Avoidance of social evils

4.Nation—Service, Integration

5.World—Globalisation of Thought, Integral Humanism

6.Animal Life and Environment—Protective, Sympathy, Harmony with Nature

7.Self Realization—Oneness with the Cosmic World.

C)1. Equality



D)1. Harmony with self

2.Harmony with others

3.Harmony with nature

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

E) 1. Real Bharatiya

2.Modern (Not Western)

3.Deeply Human


A)1. In the Ministry

2.In the Department

3.In the Field

4.In the Schools

5.In the Classrooms

6.Outside the Classrooms

7.In the Homes

8.In the Neighbourhood and the Society

B)1. Education to face the Reality and Situations

2.Experimental Learning

3.Rules, Norms and their self-imposed discipline and Enforcement

4.Freedom to be and to become in consonance with social welfare

5.Appreciation and Acceptance

6.Trust the Teacher (Value Transmitter)

7.Evaluation—Students, Teachers, Education Department, Society

C)1. Core groups (Guidance, Monitoring and Education)

2.Group leaders (Head of Institutions)

3.Start Activities in Every Distt

4.Training of Group Leaders

5.Meeting of the Value Based Complexes

(After every two months)

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

6.School Based in-service Teachers Training and Education every month

7.Select a few schools, to create models

8.District level

9.Directorate level


A)Subjectwise clubs and societies

1.Hand written magazines by the students

2.Brain storming sessions

3.Learning by seeing

4.Learning by doing

5.Child centered Education

6.Yoga and studies

7.Self study

B)1. Research and Evaluation

2.Action research


4.Group Discussions

5.General knowledge and Cultural Heritage Test

C)1. Home assignments

2.Project Work

3.Monitorial system


A)1. Cleanliness



4.Wall writings

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

B)1. Enrichment of Text Portions

2.Integrated approach

3.Direct method

4.Co-curricular activities

(Body, Vital, Mind, Intellect, Spirit)

C)Prayer, Silence, Songs, Story Telling, Books Reading, Yoga, Games

D)1. Congruent Behaviour with





Head of Institutions.

E)Code of Conduct for all

F)1. Symposia




5.Talks on studied good books

6.Quiz programmes


8.Vacation classes

9.Speech activities


11.Community service programmes to be literacy, blood donations, etc.

G)Teachers mil Identify

1. The Topics which develop sense of wonder

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

2.Topics for concentration, memory and understanding and application

3.Topics for Nationalism

4.Topics for social consciousness

5.Topics related to the values

6.Synthesis of the East and the West

H)1. Cassettes



4.Audio Visual Aids


6.Wealth from waste

7.Library books

8.Rewriting of books and removing distortions

I)1. Constant comprehensive evaluation 2. Cumulative record


A)1. Guide for teachers—subjectwise topics and value education


3.Art and creativity

4.Physical and Health Education care

B)1. Book

Prayer and Song Book

(Prayers, Inspiring incidents, Subhashit, Dohay, Thoughts for the day, Thus he spoke....)

C)Quarterly magazine

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

D)1.Hand book for teachers

2.Activity based approach

3.Value Projects, what, why and how?

4.Guidance for additional reading material

5.Story books in regional languages—Translation in Hindi

6.Textbook analysis, What and how?


8.Involvement of different agencies

9.Bal Sabha

10.Parent-Teacher Association

11.Social service activities

12.Trips and excursions


14.House system

15.Thoughts for teachers

16.Participation of community

E)1. Teacher Diary

2.. Student Diary

3.School Activity Calendar (Participation Approach)


A) 1. Compulsory subject in Training Colleges and Schools

2.Short term courses in value awareness for in-service teachers

3.Pre-service Training through four months Diploma courses

4.Train five resource persons for





School groups

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


1.Red Cross activities

2.Scouting / NCC /NSS.

3.Social Welfare activities

4.Traffic Control


6.First-Aid lessons

C)Routine meetings of all the resource persons

D)Students camps

E)For Supervisors

1.Proforma for evaluation of the school programmes

2.Participation of parents


A) For Students' Good Deeds



3.Activities, Creativity



6.Service and helping needy

7 Love for humanity and environment etc.

B) Teachers

1.Good results

2.Rapport with staff, students, parents, society

3.Projects performance

4.Publication of books—stores, songs, one-act plays—on Value Education

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

5.Para Reading Contests

6. Innovations

7. Professional development

8. Value-oriented living

Paper Reading Contests Innovations

Professional development Value-oriented living

C) School

All round achievement

1.Students' total development programme

2.Team work in the school


4.Co-operation of parents

5.Every student before the mike

6.Every student in the playground

7.Inspiring environment in the school

8.Participation in media programmes


1.Self-evaluation by the students

2.By contacting parents

3.By observing the students engaged in different activities

4.Assessing the results of the responsibilities given to the students

5. Noticing the behaviour of the students in specific conditions

6. By dialogue

7. Helping the needy at the time of national calamity Sense of sharing

8. Sence of sharing

9. From the opinion of teachers and colleagues

10.Interest in games and sports


12.Respect for elders

13.Written tests

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2


Activities for Literary and Academic Development

1.Debates and discussion

2.Declamation contest

3.Seminars and symposia

4.Poetical recitation

5.Extension lectures

6.Story writing competition

7.Essay writing competition.

8.Newspaper reading

9.School magazine


11.Subjects clubs like history club, geography club, mathematics club, etc.

12.Library work

IIActivities for Physical Development

1.Mass parade and drill

2.Games—indoor and outdoor



5.Swimming and boating

6.Yogic exercises

III Activities for Aesthetic and Cultural Development

1.Folk-songs and Folk-dance

2.Fancy dress

3.Flower show or Festival

4.Drawing and painting

5.Music and dancing activities


7.School band

8.Variety programmes

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2



IVActivities for Civic Training or Development

1.Organising students' Council or Self-Government

2.Mock parliament

3.Co-operative Bank and Co-operative Stores

4.Celebration of social, religious or national festivals

5.Celebration of school festivals like annual prize distribution, athletic meet, farewell function, parent's day, etc.

6.Visiting civic institutions like, Municipal Committee, Gram Panchayat, Legislative Assembly, etc.

VActivities for Leisure, i.e. Hobbies

1.Collection of stamps, stones, coins, birds, fossils, pictures, leaves and other interesting things

2.Photography and album making

3.Needle work and knitting


VIExcursion Activities

1. Trips to places of geographical, historical, cultural, scientific or economic interest

2.Pilgrimage to religious places

3.Visits to museum, zoo, parks, gardens, etc.

4.Hikes and picnics

5.Visits to exhibitions

VII Social Welfare or Community Activities

1.Scouting or Girl Guiding


Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

3.First-Aid or Red Cross

4.Social survey

5.Service on special occasions like fairs, festivals or processions

6.Mass prayer and Morning assembly

7.Community cooking and dining

8.Cleanliness week

VIII Scientific Activities

1.Science clubs

2.Science fairs and exhibitions

3.Science Quiz

4.Visit to places of scientific interest and value

IX Activities for Motar Development or Productive Activities

1.Knitting, spinning, weaving, embroidery or tailoring

2.Food preservation, cooking, jam, jelly making

3.Toy making, clay modelling and card board work

4.Gardening, Horticulture

5.Ink making, chalk making, soap making, candle making, etc.

6.Leather work

7.Book binding

8.Basket making and caning

X Multipurpose Activities

1.Running a dispensary, Co-operative Bank, Post Office or Cooperative Store in the School

2.Beautification of the school campus

3.Alumini get together

* * *

Selected Papers Presented At The Seminar-Part 2

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