Class I to IV
The first lesson may underline the concept of reverence to the highest, which is common in all parts of India, and which transcends barriers of religions and beliefs. The most important phrase is: HHt namo namah — salutation, and salutation again. The message of this phrase has become embedded in the entire style of life in India and even in greetings to each other Indians make various gestures of salutations.
Truth is another word that has to be underlined. The search for the Truth supersedes every other search in Indian culture.
The story of the Buddha to be told to the children in detail - his search for the truth was so intense that he renounced all else, -- his kingdom, his wife, his child, - - everything that was dear and near, everything that was pleasant.
Renunciation (wr) is another important common element in Indian culture. India celebrates renunciation and values it most.
The story of the search for the Truth and renunciation is further illustrated by the story of Nachiketas.
The story of Nachiketas can be recounted as given in the Kathopanishad. The story of renunciation is also illustrated through the story of Sri Rama, which can be told to underline Sri Rama’s renunciation and his emphasis on action to uphold the truth.
The story of Harischandra can also be told - it illustrates both Truth and renunciation.
The story of Shivi can also be told in the same connenction.
The ideal of Truth is so much emphasized that India when it became free adopted the following as its official motto: — satyam eva jayate.
From where is this motto derived, let us make a search.
It would be found in Mandukya Upanishad. What are Upanishads? They are the highest literature of India. It is in the Upanishads that we find the description of ancient India. Kings and princes and ordinary children are found here in search of Truth and they knock on the doors of the huts of the Rishis in the forest.
The seekers of knowledge in search of teachers have since that time remained an ideal feature of Indian culture.
While telling this, the following statements may be emphasized: Our culture is the culture oftyaga.
Even kings used to abdicate their kingdoms in order to seek the highest knowledge and Truth towards the end of their life. The story of Kunti, Gandhadri and Dhritrashtra can be told in this context.
Ten taktyena bhunjita is another concept that can be introduced from the Ishopanishad.
Abdication of desires is the one message in all religions which are prevalent in India. During the freedom struggle, the idea of abdication was most important. The story of freedom struggle to be told in this connection.
Reference may also to be made o light and sound show of Andaman Nicobar. The story of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, story of Sri Aurobindo, the story of Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Subhash Chandra Bose, Khudiram Bose, Bhagat Singh, Chandrashekhar Azad, etc. This is the India that should be loved and cherished.
Another aspect of Indian culture is “sarva hitaya” - work for the benefit of all. Reference from Bhagavadgita, Buddhism, Jainism and Islam, etc., can be told. In this connection, we can tell the story of Sri Rama; for public welfare he sacrificed his personal life; story of Sri Krishna and Arjuna; tjW HJT? - solidarity of people was the ideal given by Sri Krishna to Arjuna; story of goodwill; the story of Christ; Buddha’s story of compassion and the idea of sarvodaya, can be emphasised here.
Search for good, love, and joy (ananda). Indian culture is full of festivals of joy, kavya, sangita, stories of Sri Krishna, Shiva, and Mahalaksmi.
The curriculum of class V may be divided in three parts:
This part should be devoted to the following topics:
a. The story of Sanskrit in India ;
b. Important authors, who wrote in Sanskrit, and whose works are memorable ;
c. The story of Tamil : famous authors in Tamil and famous works in Tamil
d. The story of Pali and authors who wrote in Pali : memorable works in Pali;
e. The story of Prakrit: great authors who wrote in Prakrit and memorable works in Prakrit;
f. Origin and development of the modem Indian languages: Names of all modern Indian languages and famous authors and the works in these languages;
g. The story of Arabic, Turkish and Persian in India: famous authors and famous works in these languages.
h. Arrival and development of English in India: famous Indian authors and famous works of Indian authors in English.
Two greatest works of India in Sanskrit: The Ramayana and The Mahabharata.
An outline of the contents of there two works.
Definition of Culture.
What is Indian Culture?
Spirituality, brilliance of intellectuality and profusion of creativity.
(Note: Curriculum of class VI to VIII in Indian culture may be prescribed only for those students, who want to pursue the course of Indian culture at an advanced level. For those who do not wish to do so, may be allowed to take up at this stage, an advanced course in any other subject in which they are interested in a special way.)
Story of Astronomy and Mathematics in India: famous authors in Astronomy and Mathematics and famous works of these famous authors.
The following topics may be emphasized:
a. The concept of Brahmanda;
b. Ancient Indian concept of the Earth that moves around the sun; The ancient Indian concept of planets. The concept of Gravitation in ancient India.
c. Life and works of Varahamihir;
d. Invention of the concept of zero;
e. Indian Mathematical sciences: Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry. Measurements and calculations up to highest possible integers and lowest possible fractions;
f. An account of great advances in Astronomy and Mathematics in ancient India, which anticipated discoveries of the modem period of the world history.
g. Advances in Astronomy and Mathematics in modem India, which absorbed western advances in the modem period.
Ancient Indian Physics and Chemistry:
a. The concept of five basic elements: ether, air, fire, water, and earth;
b. Sankhya theory of evolution and Vaisheshika theory of atom;
c. The concept of speed of light;
d. Ancient chemistry in India;
e. Ancient chemistry and Ayurveda.
Development of Ayurveda in ancient India, and its continuity right up to the present day.
The following topics to be emphasized:
a. Knowledge of the human body, anatomy and physiology (in bare outline);
b. Concept of Doshas;
c. Theory of health and strength in Ayurveda: relationship with Physical exercises of Hatha Yoga;
d. Concept of longevity;
e. Indian surgery;
f. Plastic surgery and its survival right up to the arrival of the British in India;
g. Present status of Ayurveda in India;
h. Indian games, wrestling, and exercises for physical perfection;
a. Famous Indian stories: Panchtantra and Hitopadesh and Jataka stories;
b. History of Sanskrit drama with special reference to (i) Bharata Muni and
c. Abhinavagupta (ii) famous Sanskrit dramas prior to Kalidasa;
d. Kalidasa: his poetry and drama;
e. Post-Kalidasian drama;
f. Katha Sarit Sagar;
g. Use of Prakrit in Sanskrit dramas;
h. Bare outline of the great stories and dramas, written in India in Arabic and Persian;
i. Bare outline of stories and dramas written in modem Indian languages;
j. Indian authors in English: Rabindranath Tagore and Sri Aurobindo.
The curriculum of class X will be devoted to Indian Art.
Special reference to:
a. Indian concept of Art; illustrations in Poetry, Music, Painting, Architecture and Sculpture;
b. Various stages of development in Art, particularly paintings.
c. Outstanding paintings, right up to Mughal period;
d. Indian architecture, temples, palaces, churches, Gurudwaras and others;
Mughal architecture in India: Importance of Taj Mahal.
a. Systems of Indian Philosophy: Main schools and their fundamental doctrines;
b. Indian ethics: outline study of ethics and yoga of Geeta.
c. Dharmashashtras and Nitishashlras of India;
d. Arthshashtra of India (a bare outline);
e. Other numerous social sciences:
f. Concept of 64 sciences and arts.
a. Religions in India; spirit of tolerance and synthesis;
b. Systems of Yoga and systems of synthesis of Yoga;
c. Indian polity and India Renaissance;
d. Leaders of Indian Renaissance;
e. Problem of contemporary Indian culture and external Influences;
f. Towards a great synthesis of the East and the West.