February 12, 1809:
Birth of Abraham Lincoln in Hardin County, Kentucky.
|1816:||Family relocates to Indiana|
|1818:||Mother Nancy Hanks Lincoln dies of milk sickness|
|1819:||Father Thomas Lincoln remarries widow Sarah Bush Johnston|
|1820:||Missouri Compromise issued|
|1828:||Works on flatboat to carry cargo to New Orleans|
|1830:||Family relocates to Illinois|
|1831:||Separates from his family, moves to New Salem, Illinois|
|1832:||Serves as captain in Black Hawk War, loses bid for Illinois State Legislature|
|1833:||Works as postmaster of New Salem and later as a surveyor|
|1834:||At age 24 elected to Illinois State Legislature|
|1835:||Enters into deep depression on the death of Ann Rutledge|
|1836:||Re-elected to Illinois State Legislature as a leader of Whig Party|
|1837:||Admitted to the bar in Illinois, relocates to Springfield, forms a law partnership with John Stuart and begins practicing law|
|1838:||Re-elected to Illinois State Legislature for a third term|
|1839:||Travels as a lawyer on the 8th Judicial Circuit, Illinois|
|1840:||Re-elected to Illinois State Legislature for a fourth term|
|1841:||Forms a law partnership with Stephen T. Logan|
|1842:||Marries Mary Todd|
|1844:||Forms law partnership with William Herndon|
|1846:||Elected to U.S. Congress as Whig Representative from Illinois|
|1848:||Criticises President Polk and the Mexican War on House floor|
|1849:||Introduces gradual emancipation bill for slaves in District of Columbia, completes term in U.S. Congress and returns to Springfield to practice law|
|1854:||Kansas-Nebraska Act becomes law; delivers famous ‘Peoria’ speech, declines ticket for Illinois State Legislature, makes a bid for U.S. senate|
|1855:||Loses Senate bid|
|Receives Republican nomination for U.S. Senate; delivers ‘House Divided’ speech, participates in the Lincoln-Douglas debates in Illinois, loses Senate bid again|
Nominated for president by Republicans
|Confederate forces open fire on Fort Sumter, Civil War begins, Virginia secedes followed within weeks by 3 more Southern states|
|April-May:||Proclaims blockade against Southern ports, suspends writ of Habeas Corpus, declares martial law in Maryland|
|July:||Union defeated at Bull Run, Virginia, Lincoln appoints General McClellan as commander of the Potomac Army|
|August:||Declares martial law in Missouri, signs the Confiscation Act|
|November:||Appoints McClellan as Commander of the Union Army, Trent Affair strains relations with Britain|
|January:||Issues order no. 1, instructing the Union armies to advance by February 22nd|
|March:||Relieves McClellan as general-in-chief and takes supreme command of Union forces|
|April-June:||Battle of Shiloh, Tennessee resulting in heavy losses on both sides, Lincoln signs act abolishing slavery in District of Columbia, approves homestead Act facilitating thousands to go West, prohibits slavery in United States territories|
|August:||Union defeat at 2nd battle at Bull Run, Virginia|
|September:||Union forces push back the Confederate attack at the Battle of Antietam, Lincoln issues a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation|
|November:||Replaces McClellan with General Burnside|
|December:||Union army defeated at Fredericksburg, Virginia, West Virginia comes in as the 35th state into the Union|
|January:||Issues Emancipation Proclamation, replaces Burnside with General Hooker as Commander of the Army of the Potomac|
|February:||Signs a bill for a National Banking system|
|March-June:||Lincoln signs Conscription Act, Union army defeated at Chancellorsville, Virginia, replaces Hooker with Meade|
|July:||Union forces victorious at Battle of Gettysburg and Vicksburg and gain control of Mississippi river, Lincoln writes order of retaliation|
|August:||Meets Frederick Douglass|
|September:||Union Army defeated at Chickamauga, Virginia, puts General Grant in command of the army of the Western theatre|
|November:||Delivers Gettysburg Address|
|December:||Issues initial plans for reconstruction|
|March:||Puts General Grant in charge of all Union Armies|
|June:||Nominated for President by National Union Party for a second term|
|Sept-Oct.:||Sherman’s forces capture Atlanta, Union forces gain control of Shenandoah Valley|
|November:||Re-elected president of the United States|
|January:||Attends unsuccessful peace conference at Hampton Roads|
|March:||Lincoln delivers Second inaugural speech, grants pardon to Union deserters|
|April:||Grant’s forces capture Richmond, Lincoln visits Richmond, Lee surrenders to Grant near Appomattox Court House, Virginia, Lincoln makes last public speech concerning question of reconstruction|
|April 14:||Fatally shot by John Wilkes Booth in theatre|
|April 15:||Dies at 7:22 a.m.|
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property,
without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.
In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
U.S. Bill of Rights: The first 10 amendments to the constitution of America. Authored by James Madison in reply to a demand from various states for greater protection of individual liberties and prohibitions on governmental power.