Mystery and Excellence on The Human Body - Olympics - Notes

Olympics - Notes


List of Olympics in modern times

  Date Place


      Men Women Nations
1 1896 Athens, Greece 311 0 13
2 1990 Paris, France 1319 11 22
3 1904 St.Louis, U.S.A 681 6 12
  1906 Athens, Greece 877 7 20
4 1908 London, U.K 1000 36 23
5 1912 Stockholm, Sweden 2490 57 28
6 1916 Berlin, Germany

Cancelled 'because of World War I  

7 1920 Antwerp, Belgium 2543 64 29
8 1924 Paris, France 2956 136 44
9 1928 Amsterdam, Holland 2724 290 46
10 1932 Los Angeles, USA. 1281 127 37
11 1936 Berlin, Germany 3738 328 49
12 1940

Tokyo, Japan,

Cancelled because of World War II 
    Helsinki, Finland Cancelled because of World War II
13 1944 London, U.K Cancelled because of World War II
14 1948 London, U.K. 3714 385 59
15 1952 Helsinki, Finland 4407 518 69
16 1956 Melbourne, Australia 2958 384 67
17 1960 Rome, Italy 4738 610 83
18 1964 Tokyo, Japan 4457 683 93
19 1968 Mexico, Mexique 4750 781 112
20 1972 Munich, Germany 5848 1299 122
21 1976 Montreal, Canada 4834 1251 92
22 1980 Moscow, U.S.S.R. 4265 1088 81
23 1984 Los Angeles, USA 5458 1620 141
24 1988 Seoul, South Korea     159
25 1992 Barcelona, Spain     172
26 1996 Atlanta, USA.     197
27 2000 Sydney, Australia.     199
28 2004 Athens, Greece. (scheduled) 
29 2008 Beijing, China.  (scheduled)
Olympics - Notes

Olympics - Notes

Olympic Events in each discipline (Summer Games)

Track and Field


100 Meters, 200 Meters, 400 Meters, 800 Meters, 1500 Meters, 5000 Meters, 10,000 Meters, Marathon, 110-Meter Hurdles, 400-Meter Hurdles, 3000-Meter Steeplechase, 4 x 100-Meter, Relay, 4 x 400 Meter Relay, 20,000-Meter Walk, 50,000-Meter Walk, High Jump, Pole Vault,  Long Jump, Triple Jump, Shot Put, Discus Throw, Hammer Throw, Javelin  Throw, Decathlon.


100 Meters, 200 Meters, 400 Meters, 800 Meters, 1500 Meters, 3000 Meters,  10,000 Meters, Marathon, 100-Meter Hurdles, 400-Meter Hurdles, 4 x 100 Meter Relay, 4 x 400-Meter Relay, High Jump, Long  Jump, Shot Put, Discus Throw, Javelin Throw,



Men: Individual, Team.
Women: Individual, Team


Men — Women


Light Flyweight, Flyweight, Bantamweight, Featherweight, Lightweight,  Light Welterweight, Welterweight, Light Middleweight, Light Heavyweight,  Heavyweight, Super Heavyweight.



Kayak Singles 500 Meters, Kayak Singles 100 Meters, Kayak Pairs 500  Meters, Kayak Pairs 1000 Meters, Kayak Fours 1000 Meters, Canadian  Singles 500 Meters, Canadian Singles 1000 Meters, Canadian pairs 500  Meters, Canadian Pairs 1000 Meters.

Olympics - Notes

Olympics - Notes


Kayak Singles 500 Meters, Kayak Pairs 500 Meters, Kayak Fours 500 Meters.



1000-Meter Sprint (Scratch), 1000-Meter Time Trail, 4000-Meter Individual  Pursuit, 4000-Meter Team Pursuit, Points Race, Road Race, Team Time Trail.


1000-Meter Sprint (Scratch) 

Road Race


Three-Day Event, Individual, Three-Day Event Team, Jumping (Individual)  (Prix des Nations), Jumping (Team) (Prix des Nations), Dressage, Individual,  Dressage, Team



Foil-Individual, Foil-Team, Epee-Team, Sabre-Individual, Sabre-Team


Foil-Individual, Foil-Team

Field Hockey

Men — Women

Football (Soccer)



All-Around, Horizontal Bar, Parallel Bars, Long Horse Vault, Side Horse (Pommeled Horse), Rings, Floor Exercise, Team Combined Exercises.


All-Around, Side Horse Vault, Asymmetrical (Uneven) Bars, Balance Beam,  Floor Exercise, Team Combined Exercises, Rhythmic Ail-Around.

Team Handball

Men — Women

Olympics - Notes

Olympics - Notes


Extra-Lightweight, Half-Lightweight, Lightweight, Half-Middleweight,  Middleweight, Half-Heavyweight, Heavyweight, Open.

Modem Pentathlon

Individual — Team



Single Sculls, Double Sculls, Quadruple Sculls, Pair-Oared Shell without  Coxswain, Pair-Oared Shell with Coxswain, Four-Oared Shell without  Coxswain, Four-Oared Shell with Coxswain, Eight-Oared Shell with Coxswain.


Single Sculls, Double Sculls, Quadruple Sculls with Coxswain, Pair-Oared  Shell without Coxswain, Four-Oared Shell with Coxswain, Eight-Oared Shell  with Coxswain.



Rapid-fire Pistol, Free Pistol, Small-Bore Rifle (Prone), Small-Bore Rifle (Three  Positions), Moving Target, Air Rifle.


Sport Pistol, Air Pistol, Small-Bore Rifle, Three Positions, Air Rifle.


Trap Shooting, Skeet Shooting



50-m Freestyle, 100-m Freestyle, 200-m Freestyle, 400-m Freestyle, 1500-m  Freestyle, 100-m Backstroke, 200-m Backstroke, 100-m Breaststroke, 200-m  Breaststroke, 100-m Butterfly, 200-m Butterfly, 200-m Individual Medley,  400-m Individual Medley, 4 x 100-m medley relay, Synchronized swimming: solo, Synchronized swimming: duet, Springboard diving, Platform diving.


50-m Freestyle, 100-m Freestyle, 200-m Freestyle, 400-m Freestyle, 1500-m  Freestyle, 100-m Backstroke, 200-m Backstroke, 100-m Breaststroke, 200-m  Breaststroke, 100-m Butterfly, 200-m Butterfly, 200-m Individual Medley,  400-m Individual Medley, 4 x 100-m medley relay. Synchronized swimming: solo. Synchronized swimming: duet. Springboard diving. Platform diving.

Olympics - Notes

Olympics - Notes

Featherweight, Lightweight, Welterweight, Middleweight, Light Heavyweight, Heavyweight, Super Heavyweight.


Greco-Roman wrestling

Light Flyweight, Flyweight, Bantamweight, Featherweight, Lightweight, Welterweight, Middleweight, Light Heavyweight, Heavyweight, Super Heavyweight.



Mixed, Windglider, Finn, Star, Flying Dutchman, Tornado, Soling.

Men: 470

Women: 470

Table tennis


Singles, Doubles


Singles, Doubles

-29_Olympics - Notes - 4.jpg



Singles, Doubles


Singles, Doubles



Men — Women


Flyweight, Bantamweight, Featherweight, Lightweight, Middleweight, Light Heavyweight, Middle Heavyweight, 100 Kg, Heavyweight, Super Heavyweight Unlimited Weight.


Freestyle wrestling

Light Flyweight, Flyweight, Bantamweight,

Olympics - Notes

Olympics - Notes

Discontinued sports events

Cricket, Croquet, Golf, Jeu de Paume, Lacrosse, Motor Boating, Polo,  Rackets, Roque, Rugby, Tug of War.


* *

Olympic Winter Games

Since 1924, there are also "Winter Games," which are held the same year,  generally preceding the main summer game. The main disciplines are Alpine  Skiing, Biathlon, Bobsled, Cross Country Skiing, Curling, Figure Skating,  Freestyle Skiing, Ice Hockey, Luge, Nordic Combined, Skeleton, Ski Jumping,  Snowboarding and Speed Skating.


* *

Asian Games

India is the founder of Asian Games. The first Asian Games were held at the  National Stadium in New Delhi from March 4 to 11, 1951. The subsequent  Asian Games were held at Manila in 1954, Tokyo in 1958, Jakarta in 1962,  Bangkok in 1966 and 1970, Teheran in 1974 and Bangkok in 1978. After  nearly 32 years, Asian Games were held in India again in 1982 (ninth Asian  games). Then Seoul in 1986, Beijing in 1990, Hiroshima in 1994, Bangkok  1998 and Busan 2002..

Origin of Asian Games

The idea of holding a sports meet on the Olympic pattern for the Asian countries was mooted in 1934 by the late Maharaja Yadavendra Singh of Patiala  and Professor G.D. Sondhi. The first West Asiatic Games were held in New  Delhi in February 1934 in which four countries — India, Afghanistan, Ceylon  and Palestine — participated. These games were to -be held every four years  but the next Games scheduled to be held in Tel Aviv in 1938 could not take  place. The concept of Western Asiatic Games was then extended to the whole  of Asia. This idea of Professor G.D. Sondhi received a further impetus during the Asian Relations Conference in 1947. However, the idea of India hosting a  comprehensive meet was rejected by the Indian Olympic Association Council

Olympics - Notes

Olympics - Notes

meeting held at Lucknow in July 1947.

The Asian Games Federation (AGF) was the result of the determined dream  of its founder, the late Mr. G.S. Sondhi of India, to promote development of an  Asian identity, in fact an Asian Unity through sports. Despite initial setbacks it  was formed on February 13, 1949 in New Delhi, where the delegates drafted a  constitution. They decided to hold the Asian Games every four years, midway  between the Olympic Games, and also agreed on the simple motto which was  designed and proposed by Mr. Sondhi "Ever Onward" on top of an Orange Sun  that represents the ever glimmering and warm spirit of the Asian people.

It is no doubt thanks to the continued efforts of Professor Sondhi and the  untiring endeavours of Maharaja Yadavendra Singh, with the blessings of Pandit  Jawaharlal Nehru, that the Asian Games Federation was finally formed and  India, being the founder member of this body, was given the honour of organizing the first Asian Games. The Indian Olympic Association then revised its earlier decision and itself offered to hold the first Asian Games in Feb. 1950 which  too could not take place as per schedule. The Maharaja of Patiala was elected  the first President of the Asian Games Federation and Professor Sondhi was  made the Secretary-cum-Treasurer. The first Asian Games were actually held in  New Delhi from March 4 to 11, 1951, at the Irwin Amphitheatre (National  Stadium).

First Asian Games.

March 4, 1951, is considered to be a red letter day in the sports history of  India. The first Indian President, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, inaugurated the first  Asian Games on this day. As Dr. Prasad declared the Games open at 4.15 p.m.,  the 40,000 joyous spectators present at the National Stadium burst into  applause and guns were fired from the Purana Quila. The flags of the eleven  participating countries flew majestically around the stadium. Pt. Nehru gave a  short crisp message on this occasion: "Play the game in the spirit of the  game." A large number of balloons and pigeons were released in the stadium.  After the inauguration, the Asian Games Federation flag — a blazing sun and  eleven interlinked blue rings against a white background — was unfurled. The  600 competitors from the eleven contesting countries, namely, Afghanistan,  Burma, Ceylon, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Malaya, the Philippines, Singapore,  Thailand, and host India, dressed in their national sports dress, then marched  round the stadium and saluted the President as they passed the saluting base.

Brigadier Dalip Singh (57), who had represented India in the Olympics in  1924 and 1928, had the privilege of becoming the first Asian Games torch-bearer.  The torch was lit by the sun's rays with the help of a lens at the historic Red Fort  and was carried to the National Stadium by relay of 50 athletes. Brigadier Dalip

Olympics - Notes

Olympics - Notes

Singh was greeted with thunderous applause as he entered the arena with the  torch and lighted the sacred flame which was kept burning all through the games.

During the eight days of the games, 600 competitors from 11 countries  participated for 55 events in 6 sports, viz., athletics, basketball, cycling, foot ball, swimming, and weightlifting. Japan emerged the top sporting nation with  24 gold medals, followed by India who won 16 golds.

The closing ceremony was as grand as the opening one, and was on the  Olympic pattern. Prime Minister Nehru took the salute. The participating  nations marched past, but not in alphabetical order, thus indicating the friend ship developed among the competitors. After a brief closing speech by the  Maharaja of Patiala, the flag and the torch were handed over to the Chief  Commissioner of Delhi for safe keeping till the Games were held again four  years later in Manila (Philippines) in 1954. Eleven guns were fired from the  Purana Quila and with the National Anthem, the first Asian Games came to an  end.

Other Asian games

2nd Asian Games: 1954 Manila (Philippines) 

1021 participants from 18 countries

Olympics - Notes

Olympics - Notes

3rd Asian Games: 1958 Tokyo (Japan)

1400 participants from 20 countries 

4th Asian Games: 1962 Jakarta (Indonesia)

1500 participants from 20 countries 

5th Asian Games: 1966 Bangkok (Thailand)

1945 participants from 18 countries 

6th Asian Games: 1970 Bangkok (Thailand)

2000 participants from 18 countries

(Burma, Kampuchea, Ceylon, Honking, India, Indonesia, Iran,  Israel, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Nepal,  Pakistan, the Philippines, South Vietnam and Thailand) 

7th Asian Games: 1974 Teheran (Iran)

3000 participants from 25 countries 

8th Asian Games: 1978 Bangkok (Thailand)

3000 from 21 countries 

9th Asian Games: 1982 Delhi (India)

(25 countries) 16 days from 19-11 to 4-12-1982  184 events in 22 Disciplines

(Archery, (6 events), Athletics (40 events) Badminton (7 events),  Basketball (2 events) Boxing (12 weight categories), Cycling (7  events), Equestrian (3 events), Football, Golf (6 event), Gymnastics  (9 events). Handball (1 event) Hockey, (men) Hockey (women),  Rowing (4 events), Shooting (11 events). Swimming (34 events),  Table Tennis (7 events) Tennis (7 events) Volley ball (2 events)  Weightlifting (10 categories), Wrestling (10 categories), Yachting (4  events in the Arabian Sea and Bombay) 

10th Asian Games: 1986 Seoul (South Korea) 

1st Asian Winter Games: 1986 Sapporo (Japan)

As the Asiad gained recognition as the Olympic of Asia, the desire  to develop a winter version of the Asian Games had begun to materialize. With the promotion of winter sports in Asia and the  improvement of competitive skills as primary objectives, the inauguration of Winter Asian Games was approved during the OCA  General Assembly held in Seoul, Korea in September 1984. Japan  was given the privilege of hosting the 1st Winter Asian Games in  Sapporo, for it had both the expertise and infrastructures gained  through the 1972 Sapporo Winter Olympic games. 7 countries  including India and Mongolia participated. 

11th Asian Games: 1990 Beijing (China)

(25 Countries participated: Bangladesh, China, Chinese Taipei,

Olympics - Notes

Olympics - Notes

Honking, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Laos, Macau, Malaysia,  Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan,  Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri  Lanka, Syria, Thailand.)

2nd Asian Winter Games: 1990 Sapporo (Japan)

Due to various difficulties, India had to renounce the privilege of  hosting the 2nd Winter Asian Games. The inaugural host city,  Sapporo, the winter sports capital of Asia, was then selected again.  In addition to the last Winter Games, Taiwan, Philippines and Iran  made their entry to bring the total number of participating countries  to 10. In medal tally, the order was Japan, China and South Korea.

12th Asian Games: 1994 Hiroshima (Japan)

(In addition to the countries which participated in 1990, several newly  independent Asian republics which were formerly part of the Soviet  Union have sent athletes for the first time: Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan,  Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Also Cambodia was able to  send a team for the first time since 1974)

(Disciplines: Archery, Athletics, Badmington, Baseball, Bowling,  Boxing, Canoeing, Cycling, Equestrian, Fencing, Golf, Gymnastics,  Handball, Hockey, Judo, Kabaddi, Karatedo, Modern Pentathlon  (Fencing, Swimming, Shooting, Running, Riding), Rowing, Sepak  Takrew, Shooting, Soccer, Softball, Soft Tennis, Swimming, Table  Tennis, Taekwondo, Tennis, Volleyball, Weightlifting, Wrestling,  Wushu,Yatchting.)

For the first time in the history of the Asian Games, an Asiad was  held in non-capital city of the host country. Levelled by an atomic  Bomb during World War II, the city of Hiroshima, Japan, hosted  the 12th Asian Games, highlighting the themes Peace and Harmony.  It also marked the second Asiad to be held in Japan since the 3rd  Asian Games in Tokyo, 1958. Cambodia made her come back to the  Asian Games after 20 years' absence. 43 countries and regions participated, 5 former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan,  Tajikistan, Turkmenistan & Uzbekistan, who were recently included  as members of OCA, were received with warm welcome. Baseball,  Karatedo, Modern Pentathlon and Soft Tennis were added to make  34 disciplines in total.

3rd Asian Winter Games: 1996 Harbin (China)

The Democratic People's Republic Korea (North Korea) was not  able to honour its commitment as the host of the 3rd Asian Winter  games. Instead, Harbin, a northern city of China, was given an

Olympics - Notes

Olympics - Notes

opportunity to host the Games. A big leap in number of participating countries/NOCs and regions, 17 in total, along with more than  700 participants provided enough proof that the Winter Asian  Games had become an international event of high calibre 10 years  after its conception. China, the host country, ranked in most of the  medals followed by Kazakhstan.

13th Asian Games: 1998 Bangkok (Thailand)

Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, held yet another Asiad for the 4th  time. With the eventual hosting of the Olympic Games in sight,  Thailand's effort to host the 13th Asiad begun as far back as in 1988,  during the Seoul Olympiad. Due to the dwindling Asian economy  that resulted in the devastating Asian currency crisis of 1997/98,  serious concerns were raised on the feasibility of Thailand for staging the Games. However, galvanized with the know-how of having  hosted three successful Asiad and with utter dedication, Bangkok  bounced back stronger than ever to stage one of the greatest Asian  Games. Also, it was the first Game with comprehensive marketing  plan for generating revenues to be shared by member countries for  the promotion of sports. With 36 sports and 2 demonstration events,  Rugby, Billiards & Snooker and Squash were added to the list.  China, South Korea and Japan were the top three contenders for  medals. Thailand, Kazakhstan and Taiwan did quite well also.

4th Asian Winter Games: 1999 Kangwon (South Korea)

The Northern province of South Korea, Kangwon, was the stage of  the 4th Asian Winter Game. In medal tally, China maintained her  supremacy, followed by South Korea, Japan and Kazakhstan.

14th Asian Games: 2002 Busan (South Korea)

September 29 to October 14 2002 (16 days). 

Location; The Greater Busan Metropolitan area. (The games utilized stadiums in Changwon, Masan, Yangsan and other cities for  some events.) 

Number of countries: 43

(37 disciplines: Athletics, Swimming, Archery, Badminton, Baseball,  Basketball, Billiards, Body Building, Bowling, Boxing, Canoeing,  Cycling, Equestrian, Fencing, Football, Golf, Gymnastics, Handball,  Hockey, Judo, Kabaddi, Modern Pentathlon, Rowing, Rugby, Sepak  Takraw, Shooting, Softball, Soft Tennis, Squash, Table Tennis,  Taekwondo, Tennis, Volleyball, Weight Lifting, Wrestling, Wushu,  Yachting.)

Olympics - Notes

Olympics - Notes

5th Asian Winter Games: 2003 Aomori (Japan)

Period: February 1, 2003 to February 8, 2003 

Location: Aomori Prefecture, Japan 

Sports: 6 sports, 54 events

Skiing: Alpine Skiing, Ski Jumping, Cross-Country Skiing, Freestyle  Skiing.

Site: Owani International ski Area, on the slopes of Mt. Ajara, (altitude: 709m).

Skating: Speed Skating, Short Track. Site: Hachinohe City, Misawa  City

Figure Skating & Curling Site: Aomori Prefectural Skating Rink 

Ice Hockey Site: Hachinohe City 

Biathlon Site: Iwaki Town

The Olympic Council of Asia (OCA)

The formation of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) was approved in New  Delhi, India, during the Asian Games Federation (AGF) Council meeting held  on November 26, 1981, which was attended by duly accredited representatives  of the affiliated Asian National Olympic Committees. One year later it was officially founded on December 5, 1982 in New Delhi during the IX Asian Games  which were held there as the last games under the "AGF" umbrella.

The OCA main aim is to help develop the moral and physical qualities of  the youth of Asia by fair competition in amateur sports, friendship, international respect and goodwill.

The OCA is the governing body of all sports in Asia, with the mandate to  supervise and encourage sport at the highest competitive levels. It presides  over a vast geographic area which includes the Far East and the Middle East,  as well as some countries from the former Soviet Union.

The permanent headquarters of the OCA is in Kuwait.


Note based on informations from
Handbook of Asian Games,
(published by Rupa & Co, Delhi 1982)
as well as from
the Asian Games web site.

Olympics - Notes

Back to Content