Svapnavasavadattam - Preface



The task of preparing teaching-learning material for value-ori­ented education is enormous. There is, first, the idea that value-oriented education should be exploratory rather than prescriptive, and that the teaching-learning material should provide to the learners a growing experience of exploration.

Secondly, it is rightly contended that the proper inspiration to turn to value-orientation is provided by biographies, autobiographical ac­counts, personal anecdotes, epistles, short poems, stories of humour, stories of human interest, brief passages filled with pregnant mean­ings, reflective short essays written in well-chiselled language, plays, powerful accounts of historical events, statements of personal experi­ences of values in actual situations of life, and similar other state­ments of scientific, philosophical, artistic and literary expression.

Thirdly, we may take into account the contemporary fact that the entire world is moving rapidly towards the synthesis of the East and the West, and in that context, it seems obvious that our teaching-learning material should foster the gradual familiarisation of students with global themes of universal significance as also those that under­line the importance of diversity in unity. This implies that the material should bring the students nearer to their cultural heritage, but also to the highest that is available in the cultural experiences of the world at large.

Fourthly, an attempt should be made to select from Indian and world history such examples that could illustrate the theme of the up­ward progress of humankind. The selected research material could be multi-sided, and it should be presented in such a way that teachers





can make use of it in the manner and in the context that they need in specific situations that might obtain or that can be created in respect of the students.

The research team at the Sri Aurobindo International Institute of Educational Research (sAriER) has attempted the creation of the rel­evant teaching-learning material, and they have decided to present the same in the form of monographs. The total number of these mono­graphs will be around eighty to eighty-five.

It appears that there are three major powers that uplift life to higher and higher normative levels, and the value of these powers, if well illustrated, could be effectively conveyed to the learners for their uplift­ment. These powers are those of illumination, heroism and harmony.

It may be useful to explore the meanings of these terms — illumina­tion, heroism and harmony — since the aim of these monographs is to provide material for a study of what is sought to be conveyed through these three terms. We offer here exploratory statements in regard to these three terms.

Illumination is that ignition of inner light in which meaning and value of substance and life-movement are seized, understood, compre­hended, held, and possessed, stimulating and inspiring guided action and application and creativity culminating in joy, delight, even ecstasy. The width, depth and height of the light and vision determine the de­grees of illumination, and when they reach the splendour and glory of synthesis and harmony, illumination ripens into wisdom. Wisdom, too, has varying degrees that can uncover powers of knowledge and action, which reveal unsuspected secrets and unimagined skills of art and craft of creativity and effectiveness.

Heroism is, essentially, inspired force and self-giving and sacrifice in the operations of will that is applied to the quest, realisation and triumph of meaning and value against the resistance of limitations and obstacles by means of courage, battle and adventure. There are de­grees and heights of heroism determined by the intensity, persistence and vastness of sacrifice. Heroism attains the highest states of great­ness and refinement when it is guided by the highest wisdom and inspired by the sense of service to the ends of justice and harmony, as well as when tasks are executed with consummate skill.



Harmony is a progressive state and action of synthesis and equilib­rium generated by the creative force of joy and beauty and delight that combines and unites knowledge and peace and stability with will and action and growth and development. Without harmony, there is no perfection, even though there could be maximisation of one or more elements of our nature. When illumination and heroism join and en­gender relations of mutuality and unity, each is perfected by the other and creativity is endless.

"Svapnavasavadattam" of Bhasa is an outstanding play in Sanskrit literature; its technical qualities are of the highest order and are easily recognised; these qualities owe a great deal to the sublime substance of the story itself. And the substance itself brings out some of the finest qualities that Indian culture has constantly nourished among many women of India. That love can be so heroic, as is depicted in Kathasaritsagar, from where Bhasa has drawn the substance of his play, brings out the characteristic endeavour of Indian culture to pour strength and self-sacrifice in the joy and adventure of life. And what a sense of harmony we find sprayed in the colourful threads of the story!

But while we admire the story and drama, as also Bhasa, we must draw the attention of the reader to a greater drama based on the earlier part of the story of Vasavadatta. This drama, written by Sri Aurobindo in English is a five act play. It is impossible to describe in this short preface the extraordinary charm and fragrance of Indian vitality that one can breathe, in the atmosphere, craft and dialogues of this play. One can only recommend the perusal of this play. Sri Aurobindo sur­passes not only Bhasa and Shakespeare but even Kalidasa in this play.

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The drama ... is the most attractive though not there­fore the greatest product of the poetical mind of the age. There its excessive intellectuality was compelled by the necessities of dramatic poetry to be more closely and creatively identified with the very mould and movement of life. The Sanskrit drama type is a beautiful form and it has been used in most of the plays that have come down to us with an ccomplished art and a true creative faculty.... It is an art that was produced by and appealed to a highly cultured class, refined, and intel­lectual and subtle, loving best a tranquil aesthetic charm, suavity and beauty, and it has the limitations of the kind but also its qualities. There is a constant grace and fine­ness of work in the best period, a plainer and more direct but still fine vigour in Bhasa and the writers who prolong him, a breath of largeness and power in the dramas of Bhavabhuti, a high and consummate beauty in the perfec­tion of Kalidasa.

— Sri Aurobindo,
The Foundations of Indian Culture,
SABCL Vol. 14, pp. 304-5


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