“Among all the creatures who live in the waters I am Varuna.”
pitṝṇām aryamā cāsmi, “Among the fathers I am Aryaman.”
yamaḥ saṁyamatām aham ||29|| (X), “of those who control, who are the gods or beings which abide by law I am Yama.”
prahlādaś cāsmi daityānāṁ, “Among the wicked and the Rakshasas I am Prahlada.” kālaḥ kalayatām aham, “All that is moving I am Time.”
mṛgāṇāṁ ca mṛgendro’haṁ, “Among all the beasts I am Lion.”
vainateyaś ca pakṣiṇām ||30|| (X), “Among all the birds I am Garuda.”
pavanaḥ pavatām asmi, “Among all that blows, I am the wind.”
rāmaḥ śastrabhṛtām aham, “Among those who can hold the weapons, among the warriors, I am Rama.”
jhaṣāṇāṁ makaraś cāsmi, “Among the creatures of the waters, I am Makara, I am crocodile.”
srotasām asmi jāhnavī,II31II (X) “Among all the rivers I am the Ganges.”
sargāṇām ādir antaś ca madhyaṁ caivāḥam arjuna |
“Among all the times I am the beginning, I am the middle, I am the end.”
adhyātmavidyā vidyānāṁ, “Among all the disciplines of knowledge I am adhyātmavidyā, the leaning that speaks of the soul.”
vādaḥ pravadatām aham ||32|| (X), “ Among different kinds of debates I am vāda.” There are three kinds of debates, according to Indian logic: vāda, jalpa, vitaṇḍā.
When you argue for the sake of argument, it is called vitaṇḍā, you play upon words, you quip, you say you refuse to answer, you challenge the person and you say now you answer the question: it is vitaṇḍā; jalpa is when you argue by accusing the other party, it is not for the sake of eliciting of the truth, but only for accusing, this is called jalpa. The true vāda is one which debates in order to find out the truth. So, among three kinds of debates Sri Krishna says I am vāda: the debate which ends into search of the truth.
akṣarāṇāṁakāro ’smi, “Among all the letters I am “A”.”
dvandvaḥ sāmāsikasya ca, “Among all the compounds I am the dual.”
aham evākṣayaḥ kālo dhātāhaṁ viśvato mukhaḥ ||33|| (X)
“I am akṣayaḥ kālo, I am the time which never ends, I am eternal time; dhātāhaṁ, I am the creator, viśvato mukhaḥ, who has as many mouth as the entire universe.”
Question: what is this compound?
ramaḥ ca lakṣmaṇḥ ca rama lakṣmaṇau is called dvandva
In Sanskrit instead of saying: “Rama and Lakshman went in the forest”. So you don’t say: ramaḥ ca lakṣmaṇḥ ca vanam agacahtaṁ. Instead you simply say: rama lakṣmaṇau. So you combine Rama and Lakshman, that compound, (there are many other compounds also), ‘Rama and Lakshman both together went’, so you don’t say ramaḥ ca lakṣmaṇḥ ca, you say: rama lakṣmaṇau.
Comment: So, anything is compounded by two…
Yes, just two are compounded in this simple way, it is called dvandva, it is a simple compound: there are many other compounds: there is bṛhati compound; tatpuruś compound, many others compounds
When I appeared for the I.A.S. examination, as soon as I entered into my interview board, I was asked the question: “What is your name?” So I said: “My name is Kireet Chandra.” So I was asked: “Dissolve the compound.” This was the first question which I was asked: “Dissolve the compound.” So I said:
kirīte chaṅdraḥ yasyasaḥ kirīte chaṅdraḥ |
That is to say: it’s called balhurisamas, the one whose crown is the moon that is kirīte chaṅdraḥ. So, this is another kind of compound, so like that there are many compounds. In Sanskrit…it’s a very special language in which many things which are so much detailed are put into a summary form as it were, by bringing so many words together: kadambari is one of the special examples were all kinds of compounds are used. It requires a tremendous capacity from the part of the author to say in a brief manner by combining so many words, but sometimes this one sentence is to be rendered in twenty lines, one sentence! So, that was because of these compounds: the art of making compounds and bringing so many ideas together in one single compound.
Comment: It’s just a verbal thing to which He is referring.
Yes, combination of words.
mṛtyuḥ sarvaharaś cāham udbhavaś ca bhaviṣyatām |
“I am the Destroyer, sarvaharaḥ mṛtyuḥ, I am the Death, aham udbhavaś, I am the Originator among all that is to be born.”
kīrtiḥ śrīr vāk ca nārīṇāṁ smṛtir medhā dhṛtiḥ kṣamā ||34|| (X)
“Among all the female energies, I am kīrti, Sri Lakshmi, vāk that is speech, smṛti that is memory, medhā is intelligence, dhṛtiḥ is patience, kṣamā is forgiveness.”
bṛhatsāma tathā sāmnāṁ : bṛhat-sāma is one of the special kind of chanda(s), in Sama Veda, there are many chanda(s) in Sama Veda, among them bṛhat-sāma is supposed to be one. So, among all the Sama, Sama Mantra are all sang, it’s music as it were. So the best music of Sama, of Sama Veda is bṛhat-sāma.
gāyatrī chandasām aham |: “among the chanda(s) I am gāyatrī;”
māsānāṁ mārgaśīrṣo ’ham : “among the months, I am Margashirsha,”
ṛtūnāṁ kusumākaraḥ ||35||(X)
: “I am Spring among all the seasons.”
dyūtaṁ chalayatām asmi : “There are many ways of cunning, but among the cunning, I am dyūta, the play of dice,”
tejas tejasvinām aham | : “among the illumined, I am the light ;”
jayo ’smi vyavasāyo ’smi sattvaṁ sattvavatām aham ||36||(X)
“Among all those who make an effort, I am success. All those who are full of power and energy, I am the quality of energy, sattvaṁ.
vṛṣṇīnāṁ vāsudevo ’smi : “Among the Vrishnis, I am Vasudeva, Myself, Krishna,” ; pāṇdavānāṁ dhanañayaḥ | : “Among the Pandavas, I am Arjuna;”
munīnām apy ahaṁ vyāsaḥ : “Among all the Munis, I am Vyasa,”
kavīnām uśanā kaviḥ ||37|| (X) : “Among the poets, I am Ushana.”
daṇḍo damayatām asmi : “Among all the punishments, I am the real punishment,”; nītir asmi jigīṣatām | : “Those who conquer, among them I am the policy, nīti;” maunaṁ caivāsmi guhyanāṁ : “Among all the secret knowledge, I am silence,”
jñānaṁ jñānavatām aham ||38|| (X) : “Of those who are the knowers, I am the knowledge.”
yac cāpi sarvabhūtānāṁ bījaṁ tad aham arjuna |
“All these things have a seed, that seed I am;”
na tad asti vinā yat syān mayā bhūtāṁ carācaram ||39|| (X)
“Without Me nothing in the world, whether it is movable or unmovable, would exist.”
nānto ’sti mama divyānāṁ vibhūtināṁ parantapa |
“There is no end of My divyā vibhūti(s);”
eṣa tūddeśataḥ prokto vibhūter vistaro mayā ||40||(X)
“I have told you only in brief, tūddeśataḥ, only with a specific purpose what I have selected; it is only a selective list that I have given you.”
yad yad vibhūtimat sattvaṁ śrīmad ūrjitam eva vā |
tat tad evāvagaccha tvaṁ mama tejoṁ ’śasaṁbhavam ||41||(X)
“Wherever you see some special manifestation; wherever you see some kind of glory, some kind of essence, then there you find that I am there, and I am the originator of it.”
atha vā bahunaitena kiṁ : “What more should I tell you, bahunaitena kiṁ, this is enough, bahunaitena kiṁ jñātena tavārjuna |, how will it benefit you now if I tell you more? In one word let Me tell you…”
viṣṭabhyāham idaṁ kṛtsnam ekāṁśena sthito jagat ||42|| (X)
“With only one ray of light of My being this entire universe is sustained.”